Indiana Learning Standards - Science — Grade 11

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AP 10.1

Describe the layers found in the walls of blood vessels and discuss the relative prominence of these layers in the different types of blood vessels. Include an analysis of vasoconstriction and vasodilation and their importance in controlling blood flow through tissues. Describe both the venous pump and varicose veins.

AP 10.2

Diagram the structure of a capillary bed and explain how materials move in and out of capillaries.

AP 10.3

Describe the heart and include the pericardium, the layers in its wall, the four chambers, the valves, and the great vessels entering and leaving the heart. Describe the major arteries branching off from the aorta and the regions they supply. Describe the major veins entering the superior and inferior venae cavae. Explain with diagrams how the heart valves ensure one-way blood flow during systole and diastole. Discuss the heart sounds and the points in the cardiac cycle when they are heard.

AP 10.4

Discuss the importance of the baroreceptor reflex in the regulation of blood pressure. Explain what is meant by hypertension and mention some of the dangers associated with it.

AP 10.5

Describe how the action potential of a cardiac muscle cell differs from that of a neuron. Describe the importance of calcium ion influx during the plateau phase of the action potential. Discuss the functioning of pacemaker cells and the how the wave of depolarization is transmitted to the ventricles.

AP 10.6

Explain the adjustment of the cardiovascular system to exercise and how it relates to hemorrhage. Contrast changes in the distribution of blood flow and cardiac output and explain the importance of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system in these responses.

AP 11.1

Discuss the major anatomical structures and functions of the lymphatic system including the lymphatic vessels, the structure and major groupings of lymph nodes, and the structures and functions of the spleen, thymus and bone marrow.

AP 11.2

Discuss the different types of pathogens and outline the strategies the body uses to protect itself from them. Compare and contrast non-specific, innate or natural immunity from specific or acquired immunity.

AP 11.3

Describe the mechanisms of the acute inflammatory response, its causes and the role of chemical signaling molecules.

AP 11.4

Describe the development and maturation of B- and T-lymphocytes. Discuss why the development of self-tolerance is important.

AP 11.5

Define and discuss antigens, antibodies and complement.

AP 12.1

Describe the functions of all the structural components and enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract and accessory organs in relation to the processing, digesting, and absorbing of the three major food classes.

AP 12.2

Explain the roles of the lacteals and the hepatic portal vein in transporting the products of digestion.

AP 12.3

Describe the regulation of the enzyme and bicarbonate content of the pancreatic juice.

AP 12.4

Explain the difference between metabolic and respiratory acidosis and alkalosis.

AP 12.5

Describe the microscopic anatomy of the liver and its relationship to the functions of the liver.

AP 13.1

Contrast inspiration and expiration (i.e., quiet and forced) and explain the role of various muscles and of lung elasticity in this process.

AP 13.2

Compare the percentages of the oxygen and carbon dioxide in the external air to the percentages in the alveolar and the pulmonary capillaries. Explain the meaning of partial pressure.

AP 13.3

Explain the use of the spirometer and describe the data it generates in a spirogram

AP 13.4

Describe the neuronal networks controlling respiration. Contrast and compare the chemoreceptors involved in control of respiration and the stimuli to which they respond. Explain how these receptors affect ventilation under conditions of low arterial oxygen partial pressure, high arterial carbon dioxide and low arterial pH.

AP 14.1

Describe the external and internal structure of the kidney. Describe the parts of a nephron and how it is involved in the three steps in the production of urine. Compare the composition of plasma and ultrafiltrate and discuss the percentages of filtered water, sodium and glucose normally reabsorbed by the kidney tubules.

AP 14.2

Explain the importance of the juxtaglomerular cells in the secretion of renin and how it plays a central role in controlling blood pressure by controlling blood levels of angiotensin and aldosterone.

AP 14.3

Explain the neural basis of micturition including the function of the sphincters associated with the male and female urethra.

AP 14.4

Discuss how the volume of body fluid is determined by the balance between ingested and metabolic water on the one hand and water lost in the urine, respiration, feces and sweating on the other hand.

AP 14.5

Describe how the kidneys respond to excess water intake and to dehydration. Explain the role of antidiuretic hormone and of other hormones that control sodium and water absorption in the kidney.

AP 14.6

Describe how food and metabolic processes add acid to the body fluids. Recognize how chemical buffers, the lungs and the kidneys interact in protecting the body against lethal changes of pH.

AP 15.1

Discuss the anatomy and physiology of the male and female reproductive systems.

AP 15.2

Compare and contrast oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Distinguish between diploid germ cells and haploid or monoploid sex cells.

AP 15.3

Describe the hormones of the gonads, their cellular origins and their functions. Explain the functions of the gonadotropins FSH and LH in males and females.

AP 15.4

Explain what is happening during the follicular, ovulatory and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Describe how estradiol and progesterone released by the ovaries are responsible for the phases that the uterus goes through during the menstrual cycle.

AP 15.5

Describe how spermatozoa move through the female reproductive tract and describe the process of fertilization.

AP 15.6

Explain the differences among a dikaryon zygote, a zygote, a morula and a blastocyst. Recognize that the implanted blastocyst secretes human gonadotropin, which prolongs the life of the corpus luteum and therefore maintains progesterone secretion. Describe the process of implantation and development of the placenta, the substances that move across it and the role of the placenta in maintaining the fetus.

AP 15.7

Describe the changes in the breast leading to lactation, the hormonal events that initiate milk secretion, the maintenance of milk secretion by the breasts and the milk ejection reflex.

AP 2.4

Describe endocrine and exocrine glands and their development from glandular epithelium.

AP 2.5

Describe the body cavities, their membranes, and the organs within each cavity and their role in the functioning of the body. Describe the major organ systems and their role in the functioning of the body.

AP 4.1

Describe the structure of a typical long bone and indicate how each part functions in the physiology and growth of the bone.

AP 4.2

Distinguish the axial from the appendicular skeleton and name the major bones of each. Locate and identify the bones and the major features of the bones that make up the skull, vertebral column, thoracic cage, pectoral girdle, upper limb, pelvic girdle and lower limb.

AP 4.3

Compare and contrast the microscopic organization of compact (i.e., cortical) bone and spongy (i.e., trabecular) bone.

AP 4.4

Describe the major types of joints in terms of their mobility and the tissues that hold them together.

AP 4.5

Analyze and describe the effects of pressure, movement, torque, tension and elasticity on the human body.

AP 5.1

Name the components of a skeletal muscle fiber and describe their functions. Describe how the thin and thick filaments are organized in the sarcomere.

AP 5.2

Explain the molecular processes and biochemical mechanisms that provide energy for muscle contraction and relaxation.

AP 5.3

Describe a motor unit and its importance in controlling the force and velocity of muscle contraction. Describe the neuromuscular junction and the neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscular junction.

AP 5.4

Distinguish between isotonic and isometric contractions of skeletal muscle; cite examples of each and discuss how the forces generated in muscle contraction are amplified by the use of levers.

AP 5.5

Identify the major muscles on a diagram of the bodys musculature, through dissection or both. Describe the movements associated with each muscle.

AP 5.6

Explain what is meant by muscular hypertrophy and atrophy and discuss causes of these processes.

AP 6.1

Distinguish the structures of the various types of neurons. Diagram the structure of a motor neuron and explain the function of each of its parts.

AP 6.10

Describe the major characteristics of the autonomic nervous system and contrast its efferent pathways with those of somatic nervous system. Compare and contrast the actions, origins and pathways of nerve fibers in the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system including their associated ganglia and neurotransmitters.

AP 6.2

Describe the different types of neuroglia. Describe the function of oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells. Describe the structure and function of the myelin sheath and the role that Schwann cells play in myelin and in regeneration of a severed axon.

AP 6.3

Discuss mathematically the origin of the resting potential. Refer to transcellular gradients of sodium and potassium ions, the permeability of the plasma membrane to these ions, and the intracellular concentration of negatively-charged proteins.

AP 6.4

Explain the changes in membrane potential during the action potential and their relationship to the number of open channels for sodium and potassium ions.

AP 6.5

Explain the role of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Explain why is it important to remove a neurotransmitter from its site of action and describe two mechanisms for removal.

AP 6.6

Describe the meninges of brain and spinal cord. Describe the cerebral ventricles and their interconnections. Describe the secretion, flow pathways, absorption, locations and functions of cerebrospinal fluid.

AP 6.7

Discuss the functions of the spinal cord. Describe the five segments (i.e., regions) of the spinal cord and explain its organization in terms of gray matter; white matter; and dorsal and ventral roots.

AP 6.8

Discuss the components and broad function of the brain stem and the diencephalon. Describe and give the functions of the various structures that make up the cerebrum including the cerebral cortex and its anatomical divisions, the cerebral components of the basal ganglia, and the corpus callosum.

AP 6.9

Describe the structure and functions of the cerebellum and its nuclei regarding postural control, smooth coordination of movements and motor learning.

AP 7.1

Explain how information on stimulus intensity and stimulus quality is signaled to the brain.

AP 7.2

Explain what is meant by sensory receptor adaptation and give examples related to everyday experience.

AP 7.3

Describe the structure, function and location of olfactory and taste receptor cells.

AP 7.4

Identify and describe the parts of the eye. Describe the cells found in the neural retina and the functional dependence of the rods and cones on the pigmented epithelium (i.e., the non-neural retina).

AP 7.5

Compare the structures of rods and cones, describe the fovea and its function, and discuss the relationship of rods and cones to visual acuity, night vision, darkadaptation, color vision and color blindness.

AP 7.6

Describe the three regions of the ear. Distinguish the structure and function of the vestibular apparatus from the auditory apparatus. Describe how sound is transmitted from the external auditory meatus to the cochlea.

AP 7.7

Explain how the hair cells in the vestibular apparatus and cochlea respond to head tilt, linear acceleration, rotation and sound.

AP 8.1

Discuss the difference between an endocrine gland and an exocrine gland.

AP 8.2

Explain the nature of a hormone and the endocrine system in relation to digestion and metabolism, homeostasis, growth, development, and reproduction.

AP 8.3

Identify the chemical classes to which important hormones belong and explain that some hormones act via second messengers.

AP 8.4

Discuss chemical signals that can control hormone secretion.

AP 8.5

Describe the structure and hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary complex and the function of these hormones in controlling the thyroid, gonads and adrenal cortex. Describe the structure of these glands and the functions of the hormones secreted by them.

AP 8.6

For glands that are not under the control of the hypothalamus-pituitary complex, describe their structure, the hormones they secrete and their function, and the stimuli for secretion.

AP 8.7

Discuss how the hypothalamus-pituitary complex, the sympathetic nervous system, the adrenal medulla and the adrenal cortex are all involved in the bodys response to stress.

AP 8.8

Explain how the cells of the adrenal medulla supplement the actions of the autonomic nervous system.

AP 9.1

Distinguish whole blood from plasma and serum. Classify and explain the functions of the formed elements found in blood and describe where they are produced.

AP 9.2

Describe how erythropoietin regulates red blood cell production.

AP 9.3

Explain the ABO blood types and their significance in blood transfusion.

AP 9.4

Describe the basic processes in blood clotting.


Compare and contrast diffusion and osmosis, facilitated diffusion, active transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis.


Define homeostasis, its principal mechanisms at the cellular level and the consequences of failure to maintain homeostasis.


Describe the importance of proteins in cell function and structure. Give specific examples of proteins and their functions and describe how proteins are synthesized.


Review the stages of mitosis and discuss differences in lifespan among various types of terminally differentiated cells.


Explain the interactions that exist among cells within multicellular organisms to produce tissues and organs with distinct functions.


Compare and contrast the structure, function and location of cells that make up the various types of muscle tissue, nerve tissue and connective tissue.


Describe the general cellular structure of an epithelium, including the basement membrane. Describe the different types and locations of epithelia.


Describe the structure of the skin, including the hypodermis, dermis and the layers of the epidermis.


Describe the accessory structures of the skin (i.e., hairs, nails and glands).


Describe the important physiological functions of the skin.


Evaluate the cause and effect of diseases associated with the integumentary system.


Describe the structure of the major categories of organic compounds that make up living organisms in terms of their building blocks and the small number of chemical elements (i.e., carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur) from which they are composed.


Understand that the shape of a molecule determines its role in the many different types of cellular processes (e.g., metabolism, homeostasis, growth and development, and heredity) and understand that the majority of these processes involve proteins that act as enzymes.


Explain and give examples of how the function and differentiation of cells is influenced by their external environment (e.g., temperature, acidity and the concentration of certain molecules) and changes in these conditions may affect how a cell functions.


Describe features common to all cells that are essential for growth and survival. Explain their functions.


Describe the structure of a cell membrane and explain how it regulates the transport of materials into and out of the cell and prevents harmful materials from entering the cell.


Explain that most cells contain mitochondria (the key sites of cellular respiration), where stored chemical energy is converted into useable energy for the cell. Explain that some cells, including many plant cells, contain chloroplasts (the key sites of photosynthesis) where the energy of light is captured for use in chemical work.


Explain that all cells contain ribosomes (the key sites for protein synthesis), where genetic material is decoded in order to form unique proteins.


Explain that cells use proteins to form structures (e.g., cilia, flagella), which allow them to carry out specific functions (e.g., movement, adhesion and absorption).


Investigate a variety of different cell types and relate the proportion of different organelles within these cells to their functions.


Describe how some organisms capture the suns energy through the process of photosynthesis by converting carbon dioxide and water into high-energy compounds and releasing oxygen.


Describe how most organisms can combine and recombine the elements contained in sugar molecules into a variety of biologically essential compounds by utilizing the energy from cellular respiration.


Recognize and describe that metabolism consists of all of the biochemical reactions that occur inside cells, which include the production, modification, transport, and exchange of materials that are required for the maintenance of life.


Describe how matter cycles through an ecosystem by way of food chains and food webs and how organisms convert that matter into a variety of organic molecules to be used in part in their own cellular structures.


Describe how energy from the sun flows through an ecosystem by way of food chains and food webs and how only a small portion of that energy is used by individual organisms while the majority is lost as heat.


Explain that the amount of life environments can support is limited by the available energy, water, oxygen and minerals and by the ability of ecosystems to recycle the remains of dead organisms.


Describe how human activities and natural phenomena can change the flow and of matter and energy in an ecosystem and how those changes impact other species.


Describe the consequences of introducing non-native species into an ecosystem and identify the impact it may have on that ecosystem.


Describe how climate, the pattern of matter and energy flow, the birth and death of new organisms, and the interaction between those organisms contribute to the long-term stability of an ecosystem.


Describe the relationship between chromosomes and DNA along with their basic structure and function.


Describe how hereditary information passed from parents to offspring is encoded in the regions of DNA molecules called genes.


Describe the process by which DNA directs the production of protein within a cell.


Explain how the unique shape and activity of each protein is determined by the sequence of its amino acids.


Understand that proteins are responsible for the observable traits of an organism and for most of the functions within an organism.


Recognize that traits can be structural, physiological or behavioral and can include readily observable characteristics at the organismal level or less recognizable features at the molecular and cellular level.


Describe the process of mitosis and explain that this process ordinarily results in daughter cells with a genetic make-up identical to the parent cells.


Understand that most cells of a multicellular organism contain the same genes but develop from a single cell (e.g., a fertilized egg) in different ways due to differential gene expression.


Explain that in multicellular organisms the zygote produced during fertilization undergoes a series of cell divisions that lead to clusters of cells that go on to specialize and become the organisms tissues and organs.


Describe and model the process of meiosis and explain the relationship between the genetic make-up of the parent cell and the daughter cells (i.e., gametes).


Explain how in sexual reproduction that crossing over, independent assortment and random fertilization result in offspring that are genetically different from the parents.


Distinguish between dominant and recessive alleles and determine the phenotype that would result from the different possible combinations of alleles in an offspring.


Describe dominant, recessive, codominant, sex-linked, incompletely dominant, multiply allelic and polygenic traits and illustrate their inheritance patterns over multiple generations.


Determine the likelihood of the appearance of a specific trait in an offspring given the genetic make-up of the parents.


Explain the process by which a cell copies its DNA and identify factors that can damage DNA and cause changes in its nucleotide sequence.


Explain and demonstrate how inserting, substituting or deleting segments of a DNA molecule can alter a gene, how that gene is then passed to every cell that develops from it and how the results may be beneficial, harmful or have little or no effect on the organism.


Explain how anatomical and molecular similarities among organisms suggests that life on earth began as simple, one-celled organisms about 4 billion years ago and multicellular organisms evolved later.


Explain how organisms are classified and named based on their evolutionary relationships into taxonomic categories.


Use anatomical and molecular evidence to establish evolutionary relationships among organisms.


Understand that molecular evidence supports the anatomical evidence for these evolutionary relationships and provides additional information about the order in which different lines of descent branched.


Describe how organisms with beneficial traits are more likely to survive, reproduce, and pass on their genetic information due to genetic variations, environmental forces and reproductive pressures.


Explain how genetic variation within a population (i.e., a species) can be attributed to mutations as well as random assortments of existing genes.


Describe the modern scientific theory of the origins and history of life on earth and evaluate the evidence that supports it.


Based on physical properties, differentiate between pure substances and mixtures.


Observe and describe chemical and physical properties of different types of matter and designate them as either extensive or intensive.


Recognize observable indicators of chemical changes.


Describe physical and chemical changes at the molecular level.


Describe the characteristics of solids, liquids and gases and changes in state at the molecular level.


Explain and apply the law of conservation of mass as it applies to chemical processes.


Define density and distinguish among materials based on densities. Perform calculations involving density.


Describe how models of atomic structure changed over time based on available experimental evidence and understand the current model of atomic structure.


Describe how the subatomic particles (i.e., protons, neutrons and electrons) contribute to the structure of an atom and recognize that the particles within the nucleus are held together against the electrical repulsion of the protons.


Determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in isotopes and in those isotopes that comprise a specific element. Relate these numbers to atomic number and mass number.


Calculate the average atomic mass of an element from isotopic abundance data.


Write the electron configuration of an element and relate this to its position on the periodic table.


Use the periodic table and electron configuration to determine an element's number of valence electrons and its chemical and physical properties.


Compare and contrast nuclear reactions with chemical reactions.


Describe how fusion and fission processes transform elements present before the reaction into elements present after the reaction.


Understand that the radioactive decay process is random for any given atom but that this property leads to a predictable and measurable exponential decay of a sample of radioactive material. Know how to calculate the initial amount, the fraction remaining or the half-life of a radioactive isotope when given two of the other three variables.


Describe, compare and contrast the characteristics of the interactions between atoms in ionic and covalent compounds.


Compare and contrast how ionic and covalent compounds form.


Draw structural formulas for and name simple molecules.


Write chemical formulas for ionic compounds given their names and vice versa.


Compare and contrast ionic, covalent network, metallic and polar and non-polar molecular crystals with respect to constituent particles, strength of bonds, melting and boiling points and conductivity; provide examples of each type.


Predict products of simple reactions such as synthesis, decomposition, single replacement and double replacement.


Balance chemical equations using the law of conservation of mass and use them to describe chemical reactions.


Given mass of the sample, use the mole concept to determine the number of moles and number of atoms or molecules in samples of elements and compounds.


Using a balanced chemical equation, calculate the quantities of reactants needed and products made in a chemical reaction that goes to completion.


Describe, classify and give examples of various kids of reactions-synthesis (i.e., combination), decomposition, single displacement, double displacement and combustion.


Determine oxidation states and identify the substances gaining and losing electrons in redox reactions.


Perform calculations to determine the composition of a compound or mixture when given the formula.


Use kinetic molecular theory to explain changes in gas volumes, pressure, moles and temperature.


Using the ideal gas equation of state PV = nRT, calculate the change in one variable when another variable is changed and the others are held constant.


Given the equation for a chemical reaction involving one or more gases as reactants, products or both, calculate the volumes of gas when assuming the reaction goes to completion and the ideal gas law holds.


Explain that atoms and molecules are in constant motion and that this motion increases as thermal energy increases.


Distinguish between the concepts of temperature and heat flow in macroscopic and microscopic terms.


Classify chemical reactions and phase changes as exothermic or endothermic.


Solve problems involving heat flow and temperature changes by using known values of specific heat, phase change constants (i.e., latent heat values) or both.


Describe the composition and properties of types of solutions.


Explain how temperature, pressure and polarity of the solvent affect the solubility of a solute


Describe the concentration of solutes in a solution in terms of molarity. Perform calculations using molarity, mass and volume.


Prepare a specific volume of a solution of a given molarity when provided with a known solute.


Explain how the rate of a reaction is qualitatively affected by changes in concentration, temperature, surface area and the use of a catalyst.


Write equilibrium expressions for reversible reactions.


Use Arrhenius and Brnsted-Lowry definitions to classify substances as acids or bases.


Describe the characteristic properties of acids and bases.


Compare and contrast the dissociation and strength of acids and bases in solutions.


Given the hydronium (H3O + ) ion concentration in a solution, calculate the pH and vice versa. Explain the meaning of these values.


From acid-base titration data, calculate the concentration of an unknown solution.


Use structural formulas to illustrate carbon atoms ability to bond covalently to one another to form many different substances.


Illustrate the variety of molecular types formed by the covalent bonding of carbon atoms and describe the typical properties of these molecular types.

ES 2.3

Recognize that the sun is the main source of external energy for the Earth. Describe the cycles of solar energy and some of their impacts on the Earth.

ES 5.1

Describe the large-scale, compositional layers of the Earth.

ES 5.5

Understand the concepts of relative and absolute geologic time and their measurement by means of evidence from fossils and radioactive dating.

ES 5.6

Understand the role of changing sea level and climate in the formation of the sedimentary rocks of Indiana.


Describe the Big Bang Theory and understand that evidence to support the formation of the universe and its age is found in Hubbles law and the cosmic background microwave radiation. Describe the role of gravitational attraction in formation of stars and galaxies.


Differentiate between the different types of stars, including our sun, found on the Hertzsprung - Russell diagram. Compare and contrast the evolution of stars of different masses.


Understand and discuss the basics of the fusion processes, which are the source of energy of stars and the formation of the elements.


Understand and explain the hierarchical relationship and scales of planetary systems, stars, multiple-star systems, star clusters, galaxies and galactic groups in the universe.


Understand and discuss the nebular theory concerning the formation of solar systems. Include in the discussion the roles of planetesimals and protoplanets.


Describe the characteristics of the various kinds of objects in the solar system (e.g., planets, satellites, comets and asteroids). Recognize that planets have been identified orbiting stars other than the sun.


Describe the motions of the various kinds of objects in our solar system (e.g., planets, satellites, comets and asteroids). Explain that Keplers laws determine the orbits of those objects and know that Keplers laws are a direct consequence of Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation together with his laws of motion.


Understand that the Earth system contains fixed amounts of each stable chemical element and that each element moves among reservoirs in the solid earth, oceans, atmosphere and living organisms as part of biogeochemical cycles (i.e., nitrogen, water, carbon, oxygen and phosphorus cycles), which are driven by energy from within the earth and from the sun.


Demonstrate the possible effects of atmospheric changes brought about by natural and human-made processes.


Identify and differentiate between renewable and nonrenewable resources present within Earths systems. Describe the possible long-term consequences that increased human consumption has placed on natural processes that renew some resources.


Recognize that fundamental physical and chemical laws control past, present and future dynamic interactions between and within Earth systems.


Examine the origins, structure, composition, and function of Earths atmosphere. Include the role of living organisms in the production and cycling of atmospheric gases.


Describe the relationships among evaporation, precipitation, ground water, surface water, and glacial systems in the water cycle. Discuss the effect of human interactions with the water cycle.


Explain the importance of heat transfer between and within the atmosphere, land masses, and bodies of water.


Understand and describe the origin, life cycle, and behavior of weather systems and methods of predicting them. Investigate the causes of severe weather and propose appropriate safety measures that can be taken in the event of severe weather.


Explain the role of Milankovitch cycles (rotation, revolution, and procession of axis) on differential heating of Earth, leading to climate changes such as the cycles of glaciation.


Understand the origin, effects and uses of tides.


Understand the origin and effects of Earths magnetic field.


Compare and contrast the properties of rocks and minerals. Explain the uses of rocks and minerals, particularly those found in Indiana, in daily life.


Illustrate the various processes involved in the rock cycle and discuss the conservation of matter during formation, weathering, sedimentation and reformation.


Explain how sea level changes over time have exposed continental shelves, created and destroyed inland seas, and shaped the surface of the land.


Investigate and discuss how humans affect and are affected by geological systems and processes.


Differentiate among the processes of weathering, erosion, transportation of materials, deposition and soil formation.


Explain the origin of geologic features and processes that result from plate tectonics (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes, trenches and mountain ranges).


Understand and discuss the development of plate tectonic theory, which is derived from the combination of two theories: continental drift and seafloor spreading.


Explain that the source of Earths energy, which drives the process of tectonics, is derived from the decay of radioactive isotopes and gravitational energy from Earths original formation.

ICP 2.1

Identify properties of objects that vibrate by using Newtons laws to understand the motion. Understand that vibrating objects can give rise to mechanical waves.

ICP 2.3

Describe how energy is propagated by waves without the transfer of mass using examples such as water waves, earthquakes and sound waves.

ICP 3.3

Understand how thermal energy (the microscopic motions of the atoms, molecules or both) is related to the macroscopic concept of temperature. Examine the differences in these concepts by measuring the temperature changes and determining specific heat capacity of water as it is heated or cooled.

ICP 4.5

Understand that from diffraction it is known that visible light is an electromagnetic wave.

ICP 5.2

Use the periodic table to understand important patterns in properties of elements. Recognize that the pattern of properties of the elements correlates most closely with the configuration of the electrons in each element.

ICP 7.6

Understand that the energy radiated from the sun derives from the fusion process.

ICP 7.8

Relate the fission process to the human development and use of the fission process in war (uncontrolled) and in peace (controlled).


Measure the motion of objects to understand the relationships among distance, velocity and acceleration. Develop deeper understanding through graphical analysis of the time dependence of acceleration, velocity and distance.


Describe and apply Newtons three laws of motion. By experimentation, determine the relationships among the variables in Newtons laws and how all three laws relate mass, acceleration and force as a triad of proportional variables, leading to the definitions of momentum and energy.


Describe how Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation and the laws of motion together explain the motions of objects on earth and of the moon, planets and stars.


Describe the kinetic and potential energies of macroscopic objects and use measurements to develop an understanding of these forms of energy.


Identify properties of waves (e.g., frequency, wavelength, amplitude, energy and wave speed).


Apply the properties of waves to wave phenomena like reflection, refraction, transmission of energy and loss of energy.


Describe how we use macroscopic properties of matter to model microscopic processes.


Study the characteristics of solids, liquids and gases and their changes of state. Interpret them in terms of a molecular model which describes their energies and motions.


Understand how the microscopic kinetic molecular theory explains observations of macroscopic gas behavior in terms of temperature, volume, pressure and the number of particles (using the mole concept).


Using conservation of energy, calculate the thermal energy released or absorbed by an object and distinguish between exothermic and endothermic changes.


Differentiate among conduction, convection and radiation and identify them as types of energy transfer.


Explain that electrons can absorb energy and can release energy and that electrons in atoms do this at specific energies.


Describe the relationships among velocity, frequency, wavelength and energy in electromagnetic waves. Describe the regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.


Recognize and describe physical properties of matter and use them to differentiate between pure substances and mixtures.


Understand that the atomic number is unique to each element and is the number of protons in the nucleus of the element.


Use the concept of the mole to relate number of moles and the mass of a sample of a pure substance of known chemical composition.


Using conservation principles, write and balance chemical equations.


Identify key indicators of a chemical change and classify simple types of chemical reactions. Differentiate among covalent, ionic, hydrogen and Van der Waals bonding. Write formulas for and name compounds of each type.


Explain that in exothermic chemical reactions chemical energy is converted into other forms such as thermal, electrical, light and sound energy.


Explain that objects that carry a net charge will exert an electric force (attractive or repulsive) on other objects.


Explain that, when charge is transferred from one object to another, the amount lost by one object equals the amount gained by the other, which is consistent with the principal of conservation of charge.


Using the example of electrolysis and its application in batteries, explain the relationship between chemical reactions and electrical energy.


Define and describe the relationships among voltage, current resistance and power in open and closed electrical circuits.


Describe the current-flow differences in parallel and series circuits.


Explain that some objects, called magnets, exert magnetic forces with no direct contact.


Using the examples of motors and generators, explain that electrical energy can be transformed into mechanical energy and vice versa.


Demonstrate how historical models and experiments supported the development of our current understanding of the atom and its nucleus.


Differentiate among protons, neutrons and electrons and determine the number of these subatomic particles in each atom.


Understand that the stability of nuclei depend on their numbers of neutrons and protons.


Understand that fission results from large, less stable nuclei decomposing to form smaller, more stable nuclei.


Understand that fusion results from two smaller nuclei combining to form one larger nucleus.


Describe the various forms of emission that are typical of radioactive decay.


Describe how energy needs have changed throughout history and how energy needs are met in modern society.


Describe the benefits and risks of the development of non-renewable forms of energy such as coal, oil, natural gas and uranium fission sources.


Describe the benefits and risks of the development of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, wind-energy, geothermal energy, fusion energy and biofuels.


Describe how efficient use of renewable and non-renewable energy sources is essential to maintaining an acceptable environment.


Describe how the availability of energy resources is essential to the development of an economically viable society.


Contrast the dependence on and use of energy and other natural resources in the economies of industrial nations, of developing nations and of undeveloped nations.


Describe the energy needs of a modern urban city. Compare and contrast these needs with those of a modern rural community.


Using motion, maps, graphs and algebraic equations, describe, measure, and analyze constant acceleration motion in one dimension in terms of time and the vector quantities of displacement, velocity and acceleration.


Using motion, maps, graphs and algebraic equations, describe, measure, and analyze constant acceleration motion in two dimensions in terms of time and the vector quantities of displacement, velocity and acceleration. Consider specifically projectile motion and uniform circular motion.


Describe the magnitude and direction of kinds of forces, including both contact forces and non-contact forces, those that act at a distance. Find the net force acting on an object using free-body diagrams and the addition of forces. Use Newtons three laws to deductively analyze static and dynamic systems.


Use Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation and the laws of motion to quantitatively analyze the motions of orbiting objects such as the moon, the planets and satellites (i.e., Keplers Third Law of Planetary Motion).


Describe qualitatively and quantitatively the concepts of momentum, work, kinetic energy, potential energy and power.


Quantitatively predict changes in momentum using the impulse-momentum theorem and in kinetic energy using the work-energy theorem.


Analyze evidence that illustrates the Law of Conservation of Energy and the Law of Conservation of Momentum. Apply these laws to analyze elastic and completely inelastic collisions.


Describe and quantify energy in its different mechanical forms (e.g., kinetic, gravitational potential, elastic potential) and recognize that these forms of energy can be transformed one into another and into non-mechanical forms of energy (e.g., thermal, chemical, nuclear and electromagnetic).


Describe temperature, thermal energy and thermal energy transfer in terms of the kinetic molecular model. Expand the concept of conservation of mechanical energy to include thermal energy.


Describe the kinetic molecular model, use it to derive the ideal gas law and show how it explains the relationship between the temperature of an object and the average kinetic energy of its molecules.


Use the kinetic theory to explain that the transfer of heat occurs during a change of state.


Use examples from everyday life to describe the transfer of thermal energy by conduction, convection and radiation.


Using Coulombs law, describe and determine the force on a stationary charge due to other stationary charges. Know that this force is many times greater than the gravitational force.


Define electric field and describe the motion of a charged particle in a simple electric field.


Describe electric potential energy and electric potential (i.e., voltage). Use voltage to explain the motion of electrical charges and the resulting electric currents in conductors.


Explain and analyze simple arrangements of electrical components in series and parallel circuits in terms of current, resistance, voltage and power. Use Ohms and Kirchhoffs laws to analyze circuits.


Describe the magnetic forces and fields produced by and acting on moving charges and magnetic materials.


Identify properties of objects that vibrate by using Newtons laws to describe and explain the vibrational motion resulting from restoring forces, such as Hookes Law in the case of spring or gravity in the case of a small amplitude pendulum.


Describe how vibrating objects can generate transverse and/or longitudinal waves so that energy is transmitted without the transfer of energy. Distinguish longitudinal waves from transverse waves.


Describe and analyze propagating waves in terms of their fundamental characteristics such as wave speed, wavelength, frequency or period, and amplitude.


Describe and explain the behavior of waves such as transmission, reflection, interference and polarizations. Qualitatively describe and explain the production and properties of standing waves.


Understand the geometric nature of light in reflection and refraction and in image formation by lenses and mirrors. Use that geometric nature to graphically predict the formation of images by lens and mirrors.


Describe the electromagnetic spectrum (i.e., radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays and gamma rays) in terms of frequency, wavelength and energy. Recognize that all these waves travel in a vacuum at the same speed.


Understand that electromagnetic waves are produced by the acceleration of charged particles. Describe how electromagnetic waves interact with matter both as packets (i.e., photons) and as waves. Show qualitatively how wave theory helps explain polarization and diffraction.


Explain that electrons, protons and neutrons are parts of the atom and that the nuclei of atoms are composed of protons and neutrons, which experience forces of attraction and repulsion consistent with their charges and masses. Distinguish elements from isotopes.


Explain that the stability of the nucleus, containing only positive or neutral particles, indicates the existence of a new force that is only evident within the nucleus, as it holds the particles together despite the strong repulsive electrical force.


Distinguish fission from fusion processes. Describe how the binding energies of protons and neutrons determine the stability and instability of nuclei.


Describe qualitatively how nuclear reactions (i.e, fission and fusion) convert very small amounts of matter into large amounts of energy.


Understand that fission results from large, less stable nuclei decomposing to form smaller, more stable nuclei. Understand that fusion results from small nuclei at high temperatures and pressures combining to form larger, more stable nuclei and releasing thermonuclear energy.