Saskatchewan Curriculum — Grade 5

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Consider the types of strategies to utilize and whether or not they will or do work for the task at hand.


Determine what strategies are best for the task and what strategies will work best for self.


Identify strengths in viewing, listening, reading, representing, speaking, and writing and set goals to enhance the development and improvement of the skills and strategies in each.


Create spoken, written, and other representations that include:


A competent use of language and conventions.


Use inquiry to explore a problem, question, or issue related to a topic being studied in English English or a topic of personal interest including:


Explaining findings from inquiry or research on a topic, question, problem, or issue in an appropriate visual, oral, and written format.


Using a variety of tools to access ideas and information.


Consider which form (e.g., drama, drawings, dance, diagrams, music, three-dimensional objects, posters, cartoons, maps, graphs, photographs, pictures, charts, and videos) is most appropriate for various tasks and identified purposes.


Understand and apply relevant pragmatic, textual, syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other cues and conventions to communicate meaning when using other forms of representing.


Integrate a variety of representations including illustrations, graphs, maps, and graphics into written and oral presentations.


Present information clearly and appropriately for each medium and recognize that the conventions of language and the medium are designed to help the audience understand what is said or presented.


Use computers and authoring software to compose texts and graphic representations.


Include charts, graphs, tables, maps, graphics, and illustrations in researched inquiry presentations.


Select and flexibly use appropriate strategies (before, during, and after) to communicate meaning when speaking.


Understand and apply relevant pragmatic, textual, syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other cues and conventions to communicate meaning when speaking.


Deliver oral responses to literary and other texts (including First Nations and Mtis texts) or presentations that include both personal responses and textual evidence or examples from the work to support insights and conclusions.


Participate in a variety of oral presentations including dramatization (role play), discussion circles, introducing a visitor to the class or school, and giving directions.


Write clear multi-paragraph compositions (e.g., three to five paragraph report or essay of at least 300 words) that focus on a central idea, reflect awareness of the audience(s) and purpose(s), contain clear introductions and conclusions, and include paragraphs in a logical sequence.


Understand and apply relevant pragmatic, textual, syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other cues and conventions to communicate meaning when writing.


Write narrative compositions that develop a situation or plot and point of view, describe the setting, and present an ending.


Write expository compositions that establish a topic, include important ideas or events in a logical order, provide details and transitional expressions that clearly link one paragraph to another, and offer a concluding paragraph that summarizes important ideas.


Write expository reports that explore key ideas, issues, or events in response to questions that direct an investigation, establish a controlling idea or topic sentence, and develop the topic with simple facts, details, examples, and explanations.


Create documents by using electronic media and employing computer features (e.g., topic searches, thesaurus, spell checks).


Write persuasive letters or compositions that state a clear position, support that position with relevant evidence, follow a simple organizational pattern, and address the reader's need for clarity.


Experiment with different forms including poems, short scripts, and journal entries to communicate and demonstrate understanding.


View, listen to, read and respond to a variety of visual, multimedia, oral, and print texts that examine the diverse range of personal identities, perspectives, and backgrounds (e.g., appearance, culture, socio-economic status, abilities, age, gender, sexual orientation, language, career path) including First Nations and Mtis texts.


View, listen to, and read a variety of texts related to the theme or topic of study and show comprehension by:


Understanding, retelling, and explaining the ideas and information presented in the texts.


Analyzing the text structures and features.


Analyzing the texts and developing responses with evidence from the texts, personal experience, and research.


Describe and build upon connections between previous experiences, prior knowledge, and a variety of texts.


Compare the challenges and situations encountered in daily life with those experienced by people in other times, places, and cultures as portrayed in a variety of texts including First Nations and Mtis texts.


Compare individuals and situations portrayed in various texts (including First Nations and Mtis resources) to those encountered in real life.


Draw on oral, print, and other media texts including First Nations and Mtis texts to explain personal perspectives on cultural representations.


Gather information from a variety of media (e.g., photographs, web sites, maps, diagrams, posters, videos, advertising, double bar graphs, maps, videos).


Select and flexibly use appropriate strategies (before, during, and after) to construct meaning when viewing.


Understand and apply relevant pragmatic, textual, syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other cues and conventions of communication to construct and confirm meaning when viewing.


Discuss purpose, perspectives, and biases and how visual texts including First Nations and Mtis resources can be used to persuade others.


Analyze visual texts (including First Nations and Mtis art and other texts) as sources for information, entertainment, persuasion, interpretation of events, and transmission of culture.


Identify how the language, explicit and implicit messages, and visual and multimedia features (e.g., sound, colour, movement) are used to influence the intended audience.


Listen purposefully to a range of texts from a variety of cultural traditions including First Nations and Mtis and identify and summarize main ideas, supporting details, and opinions heard.


Understand and apply relevant pragmatic, textual, syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other cues and conventions of communication to construct and confirm meaning when listening.


Evaluate the content of a variety of oral communications and ask questions to seek information not already discussed.


Interpret a speaker's verbal and non-verbal messages, purposes, and perspectives including First Nations and Mtis Elders and Knowledge Keepers.


Listen to differentiate between fact and opinion, to analyze the message and presentation, and to draw conclusions about the ideas presented and strategies used.


Draw conclusions about speaker's verbal and non-verbal message(s), purpose, point of view, and techniques used in presentation (including First Nations and Mtis Elders and Knowledge Keepers).


Determine the essential purpose, key ideas, arguments, and perspectives of texts including First Nations and Mtis texts.


Select and flexibly use appropriate strategies (before, during, and after) to construct meaning when reading.


Understand and apply relevant pragmatic, textual, syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and other cues and conventions of communication to construct and confirm meaning when reading.


Understand how text features (e.g., format, graphics, sequence, diagrams, illustrations, charts, maps) make information and ideas accessible and usable.


Distinguish among facts, supported inferences, and opinions in informational texts.


Read and use grade-five appropriate informational and reference texts (e.g., dictionary, encyclopedia, how-to, explanations, biography) to identify main ideas, details, opinions, and reasons.


Identify the characteristics of poetry, plays, fiction, and non-fiction including First Nations and Mtis texts.


Identify, in narrative texts (including First Nations and Mtis texts), the main problem or conflict of the plot and the resolution; compare and contrast the actions, motives, and appearances of characters; evaluate the meaning of symbols; and understand that theme refers to the meaning or moral of a work and recognize themes (whether implied or stated directly).


Evaluate the author's use of various techniques (e.g., appeal of characters, logic and credibility of plots and settings, use of figurative language and imagery, strength of argument based on evidence) to influence readers' perspectives.


Read grade-appropriate texts silently (150-200 wcpm) for extended periods of time; read orally to increase fluency, accuracy, pacing, intonation, and expression (110-150 wcpm); adjust reading rate to purpose and text demands.


Distinguish between physical and political maps and investigate the application of mapping and data management (i.e., geographic information systems) technology.


Differentiate between Canada'ss various geopolitical constructs, including a country, a province, and a municipality.


Outline the predominant physical features of the regions of Canada, including the Western Cordilleran, Interior Plains, Canadian Shield, Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Lowlands, Appalachian, and Arctic/Innuitian regions (e.g., vegetation zones, resources, bodies of water, and principal landforms).


Undertake an inquiry investigating the relationship between Canada'ss physical geographic features and the population distribution.


Explain the meaning and origin of a variety of Canadian symbols and consider the purposes of such symbols (e.g., coat of arms, motto, flag, beaver, feather, drum, RCMP, national anthem).


Investigate reasons for western expansion of Canada in the 19th and early 20th centuries, and the consequences of the expansion.


Describe the climate of different regions of Canada, and investigate how population distribution in Canada is related to climate, resources, and topographical features.


Explain how different traditional worldviews of Earth affect the use of resources in Canada (e.g., Aboriginal and European attitudes toward ownership, Treaties, Crown land, homesteads, and the seigniorial system).


Investigate the relationship of various First Nations peoples with the environment, including economic relationships, migration, and settlement patterns prior to Confederation.


Plot the principal voyages and experiences of the first European explorers who came to what is now Canada, and discuss the impact of voyages on the societies encountered (e.g., Cabot, Cartier, Champlain, Hudson, Kelsey, Fraser, Hearn, Mathieu Da Costa).


Identify the social and cultural characteristics of New France (e.g., the influence of missionaries and of the Catholic Church; music; dance).


Recount the major events during the transition from French rule to British rule in what is now Canada.


Describe the life of Acadians in early Canada, and describe the reasons for and results of the Acadian deportation.


Show how trade influenced the establishment of the first communities in Canada.


Explore the relationship between the British, First Nations, and the French in what is now Canada between 1760 and 1867, including the influence of culture, governance, and the imperial relationship with Britain.


Determine how the British Empire affected the lives of British settlers, French-Canadians, First Nations, Inuit, and Mtis in pre-confederation Canadian society.


Describe the influence of the United Empire Loyalists on Canadian society, and reasons for the Loyalist migration to Canada.


Undertake an inquiry to determine how the fur trade affected the peoples of Canada.


Locate on a map traditional First Nations and Inuit habitation areas in the era prior to European arrival, including the Northwest Pacific Coast, Interior Plateau, Plains, Eastern Woodland, Sub Arctic, and Arctic.


Research similarities and differences in ways of life among First Nations and Inuit communities prior to European contact (e.g., men'ss roles, women'ss roles, children'ss roles).


Investigate the significant events and principle First Nations and Inuit leaders prior to and during the period of initial contact with Europeans .


Assess the coming together of First Nations peoples with the French and British explorers and settlers, including the effect of the fur trade on the First Nations and the Mtis in early C


Trace the evolution of the Mtis in Canada, including their origins, language, and major historical events (e.g., the Mtis of Red River, the North West Resistance).


Paraphrase a traditional narrative about the origins of the First Nations or Inuit peoples, about the relationship with the natural environment, and connections between spirituality and the natural environment.


Describe Canada'ss historical and current demographics, including population numbers, age, and location.


Identify trends and challenges in Canada'ss demographics.


Differentiate between refugees and immigrants.


Explain what motivates newcomers to move to Canada (e.g., entrepreneurship, employment, family reunification, refuge, education, reputation as a good place to live).


Undertake an inquiry which compares the immigration policies and practices of the 19th century to those of the current era, and assess the results of those policies and practices.


Identify the goals of various ethnic and cultural advocacy organizations in Canada, including First Nations, Inuit, and Mtis organizations, as well as organizations supporting new immigrants to Canada.


Identify the historic origins of a variety of place names in Canada, and investigate the reason for the naming.


Graphically display the country of origin of immigrants to Canada in the 19th and 21st centuries, and account for similarities and differences in the two eras.


Examine the Canadian government treatment of various groups of immigrants to Canada (e.g., Chinese immigrants in the 1800s, Japanese Canadians in the 1930s and 1940s, Eastern European immigrants in the late 19th and early 20th century).


Represent, compare, and describe whole numbers to 1 000 000 within the contexts of place value and the base ten system, and quantity.[C, CN, R, T, V]


Write and say the numeral for a quantity using proper spacing without commas and without the word ''and'' (e.g., 934 567, nine hundred thirty-four thousand five hundred sixty-seven).


Critique the way numbers have been said or numerals written in examples of whole numbers found in various types of media and personal conversations, and provide reasons for why certain errors in speech or writing might occur.


Describe the patterns related to quantity and place value of adjacent digit positions moving from right to left within a whole number.


Visualize and explain concrete or pictorial models for the place value positions of 100 000 and 1 000 000.


Describe the meaning of quantities to 1 000 000 by relating them to self, family, or community and explain the contribution each successive numeral position makes to the actual quantity.


Pose and solve problems that explore the quantity of whole numbers to 1 000 000 (e.g., a student might wonder: ''How does the population of my community compare to those of surrounding communities?'').


Provide examples of large numbers used in print or electronic media and explain the meaning of the numbers in the context used.


Visualize a representation of a given numeral and explain how the representation is related to the numeral's expanded form.


Express a given numeral in expanded notation (e.g., 45 321 = (4 * 10 000) + (5 * 1000) + (3 * 100) + (2 * 10) + (1 * 1) or 40 000 + 5000 + 300 + 20 + 1) and explain how the expanded notation shows the total quantity represented by the given numeral.


Compare and order examples of whole numbers found in various types of media and print.


Analyze models of, develop strategies for, and carry out multiplication of whole numbers.[C, CN,ME, PS, R, V]


Describe mental mathematics strategies used to determine multiplication facts to 81 (e.g., skip counting from a known fact, doubling, halving, 9s patterns, repeated doubling, or repeated halving).


Explain concretely, pictorially, or orally why multiplying by zero produces a product of zero.


Recall multiplication facts to 81 including within problem solving and calculations of larger products.


Generalize and apply strategies for multiplying two whole numbers when one factor is a multiple of 10, 100, or 1000.


Apply and explain the use of the distributive property to determine a product involving multiplying factors that are close to multiples of 10.


Model multiplying two 2-digit factors using an array, base ten blocks, or an area model, record the process symbolically, and describe the connections between the models and the symbolic recording.


Pose a problem which requires the multiplication of 2-digit numbers and explain the strategies used to multiply the numbers.


Illustrate, concretely, pictorially, and symbolically, the distributive property using expanded notation and partial products (e.g., 36 * 42 = (30 +6) * (40+2) = 30 * 40 + 6 * 40 +30 * 2 + 6 * 2).


Explain and justify strategies used when multiplying 2-digit numbers symbolically.


Demonstrate, with and without concrete materials, an understanding of division (3-digit by 1-digit) and interpret remainders to solve problems.[C, CN, PS, R]


Identify situations in one's life, family, or community in which division might be used and explain the reasoning.


Model the division process as equal sharing or equal grouping using various models and record the resulting process symbolically.


Generalize, relate, and apply concrete, pictorial, and symbolic strategies for dividing 3-digit whole numbers by 1-digit whole numbers.


Justify the choice of what to do with a remainder for a quotient depending upon the situation:


Disregard the remainder (e.g., dividing 22 books among 4 students).


Round up the quotient (e.g., the number of five passenger cars required to transport 13 people).


Express remainders as fractions (e.g., five apples shared by two people).


Express remainders as decimals (e.g., measurement and money).


Solve a division problem that is relevant to self, family, or community using personal strategies and record the process symbolically.


Recall the division facts to a dividend of 81 including in problem-solving situations.


Develop and apply personal strategies for estimation and computation including: front-end rounding, compensation, compatible numbers.[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]


Develop and use strategies to estimate the results of whole-number computations and to judge the reasonableness of such results.


Determine an approximate solution to a problem not requiring an exact answer and explain the strategies and reasoning used (e.g., number of fish, deer, or elk required to feed a family over a winter; amount of money a family spends on groceries).


Explain estimation and computation strategies, including compatible numbers, compensation, and front-end rounding, and how each strategy relates to different operations.


Apply and explain the choice of estimation or computation strategy such as compatible numbers, compensation, and front-end rounding.


Demonstrate an understanding of fractions by using concrete and pictorial representations to: create sets of equivalent fractions, compare fractions with like and unlike denominators.[C, CN, PS, R, V]


Create concrete, pictorial, or physical models of equivalent fractions and explain why the fractions are equivalent.


Model and explain how equivalent fractions represent the same quantity.


Verify whether or not two given fractions are equivalent using concrete materials, pictorial representations, or symbolic manipulation.


Generalize and verify a symbolic strategy for developing a set of equivalent fractions.


Determine equivalent fractions for a fraction found in a situation relevant to self, family, or community.


Explain how to use equivalent fractions to compare two given fractions with unlike denominators.


Position a set of fractions, with like and unlike denominators, on a number line and explain strategies used to determine the order.


Justify the statement, ''If two fractions have a numerator of 1, the larger of the two fractions is the one with the smaller denominator''.


Demonstrate understanding of decimals to thousandths by: describing and representing, relating to fractions, comparing and ordering.[C, CN, R, V]


Tell a story (orally, in writing, or through movement) that explains what a concrete or pictorial representation of a part of a set, part of a region, or part of a unit of measure illustrates and record the quantity as a decimal.


Represent concretely or pictorially a decimal identified in a situation relevant to self, family, or community.


Recognize and generate equivalent forms (decimal or fraction) of fractions and decimals found in situations relevant to one's life, family, or community.


Demonstrate, using concrete or pictorial models to explain, how a quantity in tenths or hundredths can also be recorded as hundredths or thousandths (e.g., 0.2 can be written as 0.200).


Describe the quantity represented by each digit in a given decimal.


Make and test conjectures about the relationship of equality of quantities written in decimal and fractional form (e.g., 0.7 and107) and verify concretely, pictorially, or logically.


Use and explain personal strategies for writing decimals as fractions.


Use and explain personal strategies for writing fractions with a denominator of 10, 100, or 1000 as a decimal.


Explain, by providing examples, how to write decimals as a fraction with a denominator of 10, 100, or 1000.


Identify benchmarks on a number line that could be used to order a given set of decimals and explain the choices made.


Use benchmarks to order a set of decimals from a situation related to one's life, family, or community.


Demonstrate an understanding of addition and subtraction of decimals (limited to thousandths).[C, CN, PS, R, V]


Identify and describe situations relevant to one's life, family, or community experiences in which sums and differences of decimals might be determined.


Use personal strategies to predict sums and differences of decimals and evaluate the effectiveness of the strategies.


Create concrete or pictorial models to represent the determination of the sum or difference of two decimal numbers, explain the model, and record the process symbolically.


Explain how estimation can be used to determine the position of the decimal point in a sum or difference.


Identify and correct errors in the calculation of sums and differences of decimals and explain the reasoning.


Explain how understanding place value is necessary in calculating sums and differences of decimals.


Solve a given problem that involves addition and subtraction of decimals and explain the strategies used.


Represent, analyse, and apply patterns using mathematical language and notation. [C, CN, PS, R, V]


Describe situations from one's life, family, or community in which patterns emerge, identify assumptions made in extending the patterns, and analyze the usefulness of the pattern for making predictions.


Describe, using mathematics language (e.g., one more, seven less) and symbolically (e.g., r + 1, p - 7), a pattern represented concretely or pictorially that is found in a chart.


Create alternate representations, including concrete or pictorial models, charts, and mathematical expressions, for a given pattern (numeric or geometric).


Predict subsequent elements (terms or values) in a pattern (with and without concrete materials or pictorial representations) and explain the reasoning including the assumptions being made.


Verify whether or not a particular number belongs to a given pattern.


Solve problems and make decisions based upon the mathematical analysis of a pattern and other contributing factors.


Write, solve, and verify solutions of single-variable, one-step equations with whole number coefficients and whole number solutions. [C, CN, PS, R]


Identify aspects of experiences from one's life, family, and community that could be represented by a variable (e.g., temperature, cost of a DVD, size of a plant, colour of shirts, or performance of a team goalie).


Describe a situation for which a given equation could apply and identify what the variable represents in the situation.


Solve single-variable equations with the variable on either side of the equation, explain the strategies used, and verify the solution.


Investigate the territorial evolution of Canada from 1608-1867, and from 1867 to the current era.


Differentiate between the status of a province and a territory in the Canadian confederation.


Identify on a map each province and territory, indicate the year each joined Confederation, and investigate the circumstances and reasons for joining in the united Canada.


Explain the purpose of a constitution, and describe the importance of the British North America Act of 1867 and the Constitution Act and Charter of Rights and Freedoms of 1982.


Explain the push-pull factors that motivated various cultural groups immigrating to Canada during the 18th and 19th centuries (e.g., building of the railway, fleeing famine or religious oppression, gold rushes).


Represent, in graphic format, the structure of various levels of government in Canada, including municipal, First Nations, provincial, territorial, and federal governments.


Investigate the structure of First Nations governments in Canada, using accurate terminology (e.g., elected chief, hereditary chief, band, band council, treaty, self-government, Assembly of First Nations).


Develop an understanding of the functions of the following governance bodies and the role of those in leadership positions: House of Commons, Senate, Governor General, Prime Minister, member of the federal parliament, government minister.


Explain what a treaty is, and the purpose of a treaty.


Affirm that all Saskatchewan residents are treaty people.


Investigate the spirit and intent of the treaties from the perspective of the Crown and the First Nations in Western Canada.


Undertake an inquiry to examine the extent to which treaty promises have been met by parties to the treaties, and why the fulfillment of treaty obligations is important for all Canadians.


Differentiate between renewable resources (e.g., forests, fish, water) and non-renewable resources (e.g., oil, minerals).


Create an inventory of current non-sustainable practices (e.g., presence of plastics, packaging, dumping of waste into river systems).


List the possible consequences of non-sustainable practices related to the use of resources (e.g., lack of resources for future generations, endangered species, climate change).


Taking one resource as an example, illustrate how resource use and the extraction process of the resource affects the environment (e.g., forests, tar sands, coal, uranium, potash).


Give examples of policies and actions that contribute to sustainability (e.g., water conservation, informed decisions by consumers, reusing materials).


Using factual data and statistics, predict the future demographic make-up of Canada (e.g., growth in senior citizen population, Aboriginal population, rates of immigration, birth rates, rural depopulation).


Describe the effect the movement of people has on local and provincial communities.


Predict which industries will be of future significance in Canada using factual information, statistics, and other data to support your prediction.


Give examples of possible changes in Canada'ss principal industries (e.g., large agricultural companies replacing family farms; the importance of technological industries).


Speculate upon how contrasting worldviews toward the natural environment may affect the use of resources.


Differentiate between first-hand and second-hand data. [C, R, T, V]


Formulate a question related to self, family, or community which can best be answered using first-hand data, describe how that data could be collected, and answer the question (e.g., ''What game will we play at home tonight?'' ''I can survey everyone at home to find out what games everyone wants to play.'').


Construct and interpret double bar graphs to draw conclusions. [C, PS, R, T, V]


Compare the attributes and purposes of double bar graphs and bar graphs based upon situations and data that are meaningful to self, family, or community.


Describe, compare, predict, and test the likelihood of outcomes in probability situations. [C, CN, PS, R]


Describe situations relevant to self, family, or community which involve probabilities and categorize different outcomes for the situations as being impossible, possible, or certain (e.g., it is possible that my little sister will be put to bed by 8:00 tonight or it is impossible that I will have time to watch a movie tonight because I have two hockey games).


Design and conduct probability experiments to determine the likelihood of a specific outcome and explain what the results tell about the outcome including whether the outcome is impossible, possible, or certain.


Identify all possible outcomes in a probability experiment and classify the outcomes as less likely, equally likely, or more likely to occur and explain the reasoning (e.g., for an upcoming Pow Wow, list the dances that could be done and then classify the likelihood of each of the dances occurring, or of the dances occurring while you are in attendance).


Predict how the likelihood of two outcomes in a probability experiment, carry out the experiment, compare the results to the prediction, and identify possible reasons for discrepancies.


Design and construct different rectangles given either perimeter or area, or both (whole numbers), and draw conclusions. [C, CN, PS, V]


Construct (concretely or pictorially) and record the dimensions of two or more rectangles with a specified perimeter and select, with justification, the dimensions that would be most appropriate in a particular situation (e.g., a rectangle is to have a perimeter of 18 units, what are the dimensions of the possible rectangles, which rectangle would be most appropriate if the rectangle is to be the base of a shoe box or a dog pen).


Construct (concretely or pictorially) and record the dimensions of as many rectangles as possible with a specified area and select, with justification, the rectangle that would be most appropriate in a particular situation (e.g., a rectangle is to have an area of 24 units^2, what are the dimensions of the possible rectangles, which rectangle would be most appropriate if the rectangle is to fence off the largest garden possible or be the base of a box on a shelf that is 10 units by 8 units).


Critique the statement: ''A rectangle with dimensions of 3 cm by 4 cm is different from a rectangle with dimensions of 2 cm by 5 cm''. (Note: Any dimensions with the same perimeter could be used to demonstrate the idea of same perimeter not necessarily resulting in the same area or shape of the rectangle).


Generalize patterns discovered through the exploration of the areas of rectangles with the same perimeter and through the exploration of the perimeters of rectangles with the same area (e.g., greater areas do not imply greater perimeters and vice versa, the rectangle for a situation closest to a square will have the greatest area, or the rectangle with the smallest width for a given perimeter will have the smallest area).


Identify situations relevant to self, family, or community where the solution to problems would require the consideration of both area and perimeter, and solve the problems.


Demonstrate understanding of measuring length (mm) by: selecting and justifying referents for the unit mm; modelling and describing the relationship between mm, cm, and m units. [C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]


Choose and use referents for 1 mm to determine approximate linear measurements in situations relevant to self, family, or community and explain the choice.


Generalize measurement relationships between mm, cm, and m from explorations using concrete materials (e.g., 10 mm = 1 cm, 0.01m = 1 cm).


Provide examples of situations relevant to one's life, family, or community in which linear measurements would be made and identify the standard unit (mm, cm, or m) that would be used for that measurement and justify the choice.


Pose and solve problems that involve hands-on linear measurements using either referents or standard units


Demonstrate an understanding of volume by: selecting and justifying referents for cm^3 or m^3 units, estimating volume by using referents for cm^3 or m^3, measuring and recording volume (cm^3 or m^3), constructing rectangular prisms for a given volume. [C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]


Decide what standard cubic unit is represented by a specific referent, and verify.


Determine the volume of a 3-D object using manipulatives, describe the strategy used, and explain whether the volume is exact or an estimate.


Construct possible rectangular prisms for a given volume, identify the dimensions of each prism, and explain which prism would be most appropriate for a particular situation.


Demonstrate understanding of capacity by: describing the relationship between mL and L, selecting and justifying referents for mL or L units, estimating capacity by using referents for mL or L, measuring and recording capacity (mL or L). [C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]


Show, using concrete materials, that 1000 mL has the same capacity as 1 L.


Decide what standard capacity unit is represented by a specific referent, and verify.


Determine the capacity of a container using concrete materials that closely take on the shape of the container, describe the strategy used, and explain whether the volume is exact or an estimate (e.g., if beads are used, discuss the impact on accuracy because of the space between the beads compared to the accuracy if water is used).


Sort a set of containers from least to greatest capacity, explain the strategies used, and verify by determining or estimating the capacity.


Describe and provide examples of edges and faces of 3-D objects, and sides of 2-D shapes that are:, parallel, intersecting, perpendicular, vertical, horizontal. [C, CN, R, T, V]


Identify and describe examples of parallel, intersection, perpendicular, vertical, and horizontal lines, edges, and faces of 2-D shapes and 3-D objects found within one's home, school, and community (including 2-D shapes and 3-D objects in the natural environment, print and multimedia texts).


Sketch a 2-D shape or 3-D object that is relevant to self, family, or others and identify any lines, edges, or faces that are parallel, intersecting, perpendicular, vertical, or horizontal.


Describe, orally, in writing, or through physical movement, what it means for a line, edge, or face of a 2-D shape or 3-D object to be parallel, intersecting, perpendicular, vertical, or horizontal.


Identify and sort quadrilaterals, including:, rectangles, squares, trapezoids, parallelograms, rhombusesaccording to their attributes. [C, R, V]


Identify and provide examples for the types of quadrilaterals that are found in one's home, school, and community.


Compare different quadrilaterals using concrete materials and pictures, identify common and differing attributes, and sort the quadrilaterals according to one of the attributes (e.g., relationships between side lengths, or number of pairs of parallel sides).


Analyze a set of sorted quadrilaterals and determine where a new quadrilateral would belong in the sorted set.


Describe, orally or in writing, the attributes of different quadrilaterals including rectangles, squares, trapezoids, parallelograms, and rhombuses.


Create a model to illustrate the relationships between different quadrilaterals (e.g., demonstrating that a square is a rectangle and a parallelogram is a trapezoid) including rectangles, squares, trapezoids, parallelograms, and rhombuses.


Identify, create, and analyze single transformations of 2-D shapes (with and without the use of technology). [C, CN, R, T, V]


Carry out different transformations (translations, rotations, and reflections) concretely, pictorially (with or without the use of technology), or physically and generalize statements regarding the position and orientation of the transformed image based upon the type of transformation.


Determine if a given 2-D shape and its transformed image match a set of transformation instructions and explain the conclusion reached.


Draw a 2-D shape, translate the shape, and record the translation by describing the direction and magnitude of the movement.


Draw a 2-D shape, rotate the shape, and describe the direction of the turn (clockwise or counter clockwise), the fraction of the turn, and the point of rotation.


Draw a 2-D shape, reflect the shape, and identify the line of reflection and the distance of the image from the line of reflection.


Predict the result of a single transformation of a 2-D shape and verify the prediction.


Describe a single transformation that could be used to replicate the given image of a 2-D shape.


Identify transformations found within one's home, classroom, or community, describe the type and amount of transformations evident (e.g., translation to the left and up, 1/4 of a rotation in a clockwise direction, and reflection about the right side of the shape), and create a concrete or pictorial model of the same set of transformations.


Analyze the effects of gravitational, magnetic, and mechanical forces, including friction, on the movement of objects. [CP, SI]


Differentiate between examples of contact (e.g., wind, push, and pull) and non-contact (e.g., magnetic and gravitational) forces in their daily lives.


Describe how forces can act directly or from a distance to cause objects to start to move, speed up, slow down, change direction, or stop moving.


Collaboratively design and carry out an experiment to determine the effects of changing the amount of force applied to an object on the movement of the object.


Measure, using non-standard units (e.g., number of elastic bands, and the length that an elastic band stretches), the force required to cause an object to move a specified distance, and estimate the force required to move a different object the same distance or the same object a different distance.


Record qualitative observations and quantitative measurements about the effects of non-contact (i.e., gravitational and magnetic) forces which act from a distance to cause objects to move, change direction, or stay in place.


Differentiate between the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces (e.g., gravitational, magnetic, and mechanical) on the movement of objects.


Pose questions to investigate the effects of friction on stationary and moving objects, and identify variables (e.g., surface material, texture, mass, angle of ramp, and orientation of object) that may be relevant to the investigation.


Conduct a fair test to compare the effects of friction on the movement of objects over a variety of surfaces (e.g., wood, cloth, floor tile, carpet, tabletop, sidewalk, and grass).


Measure forces in standard units (e.g., Newton) using a spring scale or a force sensor.


Collect and graph quantitative data to compare the mass and gravitational force acting on various objects.


Evaluate methods used to investigate the effects of contact and non-contact forces on the movement of objects, including identifying and suggesting explanations for discrepancies in collected data.


Draw conclusions about the relationship between contact and non-contact forces on the movement of objects.


Investigate characteristics of simple machines, including levers, wheels and axles, pulleys, inclined planes, screws, and wedges, for moving and lifting loads. [SI, TPS]


Pose and refine testable questions about the operation of simple machines.


Demonstrate how simple machines (e.g., hammer, screwdriver, pliers, bottle opener, ramp, splitting wedges, and scissors) act to reduce effort, increase the distance a load moves, and/or change the direction of an applied force.


Select and safely use tools and materials in a manner that ensures personal safety and the safety of others when investigating the characteristics of simple machines.


Design and carry out an experiment to compare the force needed to lift a load manually with that required to lift it using various simple machines.


Demonstrate how the position of the fulcrum, the load, and the applied force differs for each of the three classes of levers.


Determine the relationship between the applied force and the distance the load is moved for each class of lever.


Compare the operation of wheel and axle mechanisms (e.g., Ferris wheel, bicycle wheel, rolling pin, in-line skate, windmill, and door knob) with the operation of levers.


Determine the effectiveness of wheel and axle mechanisms (e.g., screwdrivers, wheels, doorknobs, and gear systems) of various diameters, rotational speeds, and rotational directions for accomplishing specific tasks.


Investigate the relationship between the amount of applied force and the distance that the load is moved in single and multiple pulley systems, including determining the mechanical advantage of the system.


Explain the operating principles of an inclined plane, such as a ramp or ladder, with reference to the applied load and the distance that the load is moved.


Design and construct a prototype of a simple machine which is meant to accomplish a student-identified task.


Evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of a prototype of a simple machine using student-identified criteria, and refine the prototype based on data.


Create a representation of the characteristics and operating principles of each type of simple machine.


Recognize that scientific processes and ideas help explain how and why simple machines operate.


Pose new questions to investigate about the characteristics of simple machines.


Assess how natural and man-made forces and simple machines affect individuals, society, and the environment. [CP, DM, SI]


Provide examples of simple and complex machines used at home, in school, and throughout their community.


Compare technologies developed and/or used by various cultures, past and present, which represent applications of simple machines.


Analyze the effects of forces from natural phenomena (e.g., earthquake, tornado, hurricane, and tsunami) on the natural and constructed environment.


Assess, using student-identified criteria, the function and effectiveness of products designed to enhance or reduce friction (e.g., grease, oil, ski wax, skate blade, fishing lure, canoe paddle, Velcro, and winter tires) between two surfaces.


Suggest how the function of common simple mechanisms, such as a crowbar, wheelbarrow, elbow joint, fork, rake, baseball bat, can opener, stapler, or scissors, might be different had they been based on a different class of lever.


Identify the benefits and disadvantages of practical examples of levers (e.g., pliers, teeter-totter, bottle opener, wheelbarrow, and fishing rod) on their lives and in their community.


Assess the impacts of machines, such as carts, boats, airplanes, logging equipment, and tractors, on traditional lifestyles.


Examine how agricultural, industrial, automotive, marine, and household applications of pulleys (e.g., combine, swather, crane, fan belt, block and tackle, clothesline, and flagpole) have changed the lives of individuals and affected society and the environment.


Research the use of inclined planes and other simple machines used to construct structures such as pyramids, Stonehenge, Easter Island moai, tipis, inukshuks, and totem poles.


Examine the types of tasks in the community that have been and are being currently accomplished using wedges (e.g., shim, splitting maul, knife, axe, and chisel).


Analyze technologies that are based on principles of simple machines in sports and recreation (e.g., teeter-totter, water slide, gymnastics wedge, balance board, and roller coaster).


Analyze the ways in which various combinations of simple machines can be combined to create complex machines.


Imagine machines that could be developed to simplify tasks within their lives, including fanciful devices such as Rube Goldberg machines.


Analyze personal and societal requirements for, and the impact of, maintaining a healthy human body. [CP, DM]


Examine methods and perspectives of various cultures, including First Nations and Mtis, which have contributed to knowledge about maintaining a healthy body (e.g., balance inherent in the Medicine Wheel).


Identify local knowledge, including the effects of traditional lifestyles, that contributes to human understanding of maintaining a healthy body.


Analyze the role of the skin (e.g., protection, heat regulation, absorption, and evaporation) in maintaining a healthy body.


Research how the bodys defences, such as tears, saliva, skin, certain blood cells, and stomach secretions, work to fight against infections.


Describe the function of technologies (e.g., defibrillator, soap, exercise equipment, and safety equipment) that have been developed to support personal health.


Relate the effects of common diseases to the organs or body systems they affect or are related to (e.g., heart attacks affect the circulatory system, epilepsy affects the nervous system, hepatitis affects the liver, gallstones affect the gall bladder, and asthma affects the respiratory system).


Predict how the failure or removal of a specific organ in the human body system would affect an individuals health.


Compare personal diets and those of people who live in different communities and countries worldwide to Canadas Food Guide and Canadas Food Guide First Nations, Mtis, and Inuit.


Assess the benefits of lifestyle choices (e.g., daily physical activity, proper nutrition, adequate sleep, appropriate hygiene practices, regular medical check-ups, and using safety equipment) that contribute to maintaining a healthy body.


Propose actions that individuals can take to minimize the harmful effects and maximize the beneficial effects of natural- and human- caused environmental factors (e.g., West Nile Virus, mosquitoes, pesticides, air quality, noise pollution, food safety, and water and wastewater treatment) on human health.


Research the roles of different individuals and organizations within their communities that help support personal and community health.


Investigate the structure, function, and major organs of one or more human body systems such as the digestive, excretory, respiratory, circulatory, nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems. [SI, TPS]


Explain at least two functions of the human digestive, excretory, respiratory, circulatory, nervous, muscular, or skeletal systems.


Create a written and/or visual representation of the location of the major organs of at least two human body systems within the entire body.


Model the structure and/or function of one or more organs from the human digestive, excretory, respiratory, circulatory, nervous, muscular, or skeletal system.


Assess, in collaboration with other students, a model of an organ from a human body system to refine the model.


Critique models in science, such as models of human organs, as representations of natural phenomena, objects, and/or physical processes.


Suggest the processes that scientists might follow to investigate questions related to the structure and/or function of human body systems (e.g., Which factors affect breathing and heartbeat rate? How does the digestion process work? How much air do lungs hold? Why is blood red? Where does my food go?).


Rephrase, into a testable form, questions about the structure and/ or function of one or more body systems.


Design and carry out procedures, including identifying and controlling variables, to investigate the structure and/or function of one or more body systems (e.g., the influence of exercise on heart rate, the role of simulated saliva in starting the digestion process, and factors that influence a persons response time).


Compile and display data from investigations related to the structure and/or function of human body systems using appropriate formats such as frequency tallies, tables, and bar graphs.


Suggest explanations for patterns and discrepancies in data collected during investigations related to the structure and/or function of human body systems.


Imagine how a human body might function or look if it did not have one or more of the major body systems.


Assess how multiple human body systems function together to enable people to move, grow, and react to stimuli. [SI]


Pose questions to investigate or suggest practical problems to solve in relation to human body systems (e.g., How are the various systems connected to each other? Could one system live without the other systems? If not, why not? Why do we need to eat? Could we breathe without a diaphragm? Which organs work hard during exercise? Why do people sometimes become paralyzed due to an injury?).


Relate body changes, such as acne on the skin and growth of body hair, to human growth and development from birth to puberty.


Represent, physically, dramatically, or visually, the interactions among the skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems that produce movement of the body or parts of the body.


Research how the respiratory, digestive, and circulatory systems work together to move oxygen and nutrients throughout the human body.


Investigate the interdependence between the nervous system and other body systems for reacting to stimuli and controlling body functions.


Explain how the digestive and excretory systems work together to ensure that the body makes use of food that is eaten and disposes of waste.


Propose alterations to the human body that might enable humans to function more effectively to accomplish one or more typical daily tasks.


Investigate the characteristics and physical properties of materials in solid, liquid, and gaseous states of matter. [CP, SI]


Recognize that matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.


Classify materials in their environment as solids, liquids, or gases based on personal observation.


Carry out a procedure to compare the mass of an object with the mass of its components.


Pose questions related to the characteristics and physical properties of matter that are suitable for investigating using processes of science.


Observe and record characteristics and physical properties (e.g., colour, texture, mass, volume, hardness, flexibility, absorbency, strength, buoyancy, melting point, malleability, magnetism, and solubility) of different solids, liquids, and gases in their environment.


Determine the distinguishing characteristics which enable scientists to differentiate between solids, liquids, and gases.


Measure the temperature, volume, and mass of materials using appropriate instruments (e.g., digital thermometer, ruler, tape measure, graduated cylinder, measuring cup, single-pan balance, and electronic scale) and standard units (e.g., C, cm3, ml, and kg).


Explain how some characteristics and physical properties, such as melting point, boiling point, buoyancy, and solubility, help to distinguish materials from one another.


Critique personal and scientific classification systems of matter by identifying substances that are not easily classified as solids, liquids, or gases (e.g., butter, fat scraped off hides, fog, Jell-O, and wax).


Investigate how reversible and non-reversible changes, including changes of state, alter materials. [SI]


Pose and refine questions for investigation related to changes in materials.


Demonstrate changes (e.g., cutting aluminium foil, forming clay, breaking wood, and crumpling paper) that can be made to an object without changing the properties of the material making up the object.


Explore how characteristics and physical properties of materials may change when they interact with one another.


Predict whether changes to a material will be reversible or non- reversible.


Observe and classify changes to materials as reversible (e.g., melting ice cube, dissolving salt in water, blowing up a balloon, and folding paper) and non-reversible (e.g., paper burning, egg cooking, bicycle rusting, balloon popping, and apple turning brown).


Differentiate between changes to materials that occur rapidly (e.g., wood burning, explosives detonating, balloon popping, and glass breaking) and those that occur over extended periods (e.g., bicycle rusting, paint fading, and newspaper yellowing).


Provide evidence of the six changes of state (i.e., evaporation, condensation, freezing, melting, sublimation, and deposition) of matter in the environment (e.g., water evaporating from wet clothes, steam condensing on the wall of a shower, lake freezing, butter melting, ice cube sublimating in the freezer, and frost forming on a car window).


Demonstrate that changes of state of matter are reversible when heat is applied or removed.


Compare the characteristics and physical properties of a material in its solid and liquid states (e.g., compare the mass of ice cubes with the mass of liquid that results when they melt).


Design and carry out a procedure to determine whether the mass of materials changes during reversible and non-reversible changes.


Develop conclusions about the effects of reversible and non- reversible changes on the characteristics and physical properties of materials.


Assess how the production, use, and disposal of raw materials and manufactured products affects self, society, and the environment. [DM, SI]


Differentiate between raw materials and manufactured products.


Assess the benefits and drawbacks of manufactured materials (e.g., plastic, steel, aluminium, glass, nylon, and other fabric) that have been developed to improve human living conditions.


Research a product to determine the raw materials from which it is made and the process required to turn the raw materials into a manufactured product.


Conduct a fair test to determine the effectiveness of different types or brands of a material (e.g., glue, coffee mug, paper towel, battery, bubble gum, paper, soap, and balloon).


Develop and apply criteria (e.g., function, cost, reliability, and aesthetics) for evaluating the effectiveness of a consumer product.


Identify locations in their communities and in Saskatchewan where agricultural and industrial manufacturing occurs, what products are created and tested, which raw materials are used, and how by- products and waste are disposed.


Assess the societal and environmental impacts of industrial and agricultural processes that change raw materials into manufactured products, taking into account different perspectives such as consumer, manufacturer, salesperson, and community leader.


Identify potentially harmful products used at home, school, and in communities, including interpreting consumer chemical hazard symbols, and describe practices that individuals can follow to ensure personal and community safety.


Investigate how natural and manufactured products (e.g., tires, computers, trees, garbage, paper, scrap metal, house construction materials, food, clothing, oil, and automobiles) are disposed of personally, in their communities, and in Saskatchewan.


Recognize the need for developing a sense of responsibility towards other people, other living things, and the environment when choosing how to use and dispose of manufactured products.


Measure and represent local weather, including temperature, wind speed and direction, amount of sunlight, precipitation, relative humidity, and cloud cover. [CP, SI, TPS]


Pose questions about local weather conditions and methods of collecting weather data.


Compare strengths and limitations of methods and technologies used historically and currently by different people around the world to obtain information about the weather.


Classify clouds as stratus, cumulus, cirrus, or other, compare results with others, and analyze why results may vary.


Use a technological problem-solving process to design and construct simple weather instruments (e.g., wind vane, rain gauge, thermometer, barometer, and anemometer).


Explain the function and purpose of simple weather instruments.


Compile and display local weather data (e.g., temperature, wind speed and direction, amount of sunlight, precipitation, relative humidity, and cloud cover) for a given time interval (e.g., hourly throughout the day, daily for one week, and weekly for one month) using a weather journal, tables, charts, diagrams, and graphs.


Construct a wind rose to determine the predominant wind direction in a region over a given time period.


Evaluate, using student-developed criteria, the effectiveness of a personally-constructed weather instrument.


Construct a sample weather map for their region, indicating the temperature, wind speed and direction, precipitation, and cloud cover at a given time.


Analyze patterns and discrepancies in weather data for a given location over a specified time interval.


Generate simple conclusions about the prevailing local weather conditions.


Pose new questions about local weather conditions based on what was learned.


Investigate local, national, and global weather conditions, including the role of air movement and solar energy transfer. [SI]


Pose questions about the characteristics of local, national, and global weather conditions.


Demonstrate properties of air, in that air takes up space, has weight, expands and rises when heated, exerts pressure, and moves from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure.


Measure, describe, and represent patterns in indoor and local outdoor air movement.


Design and safely carry out an experiment to determine the effects of solar energy on different surfaces (e.g., water, soil, sand, asphalt, concrete, grass, and wood).


Record and share, using tables, charts, diagrams, and graphs, the results of experimentation into the effects of solar energy on different surfaces.


Develop simple conclusions about the relationship between the amount of energy absorbed by a material and the nature of the material.


Relate the transfer of energy from the sun to the heating of Earths surface by providing examples of surfaces that heat at different rates and locations (e.g., desert, forest, island, and summerfallow field) that have different temperatures.


Describe the characteristics of severe weather events, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, blizzards, hailstorms, droughts, and tropical cyclones, including the role of air movement and solar energy transfer in those events.


Relate weather extremes (e.g., hottest air temperature, lowest air temperature, greatest rainfall, highest wind speed, and heaviest hailstone) to specific locations in Canada and on Earth.


Compare weather conditions locally, regionally, and across Canada at various times throughout the year.


Examine weather lore and animal behaviours in traditional and contemporary cultures as tools to predict weather conditions.


Predict patterns in local, regional, and global weather over a given time frame (e.g., a day, a week, a month, and a year).


Suggest explanations for patterns or discrepancies between predictions of weather patterns and actual data for a given location during a given time interval.


Identify examples of local, national, and global weather phenomena that Canadian scientists are currently studying (e.g., UV protection, wind chill, ozone layer, seasonal snow cover, and temperature trends).


Analyze the impact of weather on society and the environment, including technologies that help humans address weather conditions. [DM]


Explain the purpose of different types of information (e.g., satellite and radar maps, weather watches and warnings, summary statistics, travel advisories, and air quality reports) that weather forecasters provide.


Research how and why people in their communities use short- and long-term weather forecasts in their daily lives.


Analyze the impact of weather conditions for a particular region on the lives and livelihoods of people in that region, including choices of food, shelter, clothing, transportation, and employment.


Research effects of short- and long-term changes in weather on the lives and livelihoods of people locally, nationally, and globally.


Relate weather conditions, and changing weather conditions, to the activities and behaviours of animals.


Explain the effects of different types of severe weather on people, communities, and the environment, including personal safety preparations for various severe weather events.


Examine how scientists and traditional knowledge keepers can collaborate to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of weather on people and the environment.


Research traditional and contemporary technological innovations and products related to clothing, shelter, agriculture, and transportation that various cultures have developed to address various types of weather conditions.


Explain why forecasting, measuring, and understanding weather is important for humans.


Propose ideas for new products that would help humans address various types of weather conditions.