North Carolina State Science Standards — Grade 9


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Bio.1.1.1

Summarize the structure and function of organelles in eukaryotic cells (including the nucleus, plasma membrane, cell wall, mitochondria, vacuoles, chloroplasts, and ribosomes) and ways that these organelles interact with each other to perform the function of the cell.

Bio.1.1.2

Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells in terms of their general structures (plasma membrane and genetic material) and degree of complexity.

Bio.1.1.3

Explain how instructions in DNA lead to cell differentiation and result in cells specialized to perform specific functions in multicellular organisms.

Bio.1.2.1

Explain how homeostasis is maintained in the cell and within an organism in various environments (including temperature and pH).

Bio.1.2.2

Analyze how cells grow and reproduce in terms of interphase, mitosis and cytokinesis

Bio.1.2.3

Explain how specific cell adaptations help cells survive in particular environments (focus on unicellular organisms).

Bio.2.1.1

Analyze the flow of energy and cycling of matter (water, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen) through ecosystems relating the significance of each to maintaining the health and sustainability of an ecosystem.

Bio.2.1.2

Analyze the survival and reproductive success of organisms in terms of behavioral, structural, and reproductive adaptations.

Bio.2.1.3

Explain various ways organisms interact with each other (including predation, competition, parasitism, mutualism) and with their environments resulting in stability within ecosystems.

Bio.2.1.4

Explain why ecosystems can be relatively stable over hundreds or thousands of years, even though populations may fluctuate (emphasizing availability of food, availability of shelter, number of predators and disease).

Bio.2.2.1

Infer how human activities (including population growth, pollution, global warming, burning of fossil fuels, habitat destruction and introduction of nonnative species) may impact the environment.

Bio.2.2.2

Explain how the use, protection and conservation of natural resources by humans impact the environment from one generation to the next.

Bio.3.1.1

Explain the double-stranded, complementary nature of DNA as related to its function in the cell.

Bio.3.1.2

Explain how DNA and RNA code for proteins and determine traits.

Bio.3.1.3

Explain how mutations in DNA that result from interactions with the environment (i.e. radiation and chemicals) or new combinations in existing genes lead to changes in function and phenotype.

Bio.3.2.1

Explain the role of meiosis in sexual reproduction and genetic variation.

Bio.3.2.2

Predict offspring ratios based on a variety of inheritance patterns (including dominance, co-dominance, incomplete dominance, multiple alleles, and sex-linked traits).

Bio.3.2.3

Explain how the environment can influence the expression of genetic traits.

Bio.3.3.1

Interpret how DNA is used for comparison and identification of organisms.

Bio.3.3.2

Summarize how transgenic organisms are engineered to benefit society.

Bio.3.3.3

Evaluate some of the ethical issues surrounding the use of DNA technology (including cloning, genetically modified organisms, stem cell research, and Human Genome Project).

Bio.3.4.1

Explain how fossil, biochemical, and anatomical evidence support the theory of evolution.

Bio.3.4.2

Explain how natural selection influences the changes in species over time.

Bio.3.4.3

Explain how various disease agents (bacteria, viruses, chemicals) can influence natural selection.

Bio.3.5.1

Explain the historical development and changing nature of classification systems.

Bio.3.5.2

Analyze the classification of organisms according to their evolutionary relationships (including dichotomous keys and phylogenetic trees).

Bio.4.1.1

Compare the structures and functions of the major biological molecules (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids) as related to the survival of living organisms.

Bio.4.1.2

Summarize the relationship among DNA, proteins and amino acids in carrying out the work of cells and how this is similar in all organisms.

Bio.4.1.3

Explain how enzymes act as catalysts for biological reactions.

Bio.4.2.1

Analyze photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of how energy is stored, released, and transferred within and between these systems

Bio.4.2.2

Explain ways that organisms use released energy for maintaining homeostasis (active transport).

Chm.1.1.1

Analyze the structure of atoms, isotopes, and ions.

Chm.1.1.2

Analyze an atom in terms of the location of electrons.

Chm.1.1.3

Explain the emission of electromagnetic radiation in spectral form in terms of the Bohr model.

Chm.1.1.4

Explain the process of radioactive decay by the use of nuclear equations and half-life.

Chm.1.2.1

Compare (qualitatively) the relative strengths of ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds.

Chm.1.2.2

Infer the type of bond and chemical formula formed between atoms.

Chm.1.2.3

Compare inter- and intra- particle forces

Chm.1.2.4

Interpret the name and formula of compounds using IUPAC convention

Chm.1.2.5

Compare the properties of ionic, covalent, metallic, and network compounds.

Chm.1.3.1

Classify the components of a periodic table (period, group, metal, metalloid, nonmetal, transition).

Chm.1.3.2

Infer the physical properties (atomic radius, metallic and nonmetallic characteristics) of an element based on its position on the Periodic Table

Chm.1.3.3

Infer the atomic size, reactivity, electronegativity, and ionization energy of an element from its position in the Periodic Table

Chm.2.1.1

Explain the energetic nature of phase changes.

Chm.2.1.2

Explain heating and cooling curves (heat of fusion, heat of vaporization, heat, melting point, and boiling point).

Chm.2.1.3

Interpret the data presented in phase diagrams.

Chm.2.1.4

Infer simple calorimetric calculations based on the concepts of heat lost equals heat gained and specific heat.

Chm.2.1.5

Explain the relationships between pressure, temperature, volume, and quantity of gas both qualitative and quantitative.

Chm.2.2.1

Explain the energy content of a chemical reaction.

Chm.2.2.2

Analyze the evidence of chemical change.

Chm.2.2.3

Analyze the law of conservation of matter and how it applies to various types of chemical equations (synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement, and combustion).

Chm.2.2.4

Analyze the stoichiometric relationships inherent in a chemical reaction.

Chm.2.2.5

Analyze quantitatively the composition of a substance (empirical formula, molecular formula, percent composition, and hydrates).

Chm.3.1.1

Explain the factors that affect the rate of a reaction (temperature, concentration, particle size and presence of a catalyst).

Chm.3.1.2

Explain the conditions of a system at equilibrium.

Chm.3.1.3

Infer the shift in equilibrium when a stress is applied to a chemical system (Le Chateliers Principle).

Chm.3.2.1

Classify substances using the hydronium and hydroxide ion concentrations.

Chm.3.2.2

Summarize the properties of acids and bases.

Chm.3.2.3

Infer the quantitative nature of a solution (molarity, dilution, and titration with a 1:1 molar ratio).

Chm.3.2.4

Summarize the properties of solutions.

Chm.3.2.5

Interpret solubility diagrams.

Chm.3.2.6

Explain the solution process.

EEn.1.1.1

Explain the Earths motion through space, including precession, nutation, the barycenter, and its path about the galaxy

EEn.1.1.2

Explain how the Earths rotation and revolution about the Sun affect its shape and is related to seasons and tides

EEn.1.1.3

Explain how the sun produces energy which is transferred to the Earth by radiation.

EEn.1.1.4

Explain how incoming solar energy makes life possible on Earth.

EEn.2.1.1

Explain how the rock cycle, plate tectonics, volcanoes, and earthquakes impact the lithosphere.

EEn.2.1.2

Predict the locations of volcanoes, earthquakes, and faults based on information contained in a variety of maps

EEn.2.1.3

Explain how natural actions such as weathering, erosion (wind, water and gravity), and soil formation affect Earths surface.

EEn.2.1.4

Explain the probability of and preparation for geohazards such as landslides, avalanches, earthquakes and volcanoes in a particular area based on available data.

EEn.2.2.1

Explain the consequences of human activities on the lithosphere (such as mining, deforestation, agriculture, overgrazing, urbanization, and land use) past and present.

EEn.2.2.2

Compare the various methods humans use to acquire traditional energy sources (such as peat, coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear fission, and wood).

EEn.2.3.1

Explain how water is an energy agent (currents and heat transfer).

EEn.2.3.2

Explain how ground water and surface water interact.

EEn.2.4.1

Evaluate human influences on freshwater availability.

EEn.2.4.2

Evaluate human influences on water quality in North Carolinas river basins, wetlands and tidal environments.

EEn.2.5.1

Summarize the structure and composition of our atmosphere.

EEn.2.5.2

Explain the formation of typical air masses and the weather systems that result from air mass interactions.

EEn.2.5.3

Explain how cyclonic storms form based on the interaction of air masses.

EEn.2.5.4

Predict the weather using available weather maps and data (including surface, upper atmospheric winds, and satellite imagery).

EEn.2.5.5

Explain how human activities affect air quality

EEn.2.6.1

Differentiate between weather and climate.

EEn.2.6.2

Explain changes in global climate due to natural processes.

EEn.2.6.3

Analyze the impacts that human activities have on global climate change (such as burning hydrocarbons, greenhouse effect, and deforestation).

EEn.2.6.4

Attribute changes in Earth systems to global climate change (temperature change, changes in pH of ocean, sea level changes, etc.).

EEn.2.7.1

Explain how abiotic and biotic factors interact to create the various biomes in North Carolina

EEn.2.7.2

Explain why biodiversity is important to the biosphere.

EEn.2.7.3

Explain how human activities impact the biosphere.

EEn.2.8.1

Evaluate alternative energy technologies for use in North Carolina.

EEn.2.8.2

Critique conventional and sustainable agriculture and aquaculture practices in terms of their environmental impacts.

EEn.2.8.3

Explain the effects of uncontrolled population growth on the Earths resources.

EEn.2.8.4

Evaluate the concept of reduce, reuse, recycle in terms of impact on natural resources.

Phy.1.1.1

Analyze motion graphically and numerically using vectors, graphs and calculations.

Phy.1.1.2

Analyze motion in one dimension using time, distance, displacement, velocity, and acceleration.

Phy.1.1.3

Analyze motion in two dimensions using angle of trajectory, time, distance, displacement, velocity, and acceleration.

Phy.1.2.1

Analyze forces and systems of forces graphically and numerically using vectors, graphs and calculations.

Phy.1.2.2

Analyze systems of forces in one dimension and two dimensions using free body diagrams.

Phy.1.2.3

Explain forces using Newtons laws of motion as well as the universal law of gravitation.

Phy.1.2.4

Explain the effects of forces (including weight, normal, tension and friction) on objects.

Phy.1.2.5

Analyze basic forces related to rotation in a circular path (centripetal force).

Phy.1.3.1

Analyze the motion of objects involved in completely elastic and completely inelastic collisions by using the principles of conservation of momentum and conservation of energy.

Phy.1.3.2

Analyze the motion of objects based on the relationship between momentum and impulse

Phy.2.1.1

Interpret data on work and energy presented graphically and numerically.

Phy.2.1.2

Compare the concepts of potential and kinetic energy and conservation of total mechanical energy in the description of the motion of objects.

Phy.2.1.3

Explain the relationship among work, power and energy.

Phy.2.2.1

Analyze how energy is transmitted through waves, using the fundamental characteristics of waves: wavelength, period, frequency, amplitude, and wave velocity.

Phy.2.2.2

Analyze wave behaviors in terms of transmission, reflection, refraction and interference.

Phy.2.2.3

Compare mechanical and electromagnetic waves in terms of wave characteristics and behavior (specifically sound and light).

Phy.2.3.1

Explain Ohms law in relation to electric circuits.

Phy.2.3.2

Differentiate the behavior of moving charges in conductors and insulators

Phy.2.3.3

Compare the general characteristics of AC and DC systems without calculations.

Phy.2.3.4

Analyze electric systems in terms of their energy and power.

Phy.2.3.5

Analyze systems with multiple potential differences and resistors connected in series and parallel circuits, both conceptually and mathematically, in terms of voltage, current and resistance.

Phy.3.1.1

Explain qualitatively the fundamental properties of the interactions of charged objects.

Phy.3.1.2

Explain the geometries and magnitudes of electric fields.

Phy.3.1.3

Explain how Coulombs law relates to the electrostatic interactions among charged objects.

Phy.3.1.4

Explain the mechanisms for producing electrostatic charges, including charging by friction, conduction, and induction

Phy.3.1.5

Explain how differences in electrostatic potentials relate to the potential energy of charged objects.

Phy.3.2.1

Explain the relationship between magnetic domains and magnetism

Phy.3.2.2

Explain how electric currents produce various magnetic fields.

Phy.3.2.3

Explain how transformers and power distributions are applications of electromagnetism.

PSc.1.1.1

Explain motion in terms of frame of reference, distance, and displacement.

PSc.1.1.2

Compare speed, velocity, acceleration and momentum using investigations, graphing, scalar quantities and vector quantities.

PSc.1.2.1

Explain how gravitational force affects the weight of an object and the velocity of an object in freefall.

PSc.1.2.2

Classify frictional forces into one of four types: static, sliding, rolling, and fluid.

PSc.1.2.3

Explain forces using Newtons three laws of motion.

PSc.2.1.1

Classify matter as: homogeneous or heterogeneous; pure substance or mixture; element or compound; metals, nonmetals or metalloids; solution, colloid or suspension.

PSc.2.1.2

Explain the phases of matter and the physical changes that matter undergoes

PSc.2.1.3

Compare physical and chemical properties of various types of matter.

PSc.2.1.4

Interpret data presented in Bohr model diagrams and dot diagrams for atoms and ions of elements 1 through 18.

PSc.2.2.1

Infer valence electrons, oxidation number, and reactivity of an element based on its location in the Periodic Table.

PSc.2.2.2

Infer the type of chemical bond that occurs, whether covalent, ionic or metallic, in a given substance.

PSc.2.2.3

Predict chemical formulas and names for simple compounds based on knowledge of bond formation and naming conventions.

PSc.2.2.4

Exemplify the law of conservation of mass by balancing chemical equations.

PSc.2.2.5

Classify types of reactions such as synthesis, decomposition, single replacement or double replacement.

PSc.2.2.6

Summarize the characteristics and interactions of acids and bases.

PSc.2.3.1

Compare nuclear reactions including alpha decay, beta decay and gamma decay; nuclear fusion and nuclear fission.

PSc.2.3.2

Exemplify the radioactive decay of unstable nuclei using the concept of half-life.

PSc.3.1.1

Explain thermal energy and its transfer.

PSc.3.1.2

Explain the law of conservation of energy in a mechanical system in terms of kinetic energy, potential energy and heat.

PSc.3.1.3

Explain work in terms of the relationship among the applied force to an object, the resulting displacement of the object and the energy transferred to an object.

PSc.3.1.4

Explain the relationship among work, power and simple machines both qualitatively and quantitatively.

PSc.3.2.1

Explain the relationships among wave frequency, wave period, wave velocity and wavelength through calculation and investigation.

PSc.3.2.2

Compare waves (mechanical, electromagnetic, and surface) using their characteristics.

PSc.3.2.3

Classify waves as transverse or compressional (longitudinal).

PSc.3.2.4

Illustrate the wave interactions of reflection, refraction, diffraction, and interference.

PSc.3.3.1

Summarize static and current electricity.

PSc.3.3.2

Explain simple series and parallel DC circuits in terms of Ohms law.

PSc.3.3.3

Explain how current is affected by changes in composition, length, temperature, and diameter of wire.

PSc.3.3.4

Explain magnetism in terms of domains, interactions of poles, and magnetic fields

PSc.3.3.5

Explain the practical applications of magnetism.