Indiana Learning Standards - Science — Grade 8

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Explain that all matter is composed of particular arrangements of atoms and that there are approximately one hundred types of atoms (i.e., elements).


Understand that elements are organized on the periodic table based on atomic number.


Explain how the arrangement of atoms and molecules determines chemical properties of substances.


Describe the structure of atoms and relate the arrangement of electrons to how atoms interact with other atoms.


Explain that atoms join together to form molecules and compounds and illustrate with diagrams the relationship between atoms and compounds and between atoms and molecules.


Explain that elements and compounds have characteristic properties such as density, boiling points and melting points that remain unchanged regardless of sample size.


Explain that chemical changes occur when substances react and form one or more different products, whose physical and chemical properties are different from those of the reactants.


Demonstrate that in a chemical change the total numbers of each kind of atom in the product are the same as in the reactants and that the total mass of the reacting system is conserved.


Recognize and demonstrate how the suns energy drives convection in the atmosphere and in bodies of water, which results in ocean currents and weather patterns.


Describe and model how water moves through the earths crust, atmosphere and oceans in a cyclic way as a liquid vapor and solid.


Describe the characteristics of ocean currents and identify their effects on weather patterns.


Describe the physical and chemical composition of the atmosphere at different elevations.


Describe the conditions that cause Indiana weather and weather-related events such as tornadoes, lake effect snow, blizzards, thunderstorms and flooding.


Identify, explain and discuss some effects human activities (e.g., air, soil, light, noise and water pollution) have on the biosphere.


Recognize that some of Earths resources are finite and describe how recycling, reducing consumption and the development of alternatives can reduce the rate of their depletion.


Explain that human activities, beginning with the earliest herding and agricultural activities, have drastically changed the environment and have affected the capacity of the environment to support native species. Explain current efforts to reduce and eliminate these impacts and encourage sustainability.


Explain that reproduction is essential for the continuation of every species and is the mechanism by which all organisms transmit genetic information.


Recognize and describe how new varieties of organisms have come about from selective breeding.


Compare and contrast the transmission of genetic information in sexual and asexual reproduction.


Explain that genetic information is transmitted from parents to offspring mostly by chromosomes.


Understand the relationship between deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), genes and chromosomes.


Identify and describe the difference between inherited traits and the physical and behavioral traits that are acquired or learned.


Observe anatomical structures of a variety of organisms and describe their similarities and differences. Use the data collected to organize the organisms into groups and predict their relatedness.


Recognize and explain that small genetic differences between parents and offspring can accumulate in successive generations so that descendants may be different from their ancestors.


Examine traits of individuals within a population of organisms that may give them an advantage in survival and reproduction in given environments or when the environments change.


Describe the effect of environmental changes on populations of organisms when their adaptive characteristics put them at a disadvantage for survival. Describe how extinction of a species can ultimately result from a disadvantage.


Understand how the strength of attractive forces among particles in a material helps to explain many physical properties of the material, such as why different materials exist as gases, liquids or solids at a given temperature.


Rank the strength of attractions among the particles of room-temperature materials.


Investigate the properties (i.e., mechanical, chemical, electrical, thermal, magnetic and optical) of natural and engineered materials.