Saskatchewan Curriculum — Grade 7

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Set and achieve short-term and long-term goals to improve viewing, listening, reading, representing, speaking, and writing strategies.


Appraise own and others' work for clarity and correctness.


Create various visual, oral, written, and multimedia (including digital) texts that explore identity (e.g., Exploring Thoughts, Feelings, and Ideas), social responsibility (e.g., Taking Action), and efficacy (e.g., Building a Better World).


Create and present a teacher-guided inquiry project related to a topic, theme, or issue studies in English English.


Select and use the appropriate strategies to communicate meaning before (e.g., planning and organizing ideas to fit format), during (e.g., using transition words), and after (e.g., revising to eliminate unnecessary repetition) speaking, writing and other representing activities...


Use pragmatic (e.g., use language that demonstrates respect for others), textual (e.g., use common organizational patterns within texts), syntactical (e.g., ensure agreement of subjects, verbs and pronouns), semantic/lexical/morphological (e.g., avoid overused and misused words), graphophonic (e.g., enunciate clearly), and other cues (e.g., use appropriate gestures and facial expression) to construct and to communicate meaning.


Create and present a variety of representations including visual and multimedia presentations such as displays, illustrations, and videos, and enhance communication with appropriate graphic organizers, charts, circle graphs, timelines, maps, and sound effects.


Use oral language to interact purposefully and appropriately with others in pairs, small groups, and large group situations (e.g., contributing to sustaining dialogue, expressing support for others and their viewpoints, discussing and analyzing ideas and opinions, completing a variety of tasks, and contributing to group concensus building).


Use oral language to effectively express information and ideas of some complexity in formal and informal situations (e.g., a procedural description based on personal experience, a demonstration, a persuasive speech, a dramatization).


Write to describe a person; to narrate an imaginary incident or story; to explain and inform in a news story; a factual account, and a business letter; to persuade in a letter and in interpretation of a text).


Experiment with a variety of text forms (e.g., meeting, presentation to adults, descriptive poem, opinion piece, a review, front page of a newspaper, short script) and techniques (e.g., dialogue, figurative language).


View, listen to, read, comprehend, and respond to a variety of texts that address identity (e.g., Thinking of Oneself), social responsibility (e.g., Participating and Giving our Personal Best), and efficacy (e.g., Doing our Part for the Planet Earth).


Select and use appropriate strategies to construct meaning before (e.g., formulating questions), during (e.g., recognizing organizational structure), and after (e.g., making judgements supported by evidence) viewing, listening, and reading.


Use pragmatic (e.g., author's purpose and point of view), textual (e.g., how author organized text), syntactic (e.g., main and subordinate ideas), semantic/lexical/morphological (e.g., figurative language and specific word meanings by their context, common affixes and allusions), graphophonic (e.g., word patterns), and other cues (e.g., non-verbal cues, headings, charts and diagrams) to construct and confirm meaning when viewing, listening, and reading.


View and demonstrate comprehension and interpretation of visual and multimedia texts with specific features (e.g., circle graphs) and complex ideas including the visual components of media such as magazines, newspapers, websites, reference books, graphic novels, broadcast media, videos and promotional materials.


Listen critically to understand and analyze oral information and ideas from a wide range of texts (e.g., complex instructions, oral explanations and reports, opinions or viewpoints, messages presented in the media).


Read and demonstrate comprehension and interpretation of grade-appropriate texts including traditional and contemporary prose fiction, poetry, and plays from First Nations, Metis, and other cultures including thoughtful and critical response to content and craft.


Read independently and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of specialized information texts including nonfiction books, grade level instructional materials, reports, reference materials, instructions, advertising and promotional materials, and websites.


Read grade 7 appropriate texts to increase fluency (130-170 wcpm orally; 170-220 silently) and expression.


Locate the continents and significant physical features (e.g., landforms, water bodies, climatic zones, vegetation zones) on a world map.


Locate and identify Treaty territories on a map of Canada.


Describe the nature of the physical, political, and population geography of Pacific and northern Canada, and of a selection of Pacific Rim and circumpolar countries using data from various maps, charts, and graphs.


Construct generalizations about the nature of the physical, political, and population geography in Pacific and northern Canada, and in a selection of Pacific Rim and circumpolar countries.


Identify the influence of physical features such as water bodies, topography, and natural resources on the location of people in Pacific and northern Canada (including the traditional homelands of indigenous peoples) and in a selection of Pacific Rim and circumpolar countries.


Examine the effects of humans and their technology on the natural environment in Canada, and in a selection of Pacific Rim and circumpolar countries, including the consequences for indigenous peoples who inhabit those regions (e.g., over harvesting of salmon fishery, increased incidence of severe weather, influence of logging industry on the natural world and ecosystems, effects of deforestation and coral removal, and efforts to reclaim shorelines and restore the natural barriers).


Trace examples of current effects of climate change on the movement of peoples (e.g., melting of the polar icecap and greater accessibility to the North-West Passage and the oil underneath) and hypothesize about the potential effects of climate change on the movement of peoples in the future.


Relate current issues to location by using physical maps, political maps, and population maps of Canada, and a selection of Pacific Rim and circumpolar countries in order to understand the role of geography in shaping political events (e.g., sovereignty over the North-West Passage, Western intervention in other countries, political alliances, adoption of a system of government) and economic activity (e.g., economic alliances, trading partners, exploitation of resources, impact of the reserve system on First Nations populations) in Canada, and a selection of Pacific Rim and circumpolar countries.


Analyze the influence of contact with another culture on the Aboriginal peoples of Canada, circumpolar countries, and a selection of Pacific Rim countries (e.g., the influence of Europeans on the indigenous peoples of Canada, Mexico, and Australia).


Assess the effects of relocations and deportations of affected groups in Canada, and in circumpolar and Pacific Rim countries (e.g., the Acadian deportation, the treatment of European immigrants during WWI, the internment of Japanese-Canadians in WW2, First Nations children in Canada and Australia abducted from their homes to attend residential schools).


Investigate relationships within and among select circumpolar and Pacific Rim countries to determine reasons for current political and economic relationships.


Debate the positions of circumpolar and Pacific Rim countries with respect to climate change.


Trace the development of plate tectonics theory as an explanation for movement of Earth's lithosphere in light of new geological evidence, including knowledge of tectonic plates and movement at plate boundaries.


Provide examples of past theories and ideas, including cultural mythology, that explain geological phenomena such as volcanic activity, earthquakes, and mountain building.


Construct a visual representation of the composition of Earth, including the crust, upper and lower mantle, core, and inner core.


Create models or simulations of the processes of mountain formation and the folding and faulting of Earth's surface, including movements at diverging, converging, and transform plate boundaries.


Describe societal and environmental impacts of some catastrophic geological events, including earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, which have occurred on or near Earth's surface and predict the impacts of future events.


Work cooperatively with group members to research catastrophic geological events and integrate individual findings into a chronological model or time scale of major events in Earth's geological history.


Organize data on the geographical and chronological distribution of earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions to determine patterns and trends in data and relationships among variables.


Explain the operation of tools scientists use to measure and describe the effects of catastrophic geological events, including earthquakes and volcanoes (e.g., seismograph, Mercalli intensity scale, and Richter magnitude scale).


Provide examples of how science and technology affect self and community through understanding, predicting, and minimizing the effects of catastrophic geological events (e.g., earthquake resistant construction, earthquake and tsunami preparedness, and minimizing climatic effects of volcanic eruptions).


Identify questions to investigate arising from practical problems and issues related to the study of Earth's geological resources (e.g., What types of rocks are best for cement-making or road construction? and What are some environmental concerns related to open-pit mining?).


Distinguish between rocks and minerals using physical samples, pictures, and/or video recordings and identify the minerals most often found in rocks in Saskatchewan and around the world (e.g., quartz, calcite, feldspar, mica, hornblende).


Classify rocks and minerals based on physical properties such as colour, hardness, cleavage, lustre, and streak.


Identify locations of Saskatchewan's primary mineral resources (e.g., potash, gold, diamond, salt, uranium, copper, and graphite) and their primary uses.


Relate processes used to extract primary mineral resources in Saskatchewan (e.g., open-pit mining, underground mining, and solution mining) to the location, type, and depth of the resource.


Provide examples of technologies used to further scientific research related to extracting geological resources (e.g., satellite imaging, magnetometer, and core sample drilling).


Evaluate different approaches taken to answer questions, solve problems, and make decisions when searching for geological resources within Earth (e.g., trial-and-error prospecting versus core sampling).


Suggest solutions to economic and environmental issues related to the extraction of geological resources in Saskatchewan (e.g., managing mine tailings and pollutants; reclaiming open pit mining sites; ecological impact of pipelines; resource depletion; maintaining water quality; and increasing urbanization).


Identify uses for rocks and minerals, such as healing, recuperative powers, and ceremonies, which include ideas not explained by science.


Research Saskatchewan careers directly and indirectly related to resource exploration.


Model the processes of formation of the three major types of rocks: sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic.


Explain how geologists use the fossil record to provide evidence of geological history.


Construct a visual representation of the rock cycle (e.g., formation, weathering, sedimentation, and reformation) and relate this representation to the surface geology of Saskatchewan and Canada.


Develop and use a classification key for rocks based on physical characteristics and method of formation.


Describe examples of mechanical and chemical weathering of rocks.


Differentiate between weathering and erosion, and explain the role of water in each process.


Document the natural surface geological features of the local environment and provide explanations for the origin of those features.


Relate mechanical (e.g., wind and water), chemical (e.g., acid rain and rusting), and biological (e.g., lichens, mosses, and tree roots) weathering processes to the formation of soils.


Collect, with permission, and examine samples of local soils to determine their physical properties (e.g., colour, odour, texture, presence of organic matter, pore size, and air and water holding capacity).


Classify soil samples according to their characteristics (e.g., sand, loam, and clay composition) and research ways to enrich soils for specific uses (e.g., vegetable garden, road building, dam construction, waste management, and sports field).


Identify predominant soil types (e.g., black, dark brown, brown, and grey) and corresponding land uses in Saskatchewan.


Assess environmental and economic impacts of past and current land use practices in Saskatchewan (e.g., agriculture, urban development, recreation, and road construction), and describe intended and unintended consequences of those practices on self, society, and the environment, including soil degradation.


Illustrate the historical development and the underlying scientific principles of technologies designed to address practical problems regarding human heating and cooling needs for food, shelter, and clothing (e.g., oven mitts, survival suits, air conditioning, central heating, thermos, refrigerators, stoves, heaters, home insulation, fleece jackets, and toques).


Communicate questions, ideas, intentions, plans, and results of inquiries related to heat transmission using lists, notes in point form, sentences, data tables, graphs, drawings, oral language, and other means.


Analyze the impact of the design and function of a heating- or cooling-related technology on self and society.


Compare, in qualitative terms, the heat capacities of some common materials, including water, and explain how heat capacity influences choices of materials used in the development of technologies related to clothing, food, and shelter.


Evaluate the efficiency of different types of home insulation (e.g., sod, straw bales, fibreglass, cellulose, mineral wool, polystyrene, and polyurethane foam) with respect to criteria such as R-value, cost, and resistance to water and air infiltration.


Use a technological problem-solving process to design, construct, and evaluate a prototype of a device that will provide a solution to a practical problem related to heating or cooling (e.g., cooking food, keeping food warm or cool for an extended period, keeping a shelter warm or cool, keeping a person warm or cool).


Assess the design of a personally constructed heating or cooling prototype using collaboratively developed criteria.


Provide examples of problems related to heating and cooling that arise at home, in an industrial setting, or in the environment, that cannot be solved using scientific and technological knowledge.


Create a photo journal of science- and technology-based careers in the community related to heating and cooling, such as heating systems and equipment contractors, and boiler engineers.


Provide examples from daily life that illustrate the effects of heating and cooling on solids, liquids, and gases.


Conduct experiments to determine the effects of changes in temperature on solids, liquids, and gases.


Construct and label a heating curve for water, using student-collected data, indicating states of matter and changes of state.


Create a visual or dramatic representation to explain changes of state of matter (e.g., melting, freezing, evaporation, condensation, and sublimation) according to the particle model of matter.


Choose appropriate instruments (e.g. alcohol thermometer, temperature probe, and thermocouple) and use them safely, effectively, and accurately for collecting temperature data when investigating states of matter and changes of state.


Trace the historical development of different scales (e.g., Kelvin, Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Rankine) and instruments used to measure temperature (e.g., liquid-in-glass thermometers, bi-metallic strips, digital thermometers, liquid crystal thermometers, thermocouples, and computer sensors) and discuss the need for standardized measurements of temperature.


Distinguish between heat and temperature using the concept of kinetic energy and the particle model of matter.


Explain how evidence gathered while investigating states of matter and changes in states of matter supports or refutes the particle theory of matter.


Demonstrate and explain how heat is transferred by the processes of conduction, convection, and radiation in solids, liquids, and gases.


Construct a visual or dramatic representation of heat transfer via conduction in a solid.


Model convection currents in fluids (liquid or gas) and discuss the effectiveness of the model.


Assess the impacts on self, society, and the environment, of conduction, convection, and radiation in the natural and constructed world (e.g., heating over cities, temperature layers in lakes, thunderstorms, radiant heaters, refrigerators, and convection currents in air or water).


Evaluate applications of technologies designed to enhance or restrict the transfer of heat energy via conduction, convection, or radiation (e.g., metal frying pans, radiant heaters, home insulation, ovens, convection ovens, thermoses, winter parkas, and heat exchangers) using student-developed criteria.


Design and carry out an experiment to determine differences in the ability of various surfaces to absorb and reflect radiant heat.


Select appropriate methods and tools for collecting and displaying data and information related to radiant heat.


Demonstrate safe and responsible work practices, including keeping the work area uncluttered with only appropriate materials present when investigating heat transfer via conduction, convection, and radiation.


Gather information about traditional Indigenous practices with respect to the relationships and connections between people and their ecological environment.


Examine key aspects of Indigenous knowledge and First Nations and Mtis people's practices that contribute to understanding of ecosystems and the interactions of their components.


Provide specific examples of Indigenous knowledge in understanding the components of their ecosystems.


Describe the ways that traditional Indigenous knowledge about respect and responsibility for the land, self, and others has been transmitted over many years, including the oral tradition.


Illustrate the ecological organization of life within the biosphere, using specific examples of species, populations, communities, ecosystems, and biomes.


Provide examples of ecosystems of varying sizes and locations, including their biotic and abiotic components.


Conduct a field study to observe, record (using sketches, notes, tables, photographs, and/or video recordings), and identify biotic and abiotic components of a local ecosystem.


Show respect for all forms of life when examining ecosystems.


Examine the biotic and abiotic components of distant ecosystems using photographs, videos, or online resources.


Choose and use appropriate instruments (e.g., magnifying glass, thermometer, light meter, hand-held microscope, and digital camera) safely, effectively, and accurately to observe and illustrate biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems.


Classify organisms in a variety of ecosystems as producers, consumers, or decomposers and further classify consumers as herbivores, carnivores, or omnivores.


Interpret interdependence within natural systems by constructing food chains and food webs to illustrate the interactions among producers, consumers, and decomposers in a particular ecosystem.


Construct a classification key, using appropriate scientific terminology, which will enable classmates to differentiate between producers, consumers, and decomposers.


Illustrate how energy is supplied to and flows through a food web using the concept of ecological pyramids (e.g., pyramid of energy, pyramid of numbers, and pyramid of biomass).


Model the carbon, nitrogen, and water cycles to illustrate how matter cycles through ecosystems.


Analyze the strengths and limitations of models in science generally, and then apply these criteria to evaluate the efficacy of a student model of a biogeochemical cycle.


Explain the role of decomposers in recycling matter in an ecosystem.


Describe examples of how scientists collect evidence, search for patterns and relationships in data, and propose explanations to further the development of scientific knowledge about energy and matter flow in ecosystems.


Design and conduct an experiment to investigate the conditions essential for the growth of plants (e.g., determine whether nutrients in soil are sufficient to support plant growth, determine the influence of sunlight or other forms of light on plant growth).


Consider observations and ideas from a variety of sources during investigations and before drawing conclusions related to biogeochemical cycles.


Describe how energy passes through ecosystems during the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration.


Identify and evaluate potential impacts on energy flow and the cycling of matter by the removal of one or more living organisms from a specific ecosystem.


Provide examples of scientific knowledge that have resulted in the development of technologies designed to assist in managing aspects of ecosystems (e.g., understanding the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium on plant growth led to the production of specific formulations of fertilizers, knowledge of how micro-organisms help break down matter led to the development of composting bins).


Identify evidence of ecological succession in ecosystems, using the concepts of pioneer species, climax community, primary succession, and secondary succession, and by identifying changes in plant and animal life in the ecosystem.


Predict what a specific ecosystem (e.g., clear-cut forest, abandoned sports field, abandoned farm yard, abandoned rail line, ditch, driveway, or sidewalk) will look like in the future (e.g., 5, 10, and 25 years) based on characteristics of the area and long-term changes observed in similar ecosystems.


Identify and refine questions and problems related to the effects of natural or human influences on a particular ecosystem.


Be sensitive and responsible in maintaining a balance between human needs and a sustainable environment by considering both immediate and long-term effects of their course of action or stated position.


Provide specific examples to illustrate that scientific and technological activities related to ecosystems take place in a variety of individual or group settings, locally and globally, and by men and women from a variety of cultural backgrounds (e.g., individual and community gardening, impact studies done by environmental engineers, and research done by teams of international scientists).


Examine the mission, goals, and structure of an organization whose mandate is national or international co-operation (e.g., United Nations, NORAD, NAFTA, APEC, Organization of American States, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Western Aboriginal Development Alliance).


Critique the influence of an organization with a mandate for national or international co-operation in terms of its contributions toward conflict, cooperation, self-reliance, and interdependence.


Diagnose reasons for a current or historical conflict involving Canada and a circumpolar or Pacific Rim country.


Create an inventory illustrating the interdependence of Canada and circumpolar and Pacific Rim countries.


Investigate the international links of a Saskatchewan business.


Define globalization, and identify examples of globalization in the local community.


Analyze the economic impact of globalization in relation to the effects on the environment.


Articulate and interpret the main arguments for and against globalization.


Analyze the risks and benefits related to various technologies.


Develop an argument that addresses the impact of technology and globalization on societies.


Examine a variety of objects and materials, and record qualitative (e.g., colour, texture, and state of matter) and quantitative (e.g., density, melting point, and freezing point) physical properties of those objects in a chart or data table.


Describe the characteristics of pure substances, mechanical mixtures, and solutions.


Construct a graphic organizer for the classification of matter that includes mixtures, pure substances, elements, compounds, mechanical mixtures, and solutions.


Classify common substances (e.g., Kool-Aid, vinegar, bubble bath, soft drinks, juice, chocolate chip cookies, salad dressings, hand lotion, shampoos, tea, bread, soil, and concrete) as pure substances, mechanical mixtures, or solutions.


Listen to and consider the ideas of classmates when classifying materials as pure substances or mixtures.


Create mechanical mixtures and solutions using common materials and compare the physical properties of the original materials and the resultant mixture or solution.


State the four main ideas of the particle model of matter.


Create models and/or physical representations that depict the nature of particles in pure substances, mechanical mixtures, and solutions according to the particle model of matter.


Analyze the usefulness of personally constructed representations of particles and the strengths and limitations of models in science generally.


Generate questions related to differences between mixtures and solutions and rephrase in a testable form (e.g., rephrase a question such as How sweet is iced tea? to What is the most iced tea that can be dissolved in 500 mL of water at 23C?).


Describe methods used to separate the components of mechanical mixtures and solutions, including mechanical sorting, filtration, evaporation, distillation, magnetism, and chromatography.


Trace the historical development of a technology or process used to separate mixtures (e.g., settling, sifting, filtering, fusion, distillation, and chromatography).


Describe common household examples of technologies that are used to separate components of mechanical mixtures or solutions (e.g., kitchen strainer, oil and air filters).


Design and conduct an experiment to determine the effectiveness and/or efficiency of one or more methods of separating mechanical mixtures and solutions.


Report the strengths and limitations of a chosen experimental design to determine the effectiveness and/or efficiency of one or more methods of separating mechanical mixtures and solutions.


Use tools and apparatus (e.g., safety glasses, glassware, and Bunsen burners) safely when conducting investigations into methods of separating mixtures.


Demonstrate knowledge of WHMIS standards by using proper techniques for handling and disposing of lab materials and following warning label symbols, including common household product symbols, when separating mixtures.


Describe the scientific principles underlying a past or present industrial technology designed to separate mixtures (e.g., petroleum refining, sewage treatment plant, recycling station, combine, and cream separator).


Discuss intended and unintended consequences of a particular industrial or agricultural technology or process used for separating materials.


Use a technological problem-solving process to design, construct, and evaluate a prototype of a process or device for separating a mechanical mixture or solution (e.g., purifying drinking water, separating household waste).


Identify new questions and problems that arise from what was learned about solutions and mixtures (e.g., Are there mixtures that cannot be separated?, What techniques are used to remove pollutants from air and water?), including questions that science cannot answer.


Provide examples of solid, liquid, and gaseous solutions and identify which substance is the solute and which is the solvent in each solution.


Describe the characteristics of solutions using the terms solute, solvent, soluble, and insoluble, based on the particle model of matter.


Create and describe the concentration of student-prepared dilute, concentrated, saturated, and supersaturated solutions using those qualitative terms and quantitative measurements (e.g., parts per million [ppm], g/L, and g/100 mL).


Value accuracy, precision, and honesty when collecting and reporting data related to concentrations of solutions.


Investigate the factors that determine how quickly a solute dissolves in a solvent.


Gather and interpret information from various resources (e.g., nutrition labels on foods, newspaper or magazine articles) related to solutions and concentrations of solutions.


Design and implement an experiment to investigate the effect of temperature on the solubility of a solution.


Predict the solubility of a solute by interpolating or extrapolating from student-generated solubility curves.


Analyze the effects of technological inventions or processes related to solutions (e.g., water softeners, water treatment plants, solution mining, agricultural sprays, insecticides, bleaches, and drain cleaners) on self, community, and the environment.


Research how various science disciplines and engineering fields study and apply scientific knowledge related to solutions.


Students will demonstrate an understanding of division through the development and application of divisibility strategies for 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 10, and through an analysis of division involving zero. [C, CN, ME, R]


Students will expand and demonstrate understanding of the addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of decimals to greater numbers of decimal places, and the order of operations. [C, CN, ME, PS, R, T]


Students will demonstrate an understanding of the relationships between positive decimals, positive fractions (including mixed numbers, proper fractions and improper fractions), and whole numbers. [C, CN, ME, R, T]


Students will expand and demonstrate an understanding of percent to include fractional percents between 1% and 100%. [C, PS, R]


Students will develop and demonstrate an understanding of adding and subtracting positive fractions and mixed numbers, with like and unlike denominators, concretely, pictorially, and symbolically (limited to positive sums and differences). [C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]


Students will demonstrate an understanding of addition and subtraction of integers, concretely, pictorially and symbolically. [C, CN, PS, R, V]


Students will demonstrate an understanding of the relationships between oral and written patterns, graphs and linear relations. [C, CN, R]


Students will demonstrate an understanding of equations and expressions by: distinguishing between equations and expressions; evaluating expressions; verifying solutions to equations. [C, CN, ME]


Students will demonstrate an understanding of one- and two-step linear equations of the form ax / b + c = d (where a, b, c, and d are whole numbers, c is less than or equal to d and b is not equal to 0) by modeling the solution of the equations concretely, pictorially, physically, and symbolically and explaining the solution in terms of the preservation of equality. [C, CN, PS, R, V]


Students will demonstrate an understanding of linear equations of the form x + a = b (where a and b are integers) by modeling problems as a linear equation and solving the problems concretely, pictorially, and symbolically. [C, CN, PS, R, V]


Describe the source of power (resources, numbers, organization) and forms of power (force, authority, influence) used by individuals in a position of leadership in the local community or a local organization.


Analyze the sources of power, including organization, resources (technological, human, and military), and numbers, evidenced in the exercise of power by an individual, organization, or nation as described in a current events article.


Assess the sources of power held by the First Nations and the Europeans respectively in the negotiations of the treaty which governs the local area.


Analyze the sources of power of a national leader of a Pacific Rim or circumpolar country.


Survey the principles of democracy as defined by family, school, and community members, and synthesize into a definition of democracy.


Compare the responsibilities of municipal, provincial or territorial, and federal and First Nations governments in Canada.


Investigate the federal, provincial or territorial, or local election processes in Canada.


Chart the structures of Canadian government at the local, provincial, and national levels.


Examine the systems of government of circumpolar or Pacific Rim countries which are not democracies (e.g., China, North Korea, Vietnam, Fiji).


Contrast the systems of government of the non-democracies in circumpolar and Pacific Rim countries with Canada'ss system of government.


Identify the criteria by which countries are described as dictatorships, oligarchies, or democracies.


Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of democracy, oligarchy, and dictatorship as systems of government.


Question whether economies based on barter, trade, and sharing are sustainable.


Formulate a definition of a natural resource, and differentiate between renewable and non-renewable resources.


Identify the locations of natural resources of circumpolar and Pacific Rim countries using appropriate maps, and analyse the impact of the resources on local communities.


Correlate the presence of resources and industries to the gross national product of circumpolar and Pacific Rim countries.


Students will demonstrate an understanding of the measures of central tendency and range for sets of data. [C, CN, PS, R, T]


Students will demonstrate an understanding of circle graphs. [C, CN, PS, R, T, V]


Students will demonstrate an understanding of theoretical and experimental probabilities for two independent events where the combined sample space has 36 or fewer elements. [C, ME, PS R, T]


Students will demonstrate an understanding of circles including circumference and central angles. [C, CN, R, V]


Students will develop and apply formulas for determining the area of: triangles; parallelograms; circles. [CN, PS, R, V]


Students will demonstrate an understanding of 2-D relationships involving lines and angles. [CN, R, V, T]


Students will demonstrate an understanding of the Cartesian plane and ordered pairs with integral coordinates. [C, CN, V]


Students will expand and demonstrate an understanding of transformations (translations, rotations, and reflections) of 2-D shapes in all four quadrants of the Cartesian plane. [CN, PS, T, V]