New York Science Standards (1996) — Grade K

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Equilibrium is a state of stability due either to a lack of changes (static equilibrium) or a balance between opposing forces (dynamic equilibrium).


Identifying patterns of change is necessary for making predictions about future behavior and conditions


Information technology is used to retrieve, process, and communicate information and as a tool to enhance learning.


Knowledge of the impacts and limitations of information systems is essential to its effectiveness and ethical use


Information technology can have positive and negative impacts on society, depending upon how it is used.


Models are simplified representations of objects, structures, or systems, used in analysis, explanation, or design.


The knowledge and skills of mathematics, science, and technology are used together to make informed decisions and solve problems, especially those relating to issues of science/technology/society, consumer decision making, design, and inquiry into phenomena


Solving interdisciplinary problems involves a variety of skills and strategies, including effective work habits; gathering and processing information; generating and analyzing ideas; realizing ideas; making connections among the common themes of mathematics, science, and technology; and presenting results.


Describe the characteristics of and variations between living and nonliving things.


Describe the life processes common to all living things.


Recognize that traits of living things are both inherited and acquired or learned.


Describe how the structures of plants and animals complement the environment of the plant or animal.


Observe that differences within a species may give individuals an advantage in surviving and reproducing.


Describe the major stages in the life cycles of selected plants and animals


Describe evidence of growth, repair, and maintenance, such as nails, hair, and bone, and the healing of cuts and bruises.


Describe basic life functions of common living specimens (e.g., guppies, mealworms, gerbils).


Describe some survival behaviors of common living specimens.


Describe how plants and animals, including humans, depend upon each other and the nonliving environment.


Describe the factors that help promote good health and growth in humans


Describe the factors that help promote good health and growth in humans


Describe the relationship of the Sun as an energy source for living and nonliving cycles.


Describe the relationship of the Sun as an energy source for living and nonliving cycles.


Identify ways in which humans have changed their environment and the effects of those changes.


Abstraction and symbolic representation are used to communicate mathematically. Use special mathematical notation and symbolism to communicate in mathematics and to compare and describe quantities, express relationships, and relate mathematics to their immediate environment


Deductive and inductive reasoning are used to reach mathematical conclusions. Use simple logical reasoning to develop conclusions, recognizing that patterns and relationships present in the environment assist them in reaching these conclusions.


Critical thinking skills are used in the solution of mathematical problems. Explore and solve problems generated from school, home, and community situations, using concrete objects or manipulative materials when possible.


The grouping of magnitudes of size, time, frequency, and pressures or other units of measurement into a series of relative order provides a useful way to deal with the immense range and the changes in scale that affect behavior and design of systems.


In order to arrive at the best solution that meets criteria within constraints, it is often necessary to make trade-offs.


Describe patterns of daily, monthly, and seasonal changes in their environment.


Describe the relationship among air, water, and land on Earth.


Observe and describe properties of materials, using appropriate tools.


Describe chemical and physical changes, including changes in states of matter.


Describe a variety of forms of energy (e.g., heat, chemical, light) and the changes that occur in objects when they interact with those forms of energy


Observe the way one form of energy can be transferred into another form of energy present in common situations (e.g., mechanical to heat energy, mechanical to electrical energy, chemical to heat energy).


Describe the effects of common forces (pushes and pulls) of objects, such as those caused by gravity, magnetism, and mechanical forces.


Describe how forces can operate across distances.


Ask "why" questions in attempts to seek greater understanding concerning objects and events they have observed and heard about.


Question the explanations they hear from others and read about, seeking clarification and comparing them with their own observations and understandings.


Develop relationships among observations to construct descriptions of objects and events and to form their own tentative explanations of what they have observed.


Develop written plans for exploring phenomena or for evaluating explanations guided by questions or proposed explanations they have helped formulate.


Share their research plans with others and revise them based on their suggestions.


Carry out their plans for exploring phenomena through direct observation and through the use of simple instruments that permit measurement of quantities, such as length, mass, volume, temperature, and time.


Organize observations and measurements of objects and events through classification and the preparation of simple charts and tables.


Interpret organized observations and measurements, recognizing simple patterns, sequences, and relationships.


Share their findings with others and actively seek their interpretations and ideas.


Adjust their explanations and understandings of objects and events based on their findings and new ideas.


Through systems thinking, people can recognize the commonalities that exist among all systems and how parts of a system interrelate and combine to perform specific functions.

K-4T1 3

Generate ideas for possible solutions, individually and through group activity; apply age-appropriate mathematics and science skills; evaluate the ideas and determine the best solution; and explain reasons for the choices.


Describe objects, imaginary or real, that might be modeled or made differently and suggest ways in which the objects can be changed, fixed, or improved.


Investigate prior solutions and ideas from books, magazines, family, friends, neighbors, and community members.


Plan and build, under supervision, a model of the solution, using familiar materials, processes, and hand tools.


Discuss how best to test the solution; perform the test under teacher supervision; record and portray results through numerical and graphic means; discuss orally why things worked or didn?t work; and summarize results in writing, suggesting ways to make the solution better.