Saskatchewan Curriculum — Grade 3

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Reflect, with guidance, on viewing, listening, reading, representing, speaking, and writing by explaining what is effective or what works in a text.


Reflect, with guidance, on own strategies (''What do I do well? How could I be better?'') and consider how to improve (''What must I do to make this better?'').


Consider ''What is important to know?'' and ''How can I remember this?''


Ask self ''Am I understanding?'' and employ specific ''fix-up'' strategies (e.g., slow down; re-view, reread, listen again; get help) when something does not make sense.


Apply criteria to judge the quality of their viewing, listening, reading, representing, speaking, and writing.


Use words, symbols, and other forms, including appropriate technology, to express understanding of topics, themes, and issues and make connections to learning in other areas of study.


Create spoken, written, and other representations that include:


A main idea(s) with supporting details, explanations, and examples.


A beginning that introduces the topic, a middle that is sequenced and connected to the topic, and an ending.


Appropriate use of language and conventions including conventional print.


Communicate ideas, findings, and information pertaining to topics, problems, questions, or issues by creating easy-to-follow visual, oral, and written formats with a clear purpose (e.g., short report, explanation of a procedure).


Create a variety of narratives and poems.


Use inquiry to explore a question, topic, problem, or issue that students, individually or as a group, want to know more about or want to resolve/solve:


Record and share personal knowledge and understanding of a topic


Answer inquiry questions using a variety of sources such as children's magazines, folktales, the environment, and online resources


Determine main ideas that will inform inquiry questions


Organize and explain understandings, ideas, and information using a variety of strategies such as clustering, categorizing, and sequencing


Share and report what was learned in an easy-to-follow visual, oral, and written format


Assess inquiry or research experiences and skills


Demonstrate understanding of the topic, problem, question, or issue in a variety of ways (e.g., dance pieces, visual representations, drama in context, diagram, demonstration, chart).


Understand and apply the suitable pragmatic, textual, syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other cues and conventions to construct and communicate meaning when using other forms of representing.


Experiment with a variety of resources (e.g., human, print, multimedia) to communicate a clear and complete message appropriate to purpose.


Select and use appropriate strategies (before, during, and after) to communicate meaning when speaking.


Understand and apply the suitable pragmatic, textual, syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other cues and conventions to construct and communicate meaning when speaking.


Retell a narrative including an oral story from a First Nations and Mtis perspective.


Read prose, scripts, and poetry including First Nations and Mtis texts aloud with fluency, expression, and appropriate pace, using intonation and vocal patterns to emphasize important ideas and passages of the text being read.


Plan and present, with clear diction, pitch, tempo, and tone, dramatic interpretations of experiences, stories, poems, or plays.


Work through the stages of a writing process (e.g., pre-writing, drafting, revising selected draft material, sharing) and begin to write for extended periods of time.


Understand and apply the suitable pragmatic, textual, syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other cues and conventions to construct and communicate meaning when writing.


Write compositions (e.g., three-paragraph reports) that describe and explain familiar objects, events, and experiences.


Write narratives that provide a context within which an action takes place and includes characters and their traits, setting, and problem and solution in students' stories.


Create characters and events from outside students' personal environment.


Extend, rework, and polish pieces of writing for an audience in and beyond the classroom.


View, listen to, read, and respond to a variety of texts that reflect the issues related to identity, community, and social responsibility and connect to personal experiences, other texts, and other areas of study.


Describe similarities between experiences and traditions encountered in daily life and those portrayed in various texts including First Nations and Mtis texts.


Compare portrayals of individuals or situations in various texts to personal experiences.


Recognize the range of cultures, human behaviours, experiences, emotions, and ideas conveyed through literary texts including First Nations and Mtis texts.


Determine main ideas in visual and multimedia texts including safe websites designed for children (including First Nations and Mtis resources).


Select and use appropriate strategies (before, during, and after) to construct and confirm meaning when viewing.


Understand and apply the suitable pragmatic, textual, syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other cues and conventions to construct and confirm meaning when viewing.


Record facts and ideas from grade-appropriate visual and multimedia texts including DVD, television program, magazine, and reference resources.


Identify design, layout, and other features (e.g., colour, bold typeface, and sound effects) that help to understand grade-appropriate visual and multimedia texts (including First Nations and Mtis resources).


Describe perspectives or messages promoted by particular visual depictions in a film/video/DVD or magazine article.


Compare a variety of visual representations of the same story or tale (including contemporary and traditional First Nations and Mtis stories and art) and compare ideas and points of view expressed in various media.


Identify and discuss the key visual features such as colour, line, and size of an illustrator's style and how they relate to print text and add to or supplement words.


Express preferences for particular texts.


Understand and apply the suitable pragmatic, textual, syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other cues and conventions to construct and confirm meaning when listening.


Identify and explain what peers said about a particular text or subject.


Retell, paraphrase, and explain what a speaker said (including Elders, Knowledge Keepers, and community members).


Listen attentively and courteously to each other in discussions and to guest speakers; show respect for the ideas, language, and communication styles of others; and give sensitive and thoughtful responses.


Read orally and silently (e.g., 10 to 15 minutes) for enjoyment and information and move comfortably from oral to silent reading.


Select and use appropriate strategies (before, during, and after) to construct and confirm meaning when reading.


Understand and apply the suitable pragmatic, textual, syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other cues and conventions to construct and confirm meaning when reading.


Ask questions and support answers by connecting prior knowledge with literal information found in, and inferred from, texts including First Nations and Mtis resources.


Identify the main idea and supporting details in informational text and extract appropriate and significant information.


Follow simple written multi-step instructions (e.g., how to assemble a product or play a board game) and functional and instructional messages in the environment (e.g., instructions, menus, invitations, announcements).


Comprehend the basic plots of traditional tales (including First Nations and Mtis narratives), fairy tales, and fables from around the world, identify the common elements (e.g., characters, setting, problem/solution), and note and talk about author's content and craft.


Interpret poetry and infer main ideas, lessons, or morals in a variety of prose selections including First Nations and Mtis texts.


Monitor for meaning and reread when meaning is not clear; read and reread just-right texts to increase fluency (80-110 wcpm orally; 120-170 silently) and comprehension.


Demonstrate understanding that the surface of the Earth can be represented through maps, aerial photographs, and satellite images.


Identify geographic concepts including continents, countries, borders, hemispheres, and the equator.


Locate and identify the continents and oceans on a map or globe.


Locate and identify countries or regions studied on a map or globe.


Identify the influences that geography has on societies (e.g., location of settlements, transportation of goods and people, types of industry such as farming, ranching, forestry, mining, tourism, and manufacturing).


Recognize how environmental and climatic factors are influenced by location (e.g., proximity to water bodies influences precipitation and temperature; mountainous terrain influences soil formation, precipitation, and temperature).


Describe the impact of environmental factors and events on ways of life in communities studied (e.g., climate, vegetation, natural resources, landforms, floods, droughts, storms).


Research the view of land as held by indigenous peoples in communities studied.


Identify ways in which people in communities studied interact with the land (e.g., meeting needs and wants, how land is protected or neglected).


Identify local environmental issues that affect life in communities studied.


Compare environmental concerns (e.g., air quality, soil conservation, water availability and quality) common to both the local community and communities studied.


Pose questions and make predictions about the characteristics and composition of soils that lead to exploration and investigation (e.g., What colours are soil? What does soil feel like? Where does soil come from? Is there water in soil?).


Examine physical characteristics (e.g., particle size, texture, moisture, particle size distribution, colour, and ability to hold together) of soils from different locations (e.g., garden, flower pot, river bed, slough, hill top, grassy field, lawn, ditch, and forest) in their environment.


Classify soils in their environment according to location and type (e.g., clay, sand, silt, and loam).


Make and record observations and measurements in investigations related to soil composition using techniques such as notes in point form, diagrams, tables, bar graphs, photographs, and video.


Make predictions about the capability of different types of soil to absorb water and test these predictions through exploration and investigation.


Collect and display data, using tables and bar graphs, to show the amount of water absorbed by different types of soil.


Sort soil samples according to one or more physical characteristics such as texture, ability to absorb water, particle size, and colour.


Communicate procedures and results of investigations related to the testing of water absorption of soils using drawings, demonstrations, and oral and written descriptions.


Propose answers to initial questions related to soil composition based on the results of personal investigations.


Suggest ways in which individuals and communities value and use soil, including the importance of Mother Earth for First Nations and Mtis peoples.


Examine the interdependence between animals and soils (e.g., insects and grubs live in soil, soil provides shelter for some animals, and earthworms aerate soil).


Examine the interdependence between plants and soils (e.g., soils provide nutrients for plant growth, plant leaves die and fall onto the ground, and plant roots spread throughout soil).


Relate the characteristics (e.g., composition, colour, texture, and ability to absorb water) of soils to their uses (e.g., agriculture, berms, pottery, earth shelters, road building, habitats, landscaping, and purifying water).


Observe the effects of moving water on soils in different environments (e.g., beneath an eavestrough downspout, along a stream bank, down a slope, and under a sprinkler).


Collaboratively design and safely carry out procedures to determine the effects of moving water on different types of soils.


Suggest sustainable practices (e.g., composting and fertilizing) that can affect soils positively and reduce or prevent harmful effects such as compaction and contamination of soils.


Research careers that involve an understanding of soil.


Describe characteristics of daily life in communities studied, and compare the ways in which the needs are met by individuals in diverse communities (e.g., housing, tools, work, use of the land, games, education).


Give examples of how culture is reflected in daily life in various communities, and examine why these cultural elements are important (e.g., language, stories, cultural traditions, religious traditions, recreation, art, architecture, clothing).


Compare life of a child in the local community to life of a child in one of the communities studied (e.g., family, housing, education, recreation).


Give examples of traditions and practices that have endured over time in communities studied, and discuss why these are importan


Make inferences about how the culture of the local community is reflected by its customs and celebrations.


Research the origins of products and items used by students in the local classroom.


Provide examples of ways in which student choices and actions may affect people elsewhere in the world (e.g., charitable donations, consumption of goods, recycling).


Identify products produced locally and sold elsewhere.


Pose questions related to the characteristics of magnetic and static electric forces (e.g., Do all magnets attract objects? Do all magnets have a North pole? Why do I get a shock when I rub my shoes on a carpet and touch a door knob?).


Demonstrate how contact and non-contact forces are able to cause objects to start moving, speed up, slow down, and stop; cause moving objects to change direction; and cause changes to the shape of objects.


Compare the characteristics of contact, magnetic, and static electric forces, including the range over which they act, and propose methods of increasing or decreasing the effects of these forces.


Group materials according to criteria such as their attraction to magnets and ability to be magnetized based on personal observation.


Compare the characteristics and effects of different types and shapes of magnets (e.g., horseshoe, disc, bar, cylindrical, and block), including the location and type of magnetic poles (if any exist), and the shape of the magnetic field produced by the magnet.


Predict and test the number of objects a magnet can pick up under different conditions (e.g., distance between magnet and object, number of identical magnets, solids between magnet and object) and develop simple conclusions about conditions that affect strength of magnetic forces.


Investigate how charged materials interact with each other and with uncharged objects.


Demonstrate ways to use materials found in their environment (e.g., balloon, cotton, fur, wool, confetti, acetate strip, ebonite rod, and Scotch tape) to investigate conditions which affect the strength of static electric forces.


Make and record relevant observations during investigations to identify conditions (e.g., humidity, type of materials, and distance between charged objects) that affect the strength of static electric forces, and develop simple conclusions about these conditions.


Investigate how magnets are used at home and school, and in business and industrial applications (e.g., refrigerator magnet, magnetic cupboard door latches, credit card magnetic strip, radio speakers, navigation, motorized devices, scrap yard crane, magnetic levitation trains, jewellery, tools, and toys).


Classify magnets that are used at home and school, and in business and industrial applications as natural, temporary, and permanent.


Explore how magnetic compasses can provide evidence for and information about magnetic fields, including those created by current traveling through a conductor, and the Earth's magnetic field.


Design, construct, and test an object such as a toy or game whose function depends on attractive or repulsive magnetic forces.


Describe the operation of a toy or game whose function depends on magnetic forces using terms such as attract, repel, push, and pull.


Explain safety procedures to be followed when interacting with magnetic and static electric forces.


Describe the effects of static electric forces in daily life (e.g., static cling, sparks when touching metal objects after walking across carpeted surfaces, and photocopiers).


Explain the purpose of technologies which are designed to minimize static electric forces (e.g., fabric softeners and dryer sheets, antistatic bags, chains hanging from combines, antistatic safety boots, grounding straps on cars, and dusters).


Generate new questions from what has been learned about applications of magnetic and static electric forces.


Demonstrate understanding of whole numbers to 1000 (concretely, pictorially, physically, orally, in writing, and symbolically) including: representing (including place value), describing, estimating with referents, comparing two numbers, ordering three or more numbers.[C, R, V]


Observe, represent, and state the sequence of numbers for a given skip counting pattern (forwards or backwards) including:


By 5s, 10s, or 100s using any starting point.


By 3s, 4s, or 25s using starting points that are multiples of 3, 4, and 25 respectively.


Analyze a sequence of numbers to identify the skip counting pattern (forwards or backwards) including:


By 5s, 10s, or 100s using any starting point.


By 3s, 4s, or 25s using starting points that are multiples of 3, 4, and 25 respectively.


Create and explain the reasoning for a sequence of numbers that have different skip counting patterns in it (e.g., 3, 6, 9, 12, 16, 20, 24).


Analyze a proposed skip counting sequence for errors (including omissions and incorrect values) and explain the errors made.


Solve situational questions involving the value of coins or bills and explain the strategies used (such as grouping or skip counting).


Identify errors (such as the use of commas or the word 'and') made in speech or in the writing of quantities that occur in conversations (personal), recordings (such as TV, radio, or podcasts) and written materials (such as the Internet, billboards, or newspapers).


Write (in numerals for all quantities, and in words if the quantity is a multiple of 10 and less than 100 or a multiple of 100 and less than 1000) and read aloud statements relevant to one's self, family, or community that contain quantities up to 1000 (e.g., a student might write, ''Our town has a population of 852'' and read the numeral as eight hundred fifty-two).


Create different decompositions of the same quantity (concretely using proportional or non-proportional materials, physically, orally, or pictorially), explain how the decompositions represent the same overall amount, and record the decompositions as symbolic expressions (e.g., 300 - 44 and 236 + 20 are two possible decompositions that could be given for 256).


Sort a set of numbers into ascending or descending order and justify the result (e.g., using hundred charts, a number line, or by explaining the place value of the digits in the numbers).


Create as many different 3-digit numerals as possible, given three non-repeating digits, and sort the numbers in ascending or descending order.


Select and use referents for 10 or 100 to estimate the number of groups of 10 or 100 in a set of objects.


Analyze a sequence of numbers and justify the conclusion of whether or not the sequence is ordered.


Identify missing whole numbers on a section of a number line or within a hundred chart.


Record, in more than one way, the quantity represented by proportional (e.g., base ten blocks) or non-proportional (e.g., coins) concrete materials.


Explain, using concrete materials or pictures, the meaning of each digit in a given 3-digit numeral with all the same digits.


Provide examples of how different representations of quantities, including place value, can be used to determine sums and differences of whole numbers.


Demonstrate understanding of addition of whole numbers with answers to 1000 and their corresponding subtractions (limited to 1, 2, and 3-digit numerals) including: representing strategies for adding and subtracting concretely, pictorially, and symbolically; solving situational questions involving addition and subtraction; estimating using personal strategies for adding and subtracting.[CN, ME, PS, R, V]


Describe personal mental mathematics strategies that could be used to determine a given basic fact.


Observe and generalize personal strategies from different types of representations for adding 2-digit quantities (given concrete materials, pictures, and symbolic decompositions).


Observe and generalize personal strategies for subtracting 2-digit quantities (given concrete materials, pictures, and symbolic decompositions).


Apply and explain personal mental mathematics strategies to determine the sums and differences of two-digit quantities.


Create a situational question that involves either addition or subtraction and that has a given quantity as the solution.


Model (concretely or pictorially) a process for the addition of two or more given quantities (with a sum less than 1000) and record the process symbolically.


Model (concretely or pictorially) a process for the subtraction of two or more quantities (less than 1000) and record the process symbolically.


Generalize (orally, in writing, concretely, or pictorially) personal strategies for estimating the sum or difference of two 2-digit quantities.


Extend personal mental mathematics strategies to determine sums and differences (of quantities less than 1000) and explain the reasoning used.


Transfer knowledge of the basic addition facts up to 18 and the related subtraction facts to determine the sums and differences of quantities less than 1000.


Generalize rules for the addition and subtraction of zero.


Provide examples to show why knowing about place value is useful when adding and subtracting quantities.


Demonstrate understanding of multiplication to 5 * 5 and the corresponding division statements including: representing and explaining using repeated addition or subtraction, equal grouping, and arrays; creating and solving situational questions; modelling processes using concrete, physical, and visual representations, and recording the process symbolically; relating multiplication and division.[C, CN, PS, R]


Observe and describe situations relevant to self, family, or community that can be represented by multiplication and write and solve a multiplication statement for each situation.


Observe and describe situations relevant to self, family, or community that can be represented by equal sharing or grouping and write and solve a division statement for each situation.


Explain and represent concretely, pictorially, orally, or physically, as well as symbolically, the relationship between repeated addition and multiplication and the relationship between repeated subtraction and division.


Represent and solve an orally presented multiplication or division statement, concretely, physically, or pictorially, using equal groupings, an array, repeated addition, or repeated subtraction (e.g., 3 * 4 shown using equal groupings of snowballs).


Apply and explain personal strategies for determining products and quotients.


Model the commutative property of multiplication and write the symbolic multiplication equation represented.


Represent and solve an orally presented situational question that involves division.


Relate multiplication and division orally and by using concrete, physical, or pictorial models, including repeated addition/subtraction and arrays/dimensions.


Create multiplication or division statements and determine the resulting products or quotients related to a given situational question.


Demonstrate understanding of fractions concretely, pictorially, physically, and orally including: representing, observing and describing situations , comparing, relating to quantity.[C, CN, R]


Identify and observe situations relevant to self, family, or community in which fractional quantities would be measured or used and explain what the fraction quantifies.


Explain the relationship of a representation of a fraction to both a quantity of zero and a quantity of one (the whole or entire group, region, or length).


Divide a whole, group, region, or length into equal parts (concretely, physically, or pictorially), demonstrate that the parts are equal in quantity, and name the quantity represented by each part.


Analyze a set of diagrams or concrete representations to sort the representations into those that represent the same fraction and those that do not, and explain the sorting.


Analyze representations of a set of fractions of a whole, group, region, or length that all have the same numerator (e.g., 2/3, 2/4, 2/5) and explain what about the fractional quantities is similar and what is different.


Analyze representations of a set of fractions of a whole, group, region, or length that all have the same denominator (e.g., 0/5, 1/5, 2/5, 3/5, 4/5, 5/5) and explain what about the fractional quantities is similar and what is different.


Explain the role of the numerator and denominator in a fraction.


Demonstrate how a fraction can represent a different amount if a different size of whole, group, region, or length is used.


Compare, concretely, pictorially, physically, or orally, and order a set of fractions with either equivalent denominators or equivalent numerators.


Represent a fraction as part of a whole, group, region, or length and explain the representation.


Demonstrate understanding of increasing and decreasing patterns including: observing and describing; extending; comparing; creating patterns using manipulatives, pictures, sounds, and actions.[C, CN, PS, R, V]


Identify and observe situations relevant to self, family, and community that contain an increasing or decreasing pattern, identify the starting value of the pattern, and describe the rule for the pattern and how the pattern would continue.


Verify (concretely, visually, orally, pictorially, or physically) whether or not a given sequence of numbers represents an increasing or decreasing pattern.


Compare visual patterns for skip counting (forwards or backwards) by 2s, 5s, 10s, 25s, and 100s and relate to increasing and decreasing patterns.


Visualize and create oral, concrete, physical, pictorial, or symbolic representations for a given increasing or decreasing pattern rule and explain how the representations are related.


Create a concrete, physical, pictorial, or symbolic pattern (increasing or decreasing) and describe the pattern rule.


Describe strategies used to solve situational questions involving increasing or decreasing patterns, including determining missing elements within the pattern.


Research (e.g., through Elders, traditional knowledge keepers, naturalists, and media) and present about the role and significance of increasing and decreasing patterns (e.g., making of a star blanket, beading, music, and patterns found in nature) in First Nations and Mtis practices, lifestyles, and worldviews.


Demonstrate understanding of equality by solving one-step addition and subtraction equations involving symbols representing an unknown quantity.[C, CN, ME, R]


Share, compare, and distinguish between understandings and uses of the word equal, including those represented in First Nations and Mtis worldviews.


Observe and describe situations relevant to self, family, or community in which a symbol could be used to represent an unknown quantity.


Explain the purpose of the symbol, such as a triangle or a circle, in an addition or subtraction equation.


Compare two equations involving the same operations and quantities, but using different symbols.


Solve addition and subtraction equations concretely, pictorially, or physically.


Verify (concretely, pictorially, or physically) which of a set of given quantities is the solution to a one-step addition or subtraction equation and explain the reasoning.


Generalize strategies, including guess and test, for solving one-step addition and subtraction equations and verify the strategies concretely, pictorially, or physically.


Explain why the unknown in a given addition or subtraction equation has only one value.


Create and solve one-step equations related to situational questions.


Create and solve situational questions that relate to given one-step equations.


Identify formal and informal types of leadership.


Construct an inventory of examples of positive leadership in school groups and communities.


Give examples of ways in which groups and communities make decisions.


Investigate decision-making processes in communities studied.


Identify examples of decision-making structures where leadership is:


Inventory situations in which divergent viewpoints exist within the classroom and school.


Solicit the opinion of several persons about a current issue of concern in the school.


Categorize viewpoints as likely or unlikely to create conflict and explain why.


Construct a list of reasons why groups and communities may experience conflict, and identify ways in which conflict is resolved and harmony is restored.


Respond to the following question: Why might people be in favour or against a particular project or issue (e.g., fear that it might cost too much or that it might be too much work, one'ss own idea was rejected, desire to contribute to the community, desire to beautify the community).


Simulate one or more conflict resolution models as a means of resolving an issue in the school or community.


Research different laws and rules in communities studied, and speculate upon the reasons for such laws and rules.


Research the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Child and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and suggest reasons for these declarations.


Compare how the rights, responsibilities, and roles of citizens in international communities studied are the same or different than those of Canadian citizens.


Pose questions related to plant growth (e.g., How do very young plants look different from grown plants? How much water do plants need to grow? Do all plants grow in the same way?).


Observe and explain the function of the major structures (i.e., root, stem, flower, leaf, and fruit or seed) of a variety of plants.


Relate characteristics such as the number and shape of leaves, flower colour, height, and presence and type of fruit in different types of plants to the plant's environment.


Sort and classify plants and/or seeds according to one or more student-selected attributes.


Observe and represent, using written language, pictures, and charts, changes that occur through the life cycle of a flowering plant.


Compare the basic needs of plants to the basic needs of animals and humans.


Research ways in which plants rely on animals and abiotic factors (e.g., gravity, wind, and water) to support plant reproduction by dispersing seeds.


Predict and investigate conditions such as the temperature, available sunlight, available nutrients in soil, and available water, which are necessary for plant germination and growth.


Care for a flowering plant throughout its life cycle, tracking its growth and changes.


Estimate, record, and display relevant measurements of plant growth, using rulers, tables, and bar graphs.


Suggest explanations for patterns and discrepancies in the growth rate of similar plants grown in varying conditions.


Explain the importance of water and light for plant growth and the mechanisms by which plants obtain water and light from the environment.


Identify characteristics that remain constant and those that change throughout the life cycle of a flowering plant.


Pose new questions about conditions necessary for plant growth, based on what was learned.


Observe, safely and respectfully, plants in local environments (e.g., classroom, flower garden, school yard, community garden, forest, field, park, and nature preserve).


Research traditional and contemporary uses of plants or parts of plants, such as food, beverages, medicine, arts, seed banks, shade, wind breaks, erosion protection, cultural celebrations, and products like dyes, shelter, and clothing.


Examine the importance of agriculture in Saskatchewan, including the variety of plants and plant-related products.


Describe examples of plant biodiversity (e.g., trees, shrubs, bushes, herbs, grasses, vines, and mosses) in various ecosystems throughout the world.


Explain how to determine whether plants are healthy and discuss the impacts of diseased plants on society and the environment.


Describe ways that plants and animals depend on each other.


Assess the impact of natural (e.g., animal migration, fire, competition, and decay) and human activity (e.g., burning land, logging, fertilizing, soil compaction, and picking endangered plants) on the biodiversity of plant species.


Examine the type and quantity of plants and plant matter in the diets of people who live in various communities and/or represent various cultures.


Explain how and why plants are replenished naturally (e.g., forest fires and pollination) and artificially (e.g., tree farms, planting seedlings, and seed banks).


Defend a position related to plant use (e.g., picking plants, harvesting crops, fertilizing, and planting invasive species) and protection (e.g., establishing conservation areas, planting native species, and developing alternatives to plant-based products).


Imagine a world without plants and describe the impact on animals, people, and the environment.


Respond to and acknowledge the ideas of others regarding the importance of plants to self and society.


Research lifestyles (e.g., farming, fishing, and logging) and jobs (e.g., florist, crop scientist, landscaper, gardener, fruit grower, ecologist, logger, and nursery worker) that depend on understanding and working with plants and plant-related products.


Speculate upon various challenges faced by communities in meeting needs and wants, with evidence gathered from examining pictures, viewing media, and interpreting stories using a variety of fiction and non-fiction texts.


Identify how individuals and communities meet needs and wants.


Describe ways in which communities help ensure basic human needs are met (e.g., food and water, shelter, clothing, education, safety).


Describe how and why communities exchange goods with other communities.


Demonstrate awareness that there are global organizations that support communities (e.g., United Nations, UNICEF, Doctors Without Borders).


Assess the role of work in communities, including the value of paid and unpaid work.


Define the term natural resources, and differentiate between renewable and non-renewable resources.


Determine reasons for acquisition of wealth in communities studied.


Identify how wealth is defined and acquired in communities studied.


Investigate and compare the distribution of wealth in communities studied.


Recognize that technology includes more than electronics (i.e., paper, forging steel, manufacturing, vehicles, making cloth, products created for construction).


Give examples of technologies in communities studied (e.g., communications, transportation, housing, food acquisition, preparation and storage, construction, manufacturing), and categorize the influences of the application of the technology as positive or negative.


Identify problems to be solved relating to the properties of materials in structures (e.g., What is the purpose of the structure? What materials are appropriate for constructing the structure? What are appropriate methods of joinery?).


Examine the properties of materials used in natural and human- built structures (e.g., beaver lodge, bird nest, wasps' nest, honeycomb, ant hill, tipi, house, marionette, circus float, umbrella, ladder, bridge, earthlodge, quinzhee, drink can, hockey puck, playground equipment, and toys).


Compare the properties of materials used historically and currently throughout the world to construct structures such as houses, bridges, towers, and roads.


Sort materials for use in constructing structures according to one or more physical properties such as strength, texture, colour, flexibility, and durability.


Analyze how various similar and dissimilar materials can be joined (e.g., gluing, nailing, screwing, stapling, taping, Velcroing and tying) and identify the most appropriate methods for joining specific materials for an identified use.


Use appropriate tools (e.g., hammer, nail, glue, and scissors) to cut, shape, make holes, sew, and assemble materials safely.


Develop and carry out a plan, including making predictions, identifying variables, and recording relevant observations, to test the strength of various materials (e.g., straws, toothpicks, masking tape, string, cotton balls, wooden blocks, Styrofoam, cloth, clay, and spaghetti).


Assess the suitability of various materials for constructing structures, including methods of strengthening those materials (e.g., adding more layers, tying or gluing together, triangulation, cross-bracing, and changing the shape of the materials).


Analyze the purpose or function of various natural and human- built structures.


Examine how some human-built structures are modeled on shapes and structures found in nature.


Assess how 2-D shapes (e.g., rectangle, triangle, circle, square, hexagon, and octagon) and 3-D objects (e.g., dome, arch, and cylinder) provide strength, stability, and balance to natural and human-built structures.


Compare the characteristics of solid (e.g., sand castle, mountain, and dam), frame (e.g., partition wall, hockey net, and spider web), and shell (e.g., igloo, bike helmet, balloon, and drink can) structures.


Classify natural and human-built structures as solid, frame, or shell structures.


Compare the characteristics of different types of shelter (e.g., tent, igloo, hut, boat, castle, tipi, yurt, and house) constructed by people throughout the world, past and present.


Examine the characteristics and significance of historical structures such as Stonehenge, the Parthenon, Petra, the Great Wall of China, Angkor Wat, Machu Picchu, the Taj Mahal, the Pyramids, and Easter Island moai.


Analyze how various shapes contribute to balance and stability in humans and various animals.


Develop and carry out a plan to construct a simple structure such as a tower, bridge, tipi, or bird feeder that meets teacher- or student-specified criteria related to strength, stability, and function.


Estimate measurements to select appropriate quantities of required materials for constructing a structure.


Illustrate the construction process for a simple structure, including descriptions of the components of the structure, using labelled drawings, written and oral explanations, and demonstrations.


Assess the strength, stability, and balance of personally- constructed structures and make changes to improve the structure as deemed necessary.


Identify materials or parts of a structure that failed and hypothesize why they failed.


Assess natural and human-built structures to determine if they are effective, safe, make efficient use of materials, meet user's needs, and minimize the impact on the environment.


Research jobs and hobbies that contribute to the design, building, and maintenance of natural and human-built structures.


Demonstrate understanding of first-hand data using tally marks, charts, lists, bar graphs, and line plots (abstract pictographs), through: collecting, organizing, and representing; solving situational questions.[C, CN, PS, R, V]


Observe and describe situations relevant to self, family, or community in which a particular type of data recording or organizing strategy might be used, including tally marks, charts, lists, and knots on a sash.


Analyze a set of line plots to determine the common attributes of line plots.


Analyze a set of bar graphs to determine the common attributes of bar graphs.


Answer questions related to the data presented in a bar graph or line plots.


Pose and solve situational questions related to self, family, or community by collecting and organizing data, representing the data using a bar graph or line plot, and interpreting the data display.


Analyze interpretations of bar graphs or line plots and explain whether or not the interpretation is valid based on the data display.


Examine how various cultures past and present, including First Nations and Mtis, collect, represent, and use first-hand data.


Demonstrate understanding of the passage of time including: relating common activities to standard and non-standard units, describing relationships between units, solving situational questions.[C, CN, PS, R]


Observe and describe activities relevant to self, family, and community that would involve the measurement of time.


Research (e.g., through Elders, traditional knowledge keepers, naturalists, and media) and present about the role and significance of increasing and decreasing patterns (e.g., making of a star blanket, beading, music, and patterns found in nature) in First Nations and Mtis practices, lifestyles, and worldviews.


Create and solve situational questions using the relationship between the number of minutes in an hour, days in a particular month, days in a week, hours in a day, weeks in a year, or months in a year (e.g., ''A student was on holiday for 10 days. Is that more or less than one week long?'').


Identify the day of the week, the month, and the year for an indicated date on a calendar.


Identify today's date, and then explain how to determine yesterday's and tomorrow's date.


Locate a stated or written date (day, month, and year) on a calendar and explain the strategy used.


Identify errors in the ordering of the days of the week and the months of the year.


Create a calendar using the days of the week, the calendar dates, and personally relevant events.


Describe ways in which the measurement of time is cyclical.


Demonstrate understanding of measuring mass in g and kg by: selecting and justifying referents for g and kg, modelling and describing the relationship between g and kg, estimating mass using referents, measuring and recording mass.[C, CN, ME, R]


Observe and describe situations relevant to self, family, and community that involve measuring mass.


Create and solve situational questions that involve the estimating or measuring of mass using g or kg.


Analyze 3-D objects to determine personal referents for 1 kg, 100 g, 10 g, and 1 g.


Analyze the relationships between 1 g, 10 g, 100 g, 1000 g, and 1 kg and explain the strategies used (e.g., 1 kg is heavier than 100 g, 10 g, and 1 g, or 1 kg is the same mass as 1000 g.)


Select, with justification, an appropriate unit for measuring the mass of a given 3-D objects (e.g., kg would be used to measure a motorbike).


Determine, using a scale, and record the mass of an object relevant to one's self, family, or community.


Estimate the mass of an object relevant to one's self, family, or community and explain the strategy used.


Directly compare the mass of two 3-D objects and then verify the comparison by measuring the actual masses using a scale.


Generalize statements about the mass of a specific amount of matter when reformed into different shapes or sizes (e.g, use clay to make an object, measure the mass of the object, reform the clay into another object and measure the mass of the two objects; an empty balloon versus a full balloon; or water versus ice).


Observe and document conversations, mass media reports, and other forms of text that use the term ''weight'' rather than ''mass''.


Demonstrate understanding of linear measurement (cm and m) including: selecting and justifying referents; generalizing the relationship between cm and m; estimating length and perimeter using referents; measuring and recording length, width, height, and perimeter.[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]


Observe and describe situations relevant to self, family, and community that involve measuring lengths, including perimeter, in cm or m.


Create models to generalize a numerical relationship between cm and m (i.e., 100 cm is equivalent to 1 metre).


Pose and solve situational questions that involve the estimating or measuring of length (including perimeter) using cm or m.


Explain why sometimes different names are used for different length measurements (e.g., height, width, or depth).


Relate measuring using a referent for 10 cm to skip counting quantities by 10s.


Create a picture of a 2-D shape with specified length and width (or length and height) and explain whether the 2-D shape was constructed using estimates or actual lengths.


Measure and record the perimeter of regular 2-D polygons and circles located


Demonstrate understanding of 3-D objects by analyzing characteristics including faces, edges, and vertices.[C, V]


Observe and describe the faces, edges, and vertices of given 3-D objects, including cubes, spheres, cones, cylinders, pyramids, and prisms (e.g., drum, tipi, South American Pyramids, and other objects from the natural environment).


Critique the statement ''the face of a 3-D object is always a 2-D shape''.


Observe and describe the 2-D shapes found on a 3-D object.


Determine the number of faces, edges, and vertices of a given 3-D object and explain the reasoning and strategies.


Critique the statement ''a vertex is where three faces meet''.


Sort a set of 3-D objects according to the faces, edges, or vertices and explain the sorting rule used.


Demonstrate understanding of 2-D shapes (regular and irregular) including triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and octagons including: describing, comparing, sorting.[C, CN, R]


Identify the sorting rule used on a pre-sorted set of polygons.


Generalize definitions for regular and irregular polygons based on a concept attainment activity or from pre-sorted sets.


Observe, describe the characteristics of, and sort polygons found in situations relevant to self, family, or community (including First Nations and Mtis), into irregular and regular polygons (e.g., the bottom of a kamatiq, the screen of a TV, the bottom of a curling broom, and an arrowhead).


Analyze irregular and regular polygons in different orientations in terms of the characteristics of the polygons (such as number or measurement of sides and angles).