New York Science Standards (1996) — Grade 11

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Explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them. i use models to describe the structure of an atom ii relate experimental evidence (given in the introduction of Key Idea 3) to models of the atom iii determine the number of protons or electrons in an atom or ion when given one of these values iv calculate the mass of an atom, the number of neutrons or the number of protons, given the other two values v distinguish between ground state and excited state electron configurations, e.g., 2-8-2 vs. 2-7-3 vi identify an element by comparing its bright-line spectrum to given spectra vii distinguish between valence and non-valence electrons, given an electron configuration, e.g., 2-8-2 viii draw a Lewis electron-dot structure of an atom ix determine decay mode and write nuclear equations showing alpha and beta decay x interpret and write isotopic notation xi given an atomic mass, determine the most abundant isotope xii calculate the atomic mass of an element, given the masses and ratios of naturally occurring isotopes xiii classify elements as metals, nonmetals, metalloids, or noble gases by their properties xiv compare and contrast properties of elements within a group or a period for Groups 1, 2, 13-18 on the Periodic Table xv determine the group of an element, given the chemical formula of a compound, e.g., XCl or XCl2 xvi explain the placement of an unknown element on the Periodic Table based on its properties xvii classify an organic compound based on its structural or condensed structural formula O (i.e., CH3COOH or -C-C-OH) xviii describe the states of the elements at STP xix distinguish among ionic, molecular, and metallic substances, given their properties xx draw a structural formula with the functional group(s) on a straight chain hydrocarbon backbone, when given the IUPAC name for the compound xxi draw structural formulas for alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes containing a maximum of ten carbon atoms xxii use a simple particle model to differentiate among properties of solids, liquids, and gases xxiii compare the entropy of phases of matter xxiv describe the processes and uses of filtration, distillation, and chromatography in the separation of a mixture xxv interpret and construct solubility curves xxvi apply the adage ?like dissolves like? to real-world situations xxviiinterpret solution concentration data xxviii use solubility curves to distinguish among saturated, supersaturated, and unsaturated solutions xxix calculate solution concentration in molarity (M), percent mass, and parts per million (ppm) xxx describe the preparation of a solution, given the molarity xxxi given properties, identify substances as Arrhenius acids or Arrhenius bases xxxii identify solutions as acid, base, or neutral based upon the pH xxxiii interpret changes in acid-base indicator color xxxiv write simple neutralization reactions when given the reactants xxxv calculate the concentration or volume of a solution, using titration data xxxvi use particle models/diagrams to differentiate among elements, compounds, and mixtures


Use atomic and molecular models to explain common chemical reactions. i distinguish between chemical and physical changes ii identify types of chemical reactions iii determine a missing reactant or product in a balanced equation iv identify organic reactions v balance equations, given the formulas of reactants and products vi write and balance half-reactions for oxidation and reduction of free elements and their monatomic ions vii identify and label the parts of a voltaic cell (cathode, anode, salt bridge) and direction of electron flow, given the reaction equation viii identify and label the parts of an electrolytic cell (cathode, anode) and direction of electron flow, given the reaction equation ix compare and contrast voltaic and electrolytic cells x use an activity series to determine whether a redox reaction is spontaneous


Apply the principle of conservation of mass to chemical reactions. i balance equations, given the formulas for reactants and products ii interpret balanced chemical equations in terms of conservation of matter and energy iii create and use models of particles to demonstrate balanced equations iv calculate simple mole-mole stoichiometry problems, given a balanced equation v determine the empirical formula from a molecular formula vi determine the mass of a given number of moles of a substance vii determine the molecular formula, given the empirical formula and the molecular mass viii calculate the formula mass and gram-formula mass ix determine the number of moles of a substance, given its mass


Use kinetic molecular theory (KMT) to explain rates of reactions and the relationships among temperature, pressure, and volume of a substance. i explain the gas laws in terms of KMT ii solve problems, using the combined gas laws iii convert temperatures in Celsius degrees (oC) to kelvins (K), and kelvins to Celsius degrees iv describe the concentration of particles and rates of opposing reactions in an equilibrium system v qualitatively describe the effect of stress on equilibrium, using LeChatelier?s principle vi use collision theory to explain how various factors, such as temperature, surface area, and concentration, influence the rate of reaction vii identify examples of physical equilibria as solution equilibrium and phase equilibrium, including the concept that a saturated solution is at equilibrium


Observe and describe transmission of various forms of energy. i distinguish between endothermic and exothermic reactions, using energy terms in a reaction equation, ?H, potential energy diagrams, or experimental data ii read and interpret potential energy diagrams: PE reactants, PE products, activation energy (with or without a catalyst), heat of reaction


Explain heat in terms of kinetic molecular theory. i distinguish between heat energy and temperature in terms of molecular motion and amount of matter ii explain phase change in terms of the changes in energy and intermolecular distances iii qualitatively interpret heating and cooling curves in terms of changes in kinetic and potential energy, heat of vaporization, heat of fusion, and phase changes iv calculate the heat involved in a phase or temperature change for a given sample of matter


Explain the benefits and risks of radioactivity. i calculate the initial amount, the fraction remaining, or the halflife of a radioactive isotope, given two of the three variables ii compare and contrast fission and fusion reactions iii complete nuclear equations; predict missing particles from nuclear equations iv identify specific uses of some common radioisotopes, such as I-131 in diagnosing and treating thyroid disorders, C-14 to C-12 ratio in dating once-living organisms, U-238 to Pb-206 ratio in dating geological formations, and Co-60 in treating cancer


Students will explain chemical bonding in terms of the behavior of electrons. i demonstrate bonding concepts, using Lewis dot structures representing valence electrons: ? transferred (ionic bonding) ? shared (covalent bonding) ? in a stable octet ii compare the physical properties of substances based on chemical bonds and intermolecular forces, e.g., conductivity, malleability, solubility, hardness, melting point, and boiling point iii explain vapor pressure, evaporation rate, and phase changes in terms of intermolecular forces iv determine the noble gas configuration an atom will achieve by bonding v distinguish between nonpolar covalent bonds (two of the same nonmetals) and polar covalent bonds


Explain complex phenomena, such as tides, variations in day length, solar insolation, apparent motion of the planets, and annual traverse of the constellations.


Describe current theories about the origin of the universe and solar system.


Use the concepts of density and heat energy to explain observations of weather patterns, seasonal changes, and the movements of Earth?s plates.


Explain how incoming solar radiation, ocean currents, and land masses affect weather and climate.


Explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.


Elaborate on basic scientific and personal explanations of natural phenomena, and develop extended visual models and mathematical formulations to represent one?s thinking.


Hone ideas through reasoning, library research, and discussion with others, including experts.


Work toward reconciling competing explanations; clarify points of agreement and disagreement.


Coordinate explanations at different levels of scale, points of focus, and degrees of complexity and specificity, and recognize the need for such alternative representations of the natural world.


Describe the range of interrelationships of humans with the living and nonliving environment.


Explain the impact of technological development and growth in the human population on the living and nonliving environment.


Explain how individual choices and societal actions can contribute to improving the environment.


Devise ways of making observations to test proposed explanations.


Refine research ideas through library investigations, including electronic information retrieval and reviews of the literature, and through peer feedback obtained from review and discussion


Develop and present proposals including formal hypotheses to test explanations; i.e., predict what should be observed under specific conditions if the explanation is true.


Carry out a research plan for testing explanations, including selecting and developing techniques, acquiring and building apparatus, and recording observations as necessary.


Use various methods of representing and organizing observations (e.g., diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, equations, matrices) and insightfully interpret the organized data.


Apply statistical analysis techniques when appropriate to test if chance alone explains the results.


Assess correspondence between the predicted result contained in the hypothesis and actual result, and reach a conclusion as to whether the explanation on which the prediction was based is supported.


Based on the results of the test and through public discussion, revise the explanation and contemplate additional research.


Develop a written report for public scrutiny that describes the proposed explanation, including a literature review, the research carried out, its result, and suggestions for further research.


Explain how diversity of populations within ecosystems relates to the stability of ecosystems.


Describe and explain the structures and functions of the human body at different organizational levels (e.g., systems, tissues, cells, organelles).


Explain how a one-celled organism is able to function despite lacking the levels of organization present in more complex organisms.


Explain how the structure and replication of genetic material result in offspring that resemble their parents.


Explain how the technology of genetic engineering allows humans to alter genetic makeup of organisms.


Explain the mechanisms and patterns of evolution.


Explain how organisms, including humans, reproduce their own kind.


Explain the basic biochemical processes in living organisms and their importance in maintaining dynamic equilibrium


Explain disease as a failure of homeostasis.


Relate processes at the system level to the cellular level in order to explain dynamic equilibrium in multicelled organisms.


Explain factors that limit growth of individuals and populations.


Explain the importance of preserving diversity of species and habitats.


Explain how the living and nonliving environments change over time and respond to disturbances.


Explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.


Use atomic and molecular models to explain common chemical reactions.


Apply the principle of conservation of mass to chemical reactions


Use kinetic molecular theory (KMT) to explain rates of reactions and the relationships among temperature, pressure, and volume of a substance


Observe and describe transmission of various forms of energy.


Explain heat in terms of kinetic molecular theory


Explain the benefits and risks of radioactivity.


Explain chemical bonding in terms of the behavior of electrons.


Compare energy relationships within an atom's nucleus to those outside the nucleus.


Students can observe and describe transmission of various forms of energy.


Students can explain variations in wavelength and frequency in terms of the source of the vibrations that produce them, e.g., molecules, electrons, and nuclear particles.


Students can explain and predict different patterns of motion of objects (e.g., linear and uniform circular motion, velocity and acceleration, momentum and inertia).


Students can compare energy relationships within an atom?s nucleus to those outside the nucleus.