Saskatchewan Curriculum — Grade 6

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Consider which viewing, listening, reading, representing, speaking, and writing strategies work best for each task and situation.


Appraise own viewing, listening, reading, representing, speaking, and writing skills and strategies and set goals for improvement.


Appraise own and others' work for clarity.


Create various visual, multimedia, oral, and written texts that explore identity (e.g., Your Choices), social responsibility (e.g., Looking for Answers), and efficacy (e.g., Systems for Living).


Select and use the appropriate strategies to communicate meaning before (e.g., identifying purpose and audience), during (e.g., acknowledging sources), and after (e.g., revising to enhance clarity) speaking, writing, and other representing activities.


Use pragmatic (e.g., function and purpose), textual (e.g., paragraphs), syntactic (e.g., complete sentences with appropriate subordination and modification), semantic/lexical/morphological (e.g., figurative words), graphophonic (e.g., spelling strategies), and other cues (e.g., appropriate volume and intonation) to construct and to communicate meaning.


Create and present a variety of representations that communicate ideas and information to inform or persuade and to entertain an audience, including illustrations, diagrams, posters, displays, and cartoons.


Use oral language to interact appropriately with others in pairs, and small and large group situations (e.g., asking questions to explore others' ideas and viewpoints, discussing and comparing ideas and opinions, completing tasks and contributing to group success).


Use oral language appropriately to express a range of information and ideas in formal and informal situations including presenting an oral report based on research, a demonstration, and a short dramatization.


Write to describe a place; to narrate an incident from own experience in a multi-paragraph composition and in a friendly letter; to explain and inform in multi-step directions and a short report explaining a problem and providing a solution; and, to persuade to support a viewpoint or stand.


Experiment with a variety of text forms (e.g., a peer interview, presentation at an assembly, poem, letter to parents, short review, poster, tableau, graphic organizer) and techniques (e.g., surprise ending).


Prepare a teacher-guided inquiry report related to a stand on a topic, theme, or issue studied in English English.


View, listen to, read, comprehend, and respond to a variety of texts that address identity (e.g., Growing Up), social responsibility (e.g., Going the Distance), and efficacy (e.g., Making Our Community More Peaceful).


Select and use appropriate strategies to construct meaning before (e.g., considering what they know and need to know about the topic), during (e.g., making connections to prior knowledge and experiences), and after (e.g., drawing conclusions) viewing, listening, and reading.


Use pragmatic (e.g., function and purpose of texts), textual (e.g., form/genre, sequence of ideas), syntactic (e.g., word order and emphasis on particular words), semantic/lexical/morphological (e.g., capture particular aspect of intended meaning), graphophonic (e.g., sound-symbol patterns and relationships), and other cues (e.g., the speaker's non-verbal cues) to construct and confirm meaning.


View, respond, and demonstrate comprehension of visual and multimedia grade-appropriate texts including traditional and contemporary texts from First Nations, Metis, and other cultures containing special features (e.g., the visual components of magazines, newspapers, websites, comic books, broadcast media, video, and advertising).


Listen purposefully to understand, respond, and analyze oral information and ideas from a range of texts including narratives, instructions, oral explanations and reports, and opinions.


Read and demonstrate comprehension and interpretation of grade-appropriate texts including traditional and contemporary prose fiction, poetry, and plays from First Nations, Metis, and other cultures.


Read independently and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of information texts with some specialized language including grade-level instructional materials, non-fiction books, reports and articles from magazines and journals, reference materials, and written instructions.


Read Grade 6 appropriate texts to increase fluency (120-160 wcpm orally; 160-210 silently) and expression.


State the characteristics that define all living things (e.g., are made up of one or more cells, require energy for life processes, respond to stimuli in their environment, and have the ability to reproduce).


Observe and document the diversity of living things in their local habitat through journaling, a nature walk, sketching, drawing, photographing, video recording, or other means.


Show respect for other people, living things, and the environment when observing ecosystems.


Document the diversity of living things in different terrestrial and aquatic habitats (e.g., grasslands, forests, tundra, deserts, rivers, ponds, and oceans) using print, video, and/or online resources.


Identify examples of science and technology-related careers and workplaces which require an understanding of the diversity of living things (e.g., naturalist, zoo keeper, palaeontologist, and wildlife biologist).


Construct and use a classification system to organize living things into groups and subgroups according to student-developed criteria.


Consider personal observations and ideas as well as those of others (including differing worldviews) when constructing classification systems by asking questions, sharing stories, and responding to classmates' classification systems.


Demonstrate how different classification systems can be used to classify the same set of objects and explain how humans develop and refine classification systems to meet specific needs.


Illustrate the diversity of living things on Earth by constructing a visual representation (e.g., poster, mobile, slide show, and web page) showing examples from each kingdom of the five kingdom taxonomic model: monera, protists, fungi, plants, and animals.


Use appropriate scientific terminology to communicate ideas about the diversity of living things (e.g., biotic, abiotic, kingdom, phylum, monera, protist, fungi, plant, animal, vertebrate, and invertebrate).


Critique the use of biological classification systems to aid scientific understanding of living things rather than relying on common, local, or personally chosen names.


Identify characteristics of vertebrates and invertebrates and classify animals as vertebrates or invertebrates from drawings, videos, pictures, lists, and/or personal observations.


Compare and represent characteristics and behaviours (e.g., body shape, body description, method of respiration, method of reproduction, method of movement, and method of feeding) of student-selected examples of vertebrates.


Compare and represent characteristics and behaviours (e.g., body shape, body description, method of respiration, method of reproduction, method of movement, and method of feeding) of student-selected examples of invertebrates (e.g., arthropods, annelids, cnidarids, echinoderms, molluscs, and nematodes).


Propose questions for inquiry that arise from personal investigations of characteristics and behaviours of animals.


Suggest reasons why current biological classification systems for living things are based on structural (internal) characteristics rather than solely on physical appearance or behaviour.


Propose questions to investigate related to the structures and behaviours that help organisms survive in their environments (e.g., What advantage are different beaks for birds?, Why do owls turn their heads to look sideways?, Why do rabbits change colour at different times of the year?, Why do caribou migrate?, Why do ground squirrels hibernate?).


Show interest and curiosity in learning about organisms' adaptations to different environments by journaling, participating in a nature walk, or sharing science-related information about adaptations (gathered from print or video resources or personal experience) with classmates.


Describe examples of structures and behaviours, including seasonal changes, which help living things survive in their environments during the lifetime of the organism.


Describe examples of adaptations to structures and behaviours (e.g., flippers, webbed feet, night-time vision, wide wings, camouflage colouring, migration, and hibernation) that have enabled living things to adapt to their environments in the long term.


Explain how scientists use fossils and the fossil record as a source of information to identify changes or diversity in species over long periods of time.


Suggest reasons why specific species of organisms have or might become endangered or extinct.


Gather information from a variety of sources (e.g., Elder, traditional knowledge keeper, naturalist, textbook, non-fiction book, museum display, encyclopaedia, and website) to answer student-generated questions about the structural and behavioural adaptations of organisms.


Compare closely-related animals that live in different parts of the world and propose explanations for any differences in their structures and behaviours.


Research the advantages of particular structures or behaviours of organisms that suit different environments (e.g., how different bird beaks are best suited to obtain different types of food, how different types of foot structure are best suited for different environments).


Suggest reasons to explain how results of similar and repeated studies of the adaptations of organisms may vary and suggest possible explanations for variations (e.g., independent studies may reveal different responses by polar bears to temperature changes or pollution).


Choose and correctly use appropriate tools (e.g., magnifying glasses, optical microscopes, and video microscopes) to study living organisms that cannot be seen with the naked eye.


Observe and represent, using words and diagrams, characteristics of micro-organisms obtained from student- or teacher-collected water samples (e.g., bottled water, tap water, rain barrel, pond, creek, slough, and river water).


Explain how micro-organisms meet their basic needs, including moving around and obtaining food, water, and oxygen.


Design and conduct an investigation of the factors that influence how quickly micro-organisms break down organic matter (e.g., build a composter in a 2L plastic bottle and vary conditions such as the amount of water, soil, light, and combinations of waste products).


Compare cultural (including First Nations and Mtis), historical, and scientific understandings and explanations of disease, including the contributions of scientists such as John Snow and Louis Pasteur to the germ theory.


Discuss positive and negative impacts of micro-organisms for humans (e.g., food production and spoilage, fermentation, pasteurization, water and sewage treatment, human digestion, composting, disease spread and prevention, and biological warfare).


Make generalizations about the effects of climate and vegetation in a local area on the historical development of people in the selected area.


Describe the relationship between the climate and vegetation zones and the lifestyles (e.g., modes of travel, home and building construction, modes of dress, population health, types of sport, recreation and leisure activities, economic activity) of people in Canada and in a selection of countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean.


Identify, on a map or globe, major cities, landforms, and bodies of water in Canada and a selection of countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean.


Propose explanations for population distributions, densities, and growth rates in a selection of countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean, and compare this to population distributions, densities, and growth rates in Canada.


Identify the historical and contemporary factors that influence the migration of people (e.g., environmental, economic, and political factors), and research examples from a selection of countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean.


Conduct an inquiry into the nature of urbanization and examine the impact of urbanization on youth, including indigenous youth, in Canada and in a selection of countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean.


Investigate the role of astronomy and traditional practices and teachings in early map making and reading.


Use parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude to situate locations on a map.


Calculate the time in different time zones relevant to Canada and a selection of countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean, using technological tools and appropriate vocabulary, including international date line, Universal Time, local time, and daylight saving time.


Investigate the Aboriginal understanding of day, night, and seasons as part of global cycles.


Construct a timeline or other graphic or digital representation to associate contemporary events with their historical origins in Canada and in a selection of countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean.


Provide examples of the types of energy sources used to provide heat and light to homes in the past and describe ways in which electricity-based technologies have changed the way people work, live, and interact with the environment in Saskatchewan.


Describe how electrical energy is generated from hydroelectric, coal, natural gas, nuclear, geothermal, biomass, solar, and wind sources and categorize these resources as renewable or non-renewable.


Locate and categorize by type the large-scale electrical energy generation facilities in Saskatchewan and explain how electrical energy is transmitted from those facilities to locations throughout the province.


Identify factors that affect electrical energy consumption at home, school, and in the workplace and propose methods of decreasing electrical energy consumption that can help to conserve natural resources and protect the environment.


Explain potential dangers of electricity at home, school, and the workplace and suggest ways individuals can minimize those dangers.


Research employers and careers related to electrical energy generation, distribution, and conservation in Saskatchewan.


Conduct investigations to determine the attraction and repulsion of electrostatically charged materials and represent the results of those investigations using drawings, sketches, tables, charts, and/or other representations.


Describe how results of similar and repeated investigations into the characteristics of static electric charges (e.g., the rubbing together of different substances) may vary and suggest possible explanations for identified variations.


Identify natural and man-made applications of static electric charge and discharge (e.g., lightning, photocopiers, laser printers, air filters, and electrostatic paint sprayers).


Pose questions related to the physical properties of conductors, insulators, simple circuits, and electromagnets (e.g., How can we determine if an unknown material is a conductor or an insulator?, How does a switch work in a simple electric circuit?, What materials work best to create an electromagnet?).


Make predictions, based on observed patterns of events, related to the physical properties of conductors, insulators, simple circuits, and electromagnets and conduct investigations to test those predictions.


Identify appropriate tools, instruments, and materials (e.g., bulbs, batteries, and wires) to use when investigating the properties of conductors, insulators, simple circuits, and electromagnets and use those tools and apparatus in a manner that ensures personal safety and the safety of others.


Test the conductivity of a variety of solids and liquids, following a given set of procedures, to identify which materials are conductors and which are insulators, and draw conclusions about the types of materials that work best as conductors and which work best as insulators.


Explain the role of switches in electrical circuits.


Describe the operation of an electromagnet and contrast magnets and electromagnets.


Plan a set of steps to carry out a fair test of a science-related idea related to electromagnets, such as how to increase the strength of an electromagnet.


Use evidence gathered through research and observation to answer questions related to the physical properties of conductors, insulators, simple circuits, and electromagnets.


Describe the operation of common technologies based on properties of static electricity, current electricity, or electromagnetism.


State the required characteristics of a simple electric circuit (e.g., a source of electrical energy, a closed path to conduct electrical energy, and a load to convert the electrical energy into another form of energy).


Compare a variety of electrical pathways by constructing simple circuits.


Contrast a closed circuit, open circuit, and short circuit.


Propose questions to investigate, and practical problems to solve, related to simple series and parallel circuits (e.g., What happens when a light bulb is removed from a series or parallel circuit?, How can I create a simple circuit using only a battery, light bulb, and one wire?, How are light circuits in a house wired?).


Construct and test various combinations of simple electric circuits to determine similarities and differences between series and parallel circuits.


Draw electrical circuit diagrams to represent simple series and parallel circuits using appropriate symbols (e.g., battery, conductor, light bulb, motor, and switch).


Construct simple circuits to demonstrate how electrical energy can be controlled to produce light, heat, sound, motion, and magnetic effects.


Design, construct, and troubleshoot an electrical circuit that meets one or more student-specified criteria.


Observe and describe physical characteristics and adaptations that enable birds (e.g., ravens, hawks, loons, geese, hummingbirds, sandpipers, cranes, and sparrows), insects (e.g., mosquitoes, dragonflies, grasshoppers, bees, wasps, and butterflies), and bats to fly.


Show how First Nations and Mtis art and storytelling highlight understanding of and respect for birds.


Examine the role of inspiration and aesthetic design in the development of flying devices (e.g., initial attempts at trying to fly were based on observations of birds).


Research technological problems that had to be overcome to develop devices that fly (e.g., balloons, kites, gliders, airplanes, helicopters, and rockets) and explain how various creative solutions to those problems have resulted in the development of flying devices with different designs.


Discuss historical and current contributions of individuals, including Canadians, who have contributed to scientific understanding and technological developments related to flight.


Describe examples of traditional and modern technologies developed by First Nations, Mtis, and other cultures that are based on principles of flight (e.g., atlatl, bow and arrow, slingshot, catapult, boomerang, and trebuchet).


Explain how inventions based on principles of flight have changed the way people work, live, and interact with the environment locally, nationally, and globally (e.g., bush planes in northern Saskatchewan, scheduled airline travel, supply of cargo to remote communities and mine sites, and transoceanic air travel).


Describe career opportunities in Canada related to the science and technology of flight.


Diagram how the forces of thrust, drag, lift, and gravity act on living things or devices that fly through the air.


Use scientific terminology appropriately (e.g., thrust, drag, lift, and gravity) when communicating ideas about the principles of flight.


Generate questions related to the principles of flight and rephrase those questions in a testable form (e.g., rephrase a question such as Why can some gliders travel farther than others? to What effect does wing shape have on the distance a glider can travel?).


Describe the role of lift in overcoming gravity and enabling devices or living things to fly.


Determine how lift is affected by the shape of a surface by planning and carrying out steps to investigate the effect of wing shape on lift.


Describe and represent methods for altering drag in flying devices, such as a bird spreading wings or an airplane employing flaps.


Provide examples of how science and technology have been used to solve problems related to drag in devices that fly.


Compare the sources of thrust of various constructed flying devices including the propeller, jet engine, and solid or liquid-fuelled rocket.


Assess the characteristics of flying objects (e.g., balloon, kite, glider, airplane, helicopter, and rocket).


Construct a prototype of a flying object that meets student-specified performance and aesthetic criteria.


Communicate procedures and results of prototype design, construction, testing, and evaluation in a technical design report.


Identify new questions or problems about flight that arise through the prototype design process.


Propose designs for futuristic flying devices that meet a particular student-identified need.


Identify personal roles in, and responsibilities toward, the family and local community.


Assess the current and historical approaches to cultural diversity used in Canada and in a selection of countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean, including consideration of segregation, assimilation, accommodation, and pluralism.


Research ways in which cultural traditions, celebrations, art, music, literature, drama, and sport have influenced intercultural understanding.


Research and represent the historical and contemporary contributions to local communities by a variety of cultural groupings representative of Saskatchewan.


Compare and contrast social and cultural diversity in Canada with that of a selection of countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean, and assess the significance of cultural diversity.


Create an inventory of ways in which daily life is influenced by global interdependence.


Become aware and describe the role of key international agencies in protecting human welfare, especially that of children and youth (e.g., United Nations, UNICEF, UNESCO, Amnesty International, Mdecins sans frontires, United Nations High Commission for Refugees, international indigenous organizations, faith-based international development organizations).


Investigate the contribution of an Aboriginal Canadian toward enhancing human welfare in Canada.


Delineate ways in which cultures might change over time.


Discuss examples of change created by cultural interaction in Canada and a selection of countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean, being sure to examine perspectives of both the cultural group and the host community (e.g., adjusting long-standing cultural traditions in a new environment, finding greeting cards in different languages, learning a different language).


Analyze the effect on youth of changes resulting from cultural interaction, and assess the response of youth to changes resulting from cultural interaction.


Demonstrate understanding of place value including: greater than one million; less than one thousandth with and without technology. [C, CN, R, PS, T]


Demonstrate understanding of factors and multiples (concretely, pictorially, and symbolically) including: determining factors and multiples of numbers less than 100; relating factors and multiples to multiplication and division; determining and relating prime and composite numbers. [C, CN, ME, PS, R]


Demonstrate understanding of the order of operations on whole numbers (excluding exponents) with and without technology. [CN, ME, PS, T]


Extend understanding of multiplication and division to decimals (1-digit whole number multipliers and 1-digit natural number divisors). [C, CN, ME, PS, R]


Demonstrate understanding of percent (limited to whole numbers to 100) concretely, pictorially, and symbolically. [C, CN, PS, R, V]


Demonstrate understanding of integers concretely, pictorially, and symbolically. [C, CN, R, V]


Extend understanding of fractions to improper fractions and mixed numbers. [CN, ME, R, V]


Demonstrate an understanding of ratio concretely, pictorially, and symbolically. [C, CN, PS, R, V]


Extend understanding of patterns and relationships in tables of values and graphs. [C, CN, PS, R]


Extend understanding of preservation of equality concretely, pictorially, physically, and symbolically. [C, CN, R]


Extend understanding of patterns and relationships by using expressions and equations involving variables. [C, CN, R]


Illustrate the forms of power (an individual or a group'ss ability to influence): force, authority, and influence (voice) with respect to their personal lives (e.g., force: pushing someone, saying something hurtful; authority: being elected class representative, being invited to act or speak on behalf of the group, inviting others to act or speak on behalf of the group; influence: speak out on their behalf or on the behalf of others).


Give examples of the forms of power (force: gangs, bullying; authority: leadership of an organization; influence: clergy, charisma) in the local community.


Determine traits common to individuals who are perceived as effective leaders in a variety of contexts in the local, provincial, territorial, national, or international arena.


Identify and examine the characteristics of local, provincial, national, and international leaders and organizations in order to:


Understand how the individuals and organizations identified obtained their power


Explain how the individuals and organizations identified use influence, force, or authority


Show the relationship between the power and authority of those individuals and organizations, and the power and authority of others


Describe diverse ways in which groups and societies, especially those groups involving young people, deal with competing claims for power.


Explain choices young people must make in reconciling the tensions between the dominant social group and individual choice (e.g., drug and alcohol use; social relationships; academic programs, choice of extra-curricular activities, and career interests).


Gather and interpret data from various print and electronic sources, such as graphs, maps, and charts, to illustrate geographic and economic differences among regions in Canada and a selection of countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean (e.g., mountainous areas: tourism, forestry, and mining; coastal areas: fishing and shipping).


Suggest reasons for any economic differences among the regions in Canada and a selection of countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean, and speculate on the effects of those differences.


Describe incidents of the misuse of power in groups of which students are aware.


Research laws that specifically affect young people, minority groups, the disabled, and the elderly to determine the disposition of governments toward the status of these groups, and evaluate the reasons for and effectiveness of such laws.


Investigate the relationship between people and their governments in Canada and a selection of countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean. Include such things as human rights, treatment of minorities, history with indigenous peoples, infrastructure for health, and education (including reference to residential schools and the intergenerational impact of those experiences).


Explain the difference between needs and wants.


Recognize the variation in value placed on quality of life indicators in varying locations, cultures, and time periods.


Investigate the indigenous concept of abundance as it relates to the western concept of wealth.


Research sources of wealth (including natural resources and industries) in Canada and a selection of countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean.


Recognize and assess the relationship between wealth and resources and the distribution of power and authority in Canada and a selection of countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean.


Extend understanding of data analysis to include: line graphs; graphs of discrete data; data collection through questionnaires, experiments, databases, and electronic media; interpolation and extrapolation. [C, CN, PS, R, V, T]


Demonstrate understanding of probability by: determining sample space; differentiating between experimental and theoretical probability; determining the theoretical probability; determining the experimental probability; comparing experimental and theoretical probabilities. [C, PS, R, T]


Demonstrate understanding of angles including: identifying examples; classifying angles; estimating the measure; determining angle measures in degrees; drawing angles; applying angle relationships in triangles and quadrilaterals. [C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]


Analyze historical and current technological developments that have enabled human observation of the major components of the solar system.


Construct a timeline of Canadian and worldwide research efforts related to understanding the major components of the solar system.


Evaluate the validity and usefulness of different sources of information about the physical characteristics of the solar system.


Use star charts and astronomy guides to investigate the night sky, including constellations, and record observations using notes in point form, data tables, simple diagrams, and/or charts.


Create scale-distance and/or scale-size models to represent the major components of the solar system.


Evaluate the usefulness and accuracy of scale-distance and scale-size models of the major components of the solar system.


Explain how evidence is continually questioned in order to validate scientific knowledge about the solar system.


Extend and apply understanding of perimeter of polygons, area of rectangles, and volume of right rectangular prisms (concretely, pictorially, and symbolically) including: relating area to volume; comparing perimeter and area; comparing area and volume; generalizing strategies and formulae; analyzing the effect of orientation; solving situational questions. [CN, PS, R, V]


Examine how people of different cultures, including First Nations, have recorded (e.g., medicine wheel, Mayan calendar, Stonehenge, pyramids) and used understandings of astronomical phenomena (e.g., positions of the stars and/or planets) to solve practical problems such as the appropriate time to plant and harvest crops, to support navigation on land and water, or to foretell significant events through stories and legends.


Examine ways in which humans have represented understanding of or interest in astronomical phenomena through music, dance, drama, visual art, or stories.


Demonstrate the importance of selecting appropriate processes for investigating scientific questions and solving technological problems by explaining why astronomy is considered a part of science but astrology is not.


Propose personal explanations for the causes of seasons, phases, and eclipses.


Demonstrate how Earth's rotation causes the day and night cycle and how Earth's 23.5 tilt and revolution around the sun causes the yearly cycle of seasons.


Propose explanations for how the yearly cycle of seasons might differ if Earth's axis were not tilted.


Consider alternate models of seasons and explanations for those models (e.g., the six-season model of the Woodland Cree, the rainy and dry seasons of some tropical and subtropical regions).


Model the relative positions of the sun, Earth, and moon to demonstrate moon phases and lunar and solar eclipses.


Demonstrate understanding of regular and irregular polygons including: classifying types of triangles; comparing side lengths; comparing angle measures; differentiating between regular and irregular polygons; analyzing for congruence. [C, CN, R, V]


Construct a timeline of Canadian and worldwide space exploration programs related to living and working in space, including collaborative efforts among countries.


Investigate how astronauts are able to meet their basic needs (e.g., food, water, shelter, and waste elimination) while living and working in space.


Research the various work roles and worldwide locations required to support human spaceflight programs.


Describe instances where scientific ideas and discoveries have led to new inventions and applications (e.g., lunar buggy, space shuttle, Canadarm, Dextre, and the International Space Station) that support human exploration of space and which have extended scientific knowledge related to living and working in space.


Identify potential personal, societal, technological, and environmental barriers to living and working in space.


Investigate the work being done in preparation for future space travel and make predictions about future achievements related to living and working in space.


Demonstrate understanding of the first quadrant of the Cartesian plane and ordered pairs with whole number coordinates. [C, CN, V]


Demonstrate understanding of single, and combinations of, transformations of 2-D shapes (with and without the use of technology) including: identifying; describing; performing. [C, CN, R, T, V]