Georgia Science Learning Standards — Grade 10


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L11-12RST1

Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account.

L11-12RST10

By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 11-12 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

L11-12RST2

Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts, processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still accurate terms.

L11-12RST3

Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on explanations in the text.

L11-12RST4

Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11-12 texts and topics.

L11-12RST5

Analyze how the text structures information or ideas into categories or hierarchies, demonstrating understanding of the information or ideas

L11-12RST6

Analyze the authors purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text, identifying important issues that remain unresolved.

L11-12RST7

Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem

L11-12RST8

Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information.

L11-12RST9

. Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible.

L11-12WHST1

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences

L11-12WHST1a

Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence

L11-12WHST1b

Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audiences knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.

L11-12WHST1c

Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims

L11-12WHST1d

Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

L11-12WHST1e

Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.

L11-12WHST2

Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes

L11-12WHST2a

Introduce a topic and organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

L11-12WHST2b

Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audiences knowledge of the topic.

L11-12WHST2c

Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.

L11-12WHST2d

Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic; convey a knowledgeable stance in a style that responds to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.

L11-12WHST2e

Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation provided (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

L11-12WHST4

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

L11-12WHST5

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.

L11-12WHST6

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.

L11-12WHST7

Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

L11-12WHST8

Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation

L11-12WHST9

Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

SAP1

Students will analyze anatomical structures in relationship to their physiological functions

SAP1a

Apply correct terminology when explaining the orientation of body parts and regions.

SAP1b

Investigate the interdependence of the various body systems to each other and to the body as a whole.

SAP1c

Explain the role of homeostasis and its mechanisms as these relate to the body as a whole and predict the consequences of the failure to maintain homeostasis.

SAP1d

Relate cellular metabolism and transport to homeostasis and cellular reproduction.

SAP1e

Describe how structure and function are related in terms of cell and tissue types.

SAP2

Students will analyze the interdependence of the integumentary, skeletal, and muscular systems as these relate to the protection, support and movement of the human body.

SAP2a

Relate the structure of the integumentary system to its functional role in protecting the body and maintaining homeostasis

SAP2b

Explain how the skeletal structures provide support and protection for tissues, and function together with the muscular system to make movements possible.

SAP3

Students will assess the integration and coordination of body functions and their dependence on the endocrine and nervous systems to regulate physiological activities.

SAP3a

Interpret interactions among hormones, senses, and nerves which make possible the coordination of functions of the body.

SAP3b

Investigate the physiology of electrochemical impulses and neural integration and trace the pathway of an impulse, relating biochemical changes involved in the conduction of the impulse.

SAP3c

Describe how the body perceives internal and external stimuli and responds to maintain a stable internal environment, as it relates to biofeedback.

SAP4

Students will analyze the physical, chemical, and biological properties of process systems as these relate to transportation, absorption and excretion, including the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory and immune systems.

SAP4a

Describe the chemical and physical mechanisms of digestion, elimination, transportation, and absorption within the body to change food and derive energy.

SAP4b

Analyze, and explain the relationships between the respiratory and cardiovascular systems as they obtain oxygen needed for the oxidation of nutrients and removal of carbon dioxide

SAP4c

Relate the role of the urinary system to regulation of body wastes (i.e. waterelectrolyte balance, volume of body fluids).

SAP4d

Examine various conditions that change normal body functions (e.g. tissue rejection, allergies, injury, diseases and disorders) and how the body responds.

SAP4e

Describe the effects of aging on body systems.

SAP5

Students will analyze the role of the reproductive system as it pertains to the growth and development of humans.

SAP5a

Explain how the functions of the reproductive organs are regulated by hormonal interactions.

SAP5b

Describe the stages of human embryology and gestation including investigation of gestational and congenital disorders (e.g. ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, cleft palate, hydrocephaly, fetal alcohol syndrome).

SAP5c

Describe the stages of development from birth to adulthood (i.e. neonatal period, infancy, childhood, adolescence and puberty, and maturity).

SAST1

Students will explain the tools used by astronomers to study electromagnetic radiation to determine composition, motions, and other physical attributes of astronomical objects.

SAST1a

Explain the challenges faced by astronomers due to the properties of light and the vast distances in the cosmos.

SAST1b

Evaluate the types of telescopes used by astronomers for examining different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation and compare and contrast the uses and advantages of each (e.g. radio, visible, gamma ray, reflector, and refractor).

SAST1c

Mathematically apply Newtonian gravity to celestial bodies to determine their masses and explain their motion (e.g. Keplers Laws)

SAST1d

Discuss how spectroscopy provides information about the inherent properties and motions of objects.

SAST1e

Quantitatively analyze data from telescopes (e.g. spectra, multi-wavelength photometry, and images) and/or other astronomical sources (e.g. tide tables, sky charts).

SAST2

Students will describe the scientific view of the origin of the universe, the evolution of matter and the development of resulting celestial objects.

SAST2a

Outline the main arguments and evidence in support of the standard cosmological model. (e.g. elements, solar systems, and universe)

SAST2b

Describe the life cycle of a star and explain the role gravity and mass play in the brightness, life span, and end-stages of stars

SAST2c

Compare and contrast the major properties of the components of our solar system

SAST3

Students will describe and explain the celestial sphere and astronomical observations made from the point of reference of the Earth.

SAST3a

Evaluate the effects of the relative positions of the Earth, moon, and sun on observable phenomena, e.g. phases of the moon, eclipses, seasons, and diurnal cycles

SAST3b

Describe how latitude and time of the year affect visibility of constellations.

SAST3c

Predict visibility of planets (major and minor) in the solar system based on relative orbital motion.

SAST4

Students analyze the dynamic nature of astronomy by comparing and contrasting evidence supporting current views of the universe with historical views.

SAST4a

Evaluate the impact that technological advances, as an agent of change, have had on our modern view of the solar system and universe

SAST4b

Explain the relevance of experimental contributions of scientists to the advancement of the field of astronomy.

SAST5

Students will evaluate the significance of energy transfers and energy transformations in understanding the universe.

SAST5a

Relate nuclear fusion reactions and mass-energy equivalence to the life cycle of stars

SAST5b

Explain the relationship between the energy produced by fusion in stars to the luminosity.

SAST5c

Analyze the energy relationships between the mass, power output, and life span of stars.

SAST5d

Describe energy transfers and transformations associated with the motion and interactions of celestial bodies (e.g. orbits, binary pulsars, meteors, black holes, and galaxy mergers).

SAST6

Students will explore connections between cosmic phenomena and conditions necessary for life

SAST6a

Characterize the habitable zone in solar systems and habitable planetary bodies in our own and other solar systems

SAST6b

Describe the tools and techniques used to identify extrasolar planets and explore extrasolar planetary atmospheres.

SAST6c

Describe signatures of life on other worlds and early Earth.

SAST6d

Explain how astronomical hazards and global atmospheric changes have impacted the evolution of life on Earth.

SB1

Students will analyze the nature of the relationships between structures and functions in living cells

SB1a

Explain the role of cell organelles for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including the cell membrane, in maintaining homeostasis and cell reproduction.

SB1b

Explain how enzymes function as catalysts.

SB1c

Identify the function of the four major macromolecules (i.e., carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids).

SB1d

Explain the impact of water on life processes (i.e., osmosis, diffusion).

SB2

Students will analyze how biological traits are passed on to successive generations.

SB2a

Distinguish between DNA and RNA

SB2b

Explain the role of DNA in storing and transmitting cellular information

SB2c

Using Mendels laws, explain the role of meiosis in reproductive variability.

SB2d

Describe the relationships between changes in DNA and potential appearance of new traits including

SB2di

Alterations during replication.

SB2dii

Mutagenic factors that can alter DNA.

SB2diia

High energy radiation (x-rays and ultraviolet)

SB2e

Compare the advantages of sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction in different situations.

SB2f

Examine the use of DNA technology in forensics, medicine, and agriculture.

SB3

Students will derive the relationship between single-celled and multi-celled organisms and the increasing complexity of systems.

SB3a

Explain the cycling of energy through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration

SB3b

Compare how structures and function vary between the six kingdoms (archaebacteria, eubacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals)

SB3c

Examine the evolutionary basis of modern classification systems

SB3d

Compare and contrast viruses with living organisms.

SB4

Students will assess the dependence of all organisms on one another and the flow of energy and matter within their ecosystems.

SB4a

Investigate the relationships among organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and biomes.

SB4b

Explain the flow of matter and energy through ecosystems by

SB4bi

Arranging components of a food chain according to energy flow.

SB4bii

Comparing the quantity of energy in the steps of an energy pyramid.

SB4biii

Explaining the need for cycling of major nutrients (C, O, H, N, P)

SB4c

Relate environmental conditions to successional changes in ecosystems

SB4d

Assess and explain human activities that influence and modify the environment such as global warming, population growth, pesticide use, and water and power consumption.

SB4e

Relate plant adaptations, including tropisms, to the ability to survive stressful environmental conditions

SB4f

Relate animal adaptations, including behaviors, to the ability to survive stressful environmental conditions.

SB5

Students will evaluate the role of natural selection in the development of the theory of evolution

SB5a

Trace the history of the theory.

SB5b

Explain the history of life in terms of biodiversity, ancestry, and the rates of evolution.

SB5c

c. Explain how fossil and biochemical evidence support the theory.

SB5d

Relate natural selection to changes in organisms.

SB5e

. Recognize the role of evolution to biological resistance (pesticide and antibiotic resistance).

SBO1

Students will use current plant phylogenetic principles and describe the structural changes used to delineate the plant divisions

SBO1a

Describe the major structures and evolutionary changes of major organs, tissues, cells, and organelle types in nonvascular/seedless and vascular/seed plants

SBO1b

Identify and evaluate plant structures in relation to their functions

SBO1c

Use, compare, and contrast the methods and purposes of plant classification

SBO2

Students will be able to identify and describe Georgias major physiographic provinces and their natural plant communities.

SBO2a

Identify and describe four major regions (mountain, piedmont, coastal plain, salt marsh), the aquatic systems [freshwater, estuaries, and marine]) systems, and their natural plant (oak-hickory-pine, oak-pine, long leaf pine-wire grass, cord grass, algal) communities of Georgia

SBO2b

Use taxonomic keys to identify local flora and recognize major representative groups of the southeast.

SBO2c

Explore the effects of nonnative invasive plants on natural communities

SBO2d

Investigate the factors that cause plants to become endangered and the effect that extinction has on natural communities.

SBO3

Students will explore the structures and processes necessary for the mutual survival of plants and animals.

SBO3a

Describe and relate plant structures (organs, tissues, cells, organelles) to plant processes (photosynthesis, respiration, transport, growth, reproduction, dispersal).

SBO3b

Explore how flowering plants and animals have co-evolved in pollination, which confers genetic and evolutionary advantages.

SBO3c

Explore how fruit and seed adaptations help promote dispersal, which prevents competition between plants and helps in colonization.

SBO4

Students will explore the defense systems of plants and recognize the impact of plant diseases on the biosphere.

SBO4a

Identify plant diseases and management strategies.

SBO4b

Examine how plant diseases affect humans and animals.

SBO4c

Examine how plants respond to diseases caused by pathogens (i.e. insects, fungi, bacteria, viruses) and attempt to protect themselves from those disease causing agents.

SBO4d

Examine the economic and social impact of plant diseases.

SBO5

Students will analyze the diversity of plant adaptations and responses to environmental extremes.

SBO5a

Describe the diversity of plants and their adaptations in relation to differing ecosystems and changing environments, both long term (climate) and short term (seasonal and diurnal).

SBO5b

Examine plant growth and development in relation to plant hormones and responses to external signals such as light, gravity, and touch.

SBO5c

Describe and relate plant adaptations to the ability to survive stressful environments (water extremes, saline environment, and extreme temperature)

SBO5d

Analyze how human activities impact plants and the sustainability of plant communities

SBO5e

Explain the role of plant processes in the biosphere (i.e. energy and cycling of major nutrients (C, O, H, N, and P).

SBO6

Students will analyze the economic and ecological importance of plants in society.

SBO6a

Explain the uses and values of plants in different societies (agriculture, horticulture, industry, medicine, biotechnology).

SBO6b

Explain how plants impact the environment providing diverse habitats for birds, insects, and other wildlife in ecosystems.

SBO6c

Investigate ethical issues related to genetic engineering of plants.

SC1

Students will analyze the nature of matter and its classifications.

SC1a

Relate the role of nuclear fusion in producing essentially all elements heavier than helium

SC1b

Identify substances based on chemical and physical properties.

SC1c

Predict formulas for stable ionic compounds (binary and tertiary) based on balance of charges.

SC1d

Use IUPAC nomenclature for both chemical names and formulas:

SC1di

Ionic compounds (Binary and tertiary)

SC1dii

Covalent compounds (Binary and tertiary)

SC1diii

Acidic compounds (Binary and tertiary)

SC2

Students will relate how the Law of Conservation of Matter is used to determine chemical composition in compounds and chemical reactions.

SC2a

Identify and balance the following types of chemical equations:

SC2b

Experimentally determine indicators of a chemical reaction specifically precipitation, gas evolution, water production, and changes in energy to the system

SC2c

Apply concepts of the mole and Avogadros number to conceptualize and calculate

SC2ci

Empirical/molecular formulas,

SC2cii

Mass, moles and molecules relationships,

SC2ciii

Molar volumes of gases.

SC2d

Identify and solve different types of stoichiometry problems, specifically relating mass to moles and mass to mass.

SC2e

Demonstrate the conceptual principle of limiting reactants.

SC2f

Explain the role of equilibrium in chemical reactions.

SC3

Students will use the modern atomic theory to explain the characteristics of atoms.

SC3a

Discriminate between the relative size, charge, and position of protons, neutrons, and electrons in the atom.

SC3b

Use the orbital configuration of neutral atoms to explain its effect on the atoms chemical properties

SC3c

Explain the relationship of the proton number to the elements identity.

SC3d

Explain the relationship of isotopes to the relative abundance of atoms of a particular element.

SC3e

Compare and contrast types of chemical bonds (i.e. ionic, covalent).

SC3f

Relate light emission and the movement of electrons to element identification.

SC4

Students will use the organization of the Periodic Table to predict properties of elements.

SC4a

Use the Periodic Table to predict periodic trends including atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, and electronegativity of various elements.

SC4b

Compare and contrast trends in the chemical and physical properties of elements and their placement on the Periodic Table.

SC5

Students will understand that the rate at which a chemical reaction occurs can be affected by changing concentration, temperature, or pressure and the addition of a catalyst.

SC5a

Demonstrate the effects of changing concentration, temperature, and pressure on chemical reactions

SC5b

Investigate the effects of a catalyst on chemical reactions and apply it to everyday examples.

SC5c

Explain the role of activation energy and degree of randomness in chemical reactions.

SC6

Students will understand the effects motion of atoms and molecules in chemical and physical processes.

SC6a

Compare and contrast atomic/molecular motion in solids, liquids, gases, and plasmas.

SC6b

Collect data and calculate the amount of heat given off or taken in by chemical or physical processes

SC6c

Analyzing (both conceptually and quantitatively) flow of energy during change of state (phase).

SC7

Students will characterize the properties that describe solutions and the nature of acids and bases.

SC7a

Explain the process of dissolving in terms of solute/solvent interactions:

SC7ai

Observe factors that effect the rate at which a solute dissolves in a specific solvent,

SC7aii

Express concentrations as molarities

SC7aiii

Prepare and properly label solutions of specified molar concentration

SC7aiv

Relate molality to colligative properties

SC7b

Compare, contrast, and evaluate the nature of acids and bases:

SC7bi

Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry Acid/Bases

SC7bii

Strong vs. weak acids/bases in terms of percent dissociation

SC7biii

Hydronium ion concentration

SC7v

Acid-Base neutralization

SCSh1

Students will evaluate the importance of curiosity, honesty, openness, and skepticism in science

SCSh1a

Exhibit the above traits in their own scientific activities.

SCSh1b

Recognize that different explanations often can be given for the same evidence.

SCSh1c

Explain that further understanding of scientific problems relies on the design and execution of new experiments which may reinforce or weaken opposing explanations.

SCSh2

Students will use standard safety practices for all classroom laboratory and field investigations

SCSh2a

Follow correct procedures for use of scientific apparatus

SCSh2b

Demonstrate appropriate technique in all laboratory situations.

SCSh2c

Follow correct protocol for identifying and reporting safety problems and violations

SCSh3

Students will identify and investigate problems scientifically

SCSh3a

Suggest reasonable hypotheses for identified problems.

SCSh3b

Develop procedures for solving scientific problems.

SCSh3c

Collect, organize and record appropriate data.

SCSh3d

Graphically compare and analyze data points and/or summary statistics

SCSh3e

Develop reasonable conclusions based on data collected.

SCSh3f

Evaluate whether conclusions are reasonable by reviewing the process and checking against other available information.

SCSh4

Students use tools and instruments for observing, measuring, and manipulating scientific equipment and materials.

SCSh4a

Develop and use systematic procedures for recording and organizing information

SCSh4b

Use technology to produce tables and graphs.

SCSh4c

Use technology to develop, test, and revise experimental or mathematical models

SCSh5

Students will demonstrate the computation and estimation skills necessary for analyzing data and developing reasonable scientific explanations.

SCSh5a

Trace the source on any large disparity between estimated and calculated answers to problems.

SCSh5b

Consider possible effects of measurement errors on calculations.

SCSh5c

Recognize the relationship between accuracy and precision.

SCSh5d

Express appropriate numbers of significant figures for calculated data, using scientific notation where appropriate.

SCSh5e

Solve scientific problems by substituting quantitative values, using dimensional analysis and/or simple algebraic formulas as appropriate.

SCSh6

Students will communicate scientific investigations and information clearly.

SCSh6a

Write clear, coherent laboratory reports related to scientific investigations.

SCSh6b

Write clear, coherent accounts of current scientific issues, including possible alternative interpretations of the data.

SCSh6c

Use data as evidence to support scientific arguments and claims in written or oral presentations.

SCSh6d

Participate in group discussions of scientific investigation and current scientific issues.

SCSh7

Analyze how scientific knowledge is developed.

SCSh7a

The universe is a vast single system in which the basic principles are the same everywhere

SCSh7b

. Universal principles are discovered through observation and experimental verification

SCSh7c

From time to time, major shifts occur in the scientific view of how the world works. More often, however, the changes that take place in the body of scientific knowledge are small modifications of prior knowledge. Major shifts in scientific views typically occur after the observation of a new phenomenon or an insightful interpretation of existing data by an individual or research group.

SCSh7d

Hypotheses often cause scientists to develop new experiments that produce additional data.

SCSh7e

Testing, revising, and occasionally rejecting new and old theories never ends.

SCSh7f

Testing, revising, and occasionally rejecting new and old theories never ends.

SCSh8

Students will understand important features of the process of scientific inquiry. Students will apply the following to inquiry learning practices:

SCSh8a

Scientific investigators control the conditions of their experiments in order to produce valuable data.

SCSh8b

Scientific researchers are expected to critically assess the quality of data including possible sources of bias in their investigations hypotheses, observations, data analyses, and interpretations.

SCSh8c

Scientists use practices such as peer review and publication to reinforce the integrity of scientific activity and reporting.

SCSh8d

The merit of a new theory is judged by how well scientific data are explained by the new theory

SCSh8e

The ultimate goal of science is to develop an understanding of the natural universe which is free of biases.

SCSh8f

Science disciplines and traditions differ from one another in what is studied, techniques used, and outcomes sought.

SCSh9

Students will enhance reading in all curriculum areas by:

SCSh9a

Reading in all curriculum areas

SCSh9ai

Read a minimum of 25 grade-level appropriate books per year from a variety of subject disciplines and participate in discussions related to curricular learning in all areas

SCSh9aii

Read both informational and fictional texts in a variety of genres and modes of discourse

SCSh9aiii

Read technical texts related to various subject areas.

SCSh9bi

Discuss messages and themes from books in all subject areas.

SCSh9bii

Respond to a variety of texts in multiple modes of discourse.

SCSh9biii

Relate messages and themes from one subject area to messages and themes in another area.

SCSh9biv

Evaluate the merit of texts in every subject discipline.

SCSh9bv

Examine authors purpose in writing.

SCSh9bvi

Recognize the features of disciplinary texts.

SCSh9c

Building vocabulary knowledge

SCSh9ci

Demonstrate an understanding of contextual vocabulary in various subjects

SCSh9cii

Use content vocabulary in writing and speaking.

SCSh9ciii

Explore understanding of new words found in subject area texts.

SCSh9d

Establishing context

SCSh9di

Explore life experiences related to subject area content.

SCSh9dii

Discuss in both writing and speaking how certain words are subject area related

SCSh9diii

Determine strategies for finding content and contextual meaning for unknown words.

SCSh9i

Discuss messages and themes from books in all subject areas.

SCSh9ii

Respond to a variety of texts in multiple modes of discourse

SCSh9iii

Read technical texts related to various subject areas.

SCSh9iv

Evaluate the merit of texts in every subject discipline.

SCSh9v

Recognize the features of disciplinary texts.

SCSh9vi

Recognize the features of disciplinary texts

SEC1

Students will analyze how biotic and abiotic factors interact to affect the distribution of species and the diversity of life on Earth.

SEC1a

Characterize the biotic and abiotic components that define various biomes and aquatic life zones

SEC1b

Explore how global climate patterns and biogeography affect the distribution and abundance of species on Earth

SEC1c

Investigate factors that lead to the species richness of an ecosystem and describe the importance of biodiversity.

SEC1d

Relate the role of natural selection to organismal adaptations that are specific to their habitats and describe some examples of coevolution.

SEC2

Students will investigate factors influencing population density, dispersion, and demographics.

SEC2a

Evaluate factors that regulate population growth to include intraspecific competition in population growth and population density.

SEC2b

Analyze models that predict population growth.

SEC2c

Describe the different life history and reproductive strategies that have evolved in organisms

SEC2d

Relate the rapid growth of human population to environmental problems.

SEC3

Students will explore and analyze community interactions.

SEC3a

Compare and contrast species interactions (e.g. predation, parasitism, mutualism, commensalism, and competition) and adaptations that have evolved in response to interspecific selective pressures

SEC3b

Explore ecological niches and resource partitioning.

SEC3c

Identify dominant, keystone, foundation, and endangered species and their roles in ecosystems and communities, locally and globally

SEC3d

Analyze species diversity as it relates to the stability of ecosystems and communities.

SEC3e

Evaluate ecological succession in terms of changes in communities over time and the impact of disturbance on community composition.

SEC4

Students will analyze biogeochemical cycles and the flow of energy in ecosystems

SEC4a

Compare and contrast the carbon, water, oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles, describing their flow through biotic and abiotic pools, including human influences

SEC4b

Apply the first and second laws of thermodynamics and the law of conservation of matter to the flow of energy and matter in ecosystems

SEC4c

Predict the flow of energy in the living world by constructing food chains, webs and pyramids for various ecosystems.

SEC4d

Explore the importance of primary productivity in ecosystems

SEC5

Students will assess the impact of human activities on the natural world, and research how ecological theory can address current issues facing our society, locally and globally.

SEC5a

Describe the sources, environmental impacts, and mitigation measures for major primary and secondary pollutants.

SEC5b

Compare and contrast the ecological impact of sustainable and non-sustainable use of resources, including soil, timber, fish and wild game, mineral resources, and nonrenewable energy.

SEC5c

Evaluate the causes and impacts on ecosystems of natural and anthropogenic climate change

SEC5d

Explain the consequences of habitat fragmentation and habitat loss on biodiversity in relation to island biogeography, and apply island biogeography theory to the design of parks and nature preserves.

SEC5e

Research the ecological impact of agriculture (historical and modern) in the environment and its implications for feeding the worlds population.

SEN1

Students will identify and analyze the roles of insects in ecosystems.

SEN1a

Illustrate the important function(s) of insects in diverse terrestrial and freshwater food webs (i.e., as herbivores, predators, and scavengers)

SEN1b

Explain the role of insects in various niches.

SEN1c

Compare species diversity and biomass in different terrestrial habitats and evaluate why insects are the dominant organisms worldwide by either measure.

SEN1d

Analyze the numerous ways that insects affect ecosystems (e.g., plant pollination, decomposers/recyclers of organic matter).

SEN1e

Discuss the importance of coevolution/coadaptation relationships between various insects and plants (e.g., how insects serve as pollen vectors of plants).

SEN1f

Explain how some groups of insects are used as water quality indicators because they are sensitive to habitat change

SEN2

Students will investigate the reasons for insect success

SEN2a

Investigate the insect body plan and compare and contrast to other arthropods (e.g., Arachnida, Crustacea).

SEN2b

Explain advantages of different insect life cycles (e.g., complete vs. incomplete).

SEN2c

Use morphological characteristics (e.g., wing structure) to recognize major insect orders

SEN2d

Compare and contrast how insect structure and function are integrated and reflect evolved adaptations to different environments.

SEN3

Students will investigate the impact of insects on the production of food and other products.

SEN3a

Explain how humans use insect biology to make commercial products (e.g., silk, honey, lacquer, and dyes).

SEN3b

Evaluate the benefits of insects to ecosystem functioning for food production (e.g., pollinators of agricultural crops).

SEN3c

Evaluate the costs of insects as pests of crops, stored food, and housing (e.g., termites).

SEN3d

Analyze the economic impact that insects can have on livestock and pets (e.g., dog heartworm is transmitted by mosquitoes, and fleas are irritating pests).

SEN4

Students will investigate the impact of insects on human and animal health

SEN4a

Relate the impact of insects that transmit serious diseases (e.g., malaria, yellow fever, plague, dengue fever, and West Nile virus) on public health.

SEN4b

Illustrate how insect-carried diseases have changed the course of human history (e.g., the Black Plague during the Middle Ages, and malaria in world history including Georgia)

SEN4c

Discuss how insects can affect human and animal health through allergic reactions (e.g., wasp stings, cockroach droppings, etc.).

SEN5

Students will evaluate methods for the management of insect populations for the benefit of humans.

SEN5a

Discuss the economic benefits of controlling insect population.

SEN5b

Explain how conventional spraying has caused the evolution of insect resistance, risks to human health and reduction of beneficial insect populations.

SEN5c

Explain how biological control of crop pests and undesirable plants is achieved through the use of beneficial insects (e.g., insect parasitoids, predators, and herbivores).

SEN5d

Evaluate the benefits and risks of using genetically modified crops to manage insect pests.

SEN5e

Discuss how Integrated Pest Management (IPM) limits evolution of insect resistance to chemical and other control means.

SEN5f

Research environmentally friendly ways in which humans can prevent or avoid many insect problems (e.g., repellents and traps)

SEPI1

Students will be able to understand the disease process

SEPI1a

Understand the bodys defense mechanisms

SEPI1b

Recognize how illness results when the bodys defense mechanisms fails to maintain homeostasis

SEPI1c

Compare different modes of disease transmission

SEPI1d

Explain how the rapid evolution of microbes results in diseases that will continue to be a public health concern

SEPI2

Students will identify patterns of health and disease and formulate hypotheses

SEPI2a

Identify the amount and distribution of disease within a population by person, place, and time

SEPI2b

Develop and formulate possible explanations to be investigated

SEPI2c

Analyze the patterns of illness

SEPI3

Students will gather and analyze data to make group comparisons and identify associations

SEPI3a

Distinguish between the different epidemiological study designs

SEPI3b

Compare groups of people with and without exposure to determine if the exposure and disease are associated

SEPI3c

Demonstrate awareness of the ethical issues in epidemiology and human trials

SEPI4

Students will be able to understand associations and judge causations of health and disease

SEPI4a

Distinguish between confounding and associated variables

SEPI4b

Demonstrate that judgments about whether an exposure causes a disease are developed by examining a body of epidemiological evidence as well as evidence from other scientific disciplines

SEPI4c

Share findings with others

SEPI5

Students will interpret and critically analyze health related messages in the media to make informed public health decisions and establish life goals

SEPI5a

Understand the emergent technology that may impact health and disease

SEPI5b

Judge the strengths and limitations of epidemiological reports

SEPI5c

Students will evaluate the use of a health related strategy to promote a healthy lifestyle

SEPI5d

Students will be exposed to various career paths in public health

SES1

Students will investigate the composition and formation of Earth systems, including the Earths relationship to the solar system

SES1a

Describe the early evolution of the Earth and solar system, including the formation of Earths solid layers (core, mantle, crust), the distribution of major elements, the origin of internal heat sources, and the mechanism by which heat transfer drives plate tectonics.

SES1b

Explain how the composition of the Earths crust, mantle and core is determined and compare it to that of other solar system objects.

SES1c

Describe how the decay of radioactive isotopes is used to determine the age of rocks, Earth, and solar system.

SES1d

Describe how the Earth acquired its initial oceans and atmosphere.

SES1e

Identify the transformations and major reservoirs that make up the rock cycle, hydrologic cycle, carbon cycle, and other important geochemical cycles.

SES2

Students will understand how plate tectonics creates certain geologic features, materials, and hazards.

SES2a

Distinguish among types of plate tectonic settings produced by plates diverging, converging, and sliding past each other.

SES2b

Relate modern and ancient geologic features to each kind of plate tectonic setting.

SES2c

Relate certain geologic hazards to specific plate tectonic settings.

SES2d

Associate specific plate tectonic settings with the production of particular groups of igneous and metamorphic rocks and mineral resources.

SES2e

Explain how plate tectonics creates and destroys sedimentary basins through time.

SES3

Students will explore the actions of water, wind, ice, and gravity that create landforms and systems of landforms (landscapes).

SES3a

Describe how surface water and groundwater act as the major agents of physical and chemical weathering.

SES3b

Explain how soil results from weathering and biological processes acting on parent rock

SES3c

Describe the processes and hazards associated with both sudden and gradual mass wasting.

SES3d

Relate the past and present actions of ice, wind, and water to landform distribution and landscape evolution.

SES3e

Explain the processes that transport and deposit material in terrestrial and marine sedimentary basins, which result, over time, in sedimentary rock.

SES4

Students will understand how rock relationships and fossils are used to reconstruct the Earths past.

SES4a

Describe and apply principles of relative age (superposition, original horizontality, cross-cutting relations, and original lateral continuity) and describe how unconformities form

SES4b

Interpret the geologic history of a succession of rocks and unconformities.

SES4c

Apply the principle of uniformitarianism to relate sedimentary rock associations and their fossils to the environments in which the rocks were deposited.

SES4d

Explain how sedimentary rock units are correlated within and across regions by a variety of methods (e.g., geologic map relationships, the principle of fossil succession, radiometric dating, and paleomagnetism).

SES4e

Use geologic maps and stratigraphic relationships to interpret major events in Earth history (e.g., mass extinction, major climatic change, tectonic events).

SES5

Students will investigate the interaction of insolation and Earth systems to produce weather and climate.

SES5a

Explain how latitudinal variations in solar heating create atmospheric and ocean currents that redistribute heat globally.

SES5b

Explain the relationship between air masses and the surfaces over which they form.

SES5c

Relate weather patterns to interactions among ocean currents, air masses, and topography.

SES5d

Describe how temperature and precipitation produce the pattern of climate regions (classes) on Earth.

SES5e

Describe the hazards associated with extreme weather events and climate change (e.g., hurricanes, tornadoes, El Nio/La Nia, global warming).

SES5f

Relate changes in global climate to variation in Earth/Sun relationships and to natural and anthropogenic modification of atmospheric composition.

SES6

Students will explain how life on Earth responds to and shapes Earth systems.

SES6a

Relate the nature and distribution of life on Earth, including humans, to the chemistry and availability of water.

SES6b

Relate the distribution of biomes (terrestrial, freshwater, and marine) to climate regions through time.

SES6c

Explain how geological and ecological processes interact through time to cycle matter and energy, and how human activity alters the rates of these processes (e.g., fossil fuel formation and combustion).

SES6d

Describe how fossils provide a record of shared ancestry, evolution, and extinction that is best explained by the mechanism of natural selection.

SES6e

Identify the evolutionary innovations that most profoundly shaped Earth systems: photosynthetic prokaryotes and the atmosphere; multicellular animals and marine environments; land plants and terrestrial environments.

SEV1

Students will investigate the flow of energy and cycling of matter within an ecosystem and relate these phenomena to human society.

SEV1a

Interpret biogeochemical cycles including hydrologic, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, and carbon cycles. Recognize that energy is not recycled in ecosystems.

SEV1b

Relate energy changes to food chains, food webs, and to trophic levels in a generalized ecosystem, recognizing that entropy is a primary factor in the loss of usable food energy during movement up the trophic levels.

SEV1c

Relate food production and quality of nutrition to population growth and the trophic levels

SEV1d

Relate the cycling of matter and the flow of energy to the Laws of Conservation of matter and energy. Identify the role and importance of decomposers in the recycling process

SEV1e

Distinguish between abiotic and biotic factors in an ecosystem and describe how matter and energy move between these.

SEV2

Students will demonstrate an understanding that the Earth is one interconnected system.

SEV2a

Describe how the abiotic components (water, air, and energy) affect the biosphere.

SEV2b

Recognize and give examples of the hierarchy of the biological entities of the biosphere (organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and biosphere).

SEV2c

Characterize the components that define a Biome. Abiotic Factors to include precipitation, temperature and soils. Biotic Factors plant and animal adaptations that create success in that biome

SEV2d

Characterize the components that define fresh-water and marine systems. Abiotic Factors to include light, dissolved oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, pH and substrate. Biotic Factors plant and animal adaptations characteristic to that system.

SEV3

Students will describe stability and change in ecosystems.

SEV3a

Describe interconnections between abiotic and biotic factors, including normal cyclic fluctuations and changes associated with climatic change (i.e. ice ages)

SEV3b

Explain succession in terms of changes in communities through time to include changes in biomass, diversity, and complexity.

SEV3c

Explain how succession may be altered by traumatic events.

SEV3d

Explain how biotic and abiotic factors influence populations.

SEV3e

Describe interactions between individuals (i.e. mutualism, commensalisms, parasitism, predation, and competition).

SEV4

Students will understand and describe availability, allocation and conservation of energy and other resources

SEV4a

Differentiate between renewable and nonrenewable resources including how different resources are produced, rates of use, renewal rates, and limitations of sources. Distinguish between natural and produced resources.

SEV4b

Describe how technology is increasing the efficiency of utilization and accessibility of resources.

SEV4c

Describe how energy and other resource utilization impact the environment and recognize that individuals as well as larger entities (businesses, governments, etc.) have impact on energy efficiency.

SEV4d

Describe the relationship of energy consumption and the living standards of societies.

SEV4e

Describe the commonly used fuels (e.g. fossil fuels, nuclear fuels, etc.) and some alternative fuels (e.g. wind, solar, ethanol, etc.) including the required technology, availability, pollution problems and implementation problems. Recognize the origin of fossil fuels and the problems associated with our dependence on this energy source.

SEV4f

Describe the need for informed decision making of resource utilization. (i.e. energy and water usage allocation, conservation, food and land, and long-term depletion)

SEV5

Students will recognize that human beings are part of the global ecosystem and will evaluate the effects of human activities and technology on ecosystems.

SEV5a

Describe factors affecting population growth of all organisms, including humans. Relate these to factors affecting growth rates and carrying capacity of the environment.

SEV5b

Describe the effects of population growth, demographic transitions, cultural differences, emergent diseases, etc. on societal stability.

SEV5c

Explain how human activities affect global and local sustainability.

SEV5d

Describe the actual and potential effects of habitat destruction, erosion, and depletion of soil fertility associated with human activities.

SEV5e

Describe the effects and potential implications of pollution and resource depletion on the environment at the local and global levels (e.g. air and water pollution, solid waste disposal, depletion of the stratospheric ozone, global warming, and land uses).

SEV5f

Describe how political, legal, social, and economic decisions may affect global and local ecosystems.

SEVP1

Students will investigate current energy resources, the conversion of energy in ecological processes, the utilization of energy, and the environmental consequences of energy use.

SEVP1a

Apply the Law of Conservation of Energy and Work-Energy Theorem to explain the flow of energy in ecological processes.

SEVP1b

Apply the laws of thermodynamics to the human environment.

SEVP1c

Explain the relationship between matter and energy.

SEVP1d

Differentiate between renewable and nonrenewable resources including how different resources are produced, rates of use, renewal rates, and limitations of sources.

SEVP1e

Describe the basic physics underpinning wind, hydroelectric and solar energies

SEVP1f

Discuss the problems of energy demand and explain the possible contributions of renewables to energy supply, and availability

SEVP2

Students will understand how spectroscopy and detection technology may be used for monitoring environmental processes and pollutants.

SEVP2a

Explain the nature of light and the electromagnetic spectrum.

SEVP2b

Explain the processes that result in the production of electromagnetic waves.

SEVP2c

Explain the flow of energy by electromagnetic radiation

SEVP2d

Calculate energy, frequency and wavelengths according to the Planck-Einstein relationship

SEVP2e

Qualitatively relate the energy of electronic transitions to the specific color of light observed.

SEVP2f

Use analytical spectroscopy techniques to monitor environmental processes.

SEVP2g

Explore the behavior of waves in various media in terms of reflection, refraction, and diffraction.

SEVP2h

Demonstrate the transfer of energy through different mediums by mechanical waves.

SEVP3

Students will evaluate and discuss the fundamental processes that cause atmospheric circulation and create climate zones and weather patterns, and learn how carbon cycling between atmosphere, land, and ocean reservoirs helps to regulate the Earth's climate

SEVP3a

Describe the composition, structure and dynamics of Earths atmosphere.

SEVP3b

Discuss the main factors influencing Earths temperature.

SEVP3c

Describe the transport of solar radiation through the atmosphere to the Earths surface and subsequent radiation back through the atmosphere into space.

SEVP3d

Discuss the Greenhouse Effect and greenhouse gases.

SEVP4

Students will recognize that human beings are part of the global ecosystem and will evaluate the effects of human activities and technology on ecosystems.

SEVP4a

Explain the consequences of human activities on the atmosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere

SEVP4b

Discuss the global energy budget and the reasons for current reliance upon fossil fuels

SEVP4c

Describe how energy and other resource utilization impact the environment.

SEVP4d

Describe the effects and potential implications of pollution and resource depletion on the environment at the local and global levels.

SEVP4e

Provide a critical discussion of the causes and consequences of ozone depletion and global warming and discuss possible remedial actions

SEVP4f

Explain how human activities affect global and local sustainability.

SFS1

Students will recognize and classify various types of evidence in relation to the definition and scope of Forensic Science.

SFS1a

Compare and contrast the history of scientific forensic techniques used in collecting and submitting evidence for admissibility in court (e.g. Locards Exchange Principle, Frye standard, Daubert ruling).

SFS1b

Distinguish and categorize physical and trace evidence (e.g. ballistics, drugs, fibers, fingerprints, glass, hair, metal, lip prints, soil, and toxins).

SFS1c

Determine the proper techniques to search, isolate, collect, and record physical and trace evidence.

SFS1d

Evaluate the relevance of possible evidence at the site of an investigation

SFS1e

Organize relevant information to accurately develop and submit both scene and analysis reports.

SFS2

Students will use various scientific techniques to analyze physical and trace evidence.

SFS2a

Identify and utilize appropriate techniques used to lift and evaluate readable, latent, plastic and visible fingerprints.

SFS2b

Analyze the morphology and types of hair, fibers, soil and glass

SFS2c

Evaluate how post mortem changes are used to determine probable time of death:

SFS2d

Identify methods used for the evaluation of handwriting and document evidence

SFS2e

Determine the appropriate uses of chromatography and spectroscopy in evidence analysis.

SFS3

Students will analyze the use of toxicology, serology, and DNA technology in forensic investigations

SFS3a

Classify toxins and their effects on the body

SFS3b

Compare the effects of alcohol on blood alcohol levels with regard to gender, and according to the law

SFS3c

Evaluate forensic techniques used to isolate toxins in the body.

SFS3d

Differentiate the forensic techniques used to distinguish human and animal blood

SFS3e

Analyze the physics of blood stain patterns.

SFS3f

Compare short tandem repeat patterns (STR) and relate to identifying the DNA of an individual

SFS3g

Explain the use of the DNA database for DNA profiling.

SFS4

Students will evaluate the role of ballistics, tool marks and evidence of arson in forensic investigation.

SFS4a

Identify firearm lab tests used to distinguish the characteristics of ballistics and cartridge cases.

SFS4b

Analyze the physics of ballistic trajectory to predict range of firing

SFS4c

Recognize the forensic significance of tool marks, footwear and tire impressions in an investigation

SFS4d

Evaluate possible indicators of arson and criminal bombing.

SFS5

Students will evaluate the role of Forensics as it pertains to Medicolegal Death Investigation.

SFS5a

Identify various causes of death (blunt force trauma, heart attack, bleeding, etc.)

SFS5b

Analyze evidence that pertains to the manner of death (natural, homicide, suicide, accidental, or undetermined).

SM1

Students will relate the formation, structure and composition of Earths atmosphere to the processes that cause weather.

SM1a

Describe how atmospheric activity such as meteor bombardment, led to the formation of Earths early atmosphere.

SM1b

Examine the chemical composition, location and characteristics of the layers of Earths present day atmosphere

SM1c

Analyze the effect insulation has on the relative amount of heat energy in the atmosphere and how temperature differences give rise to phenomena such as Hadley cells and Ferrel cells

SM1d

Analyze the influence that the Coriolis Effect has on the movement of Earths air masses.

SM1e

Compare the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere to characteristic atmospheric conditions.

SM2

Students will investigate energy transfer to types of clouds formed, precipitation, and air masses

SM2a

Explain the relationship between air masses and the areas over which they form.

SM2b

Differentiate the four types of fronts, their structure, and the clouds and precipitation associated with each front.

SM2c

Relate weather events to the energy transfer within the Earth's atmosphere.

SM2d

Examine the role of energy transfer in the development of global weather patterns.

SM3

Students will explore the science of weather forecasting.

SM3a

Analyze a surface weather map.

SM3b

Predict weather for a specific location using knowledge of air mass, frontal, and cyclone movement.

SM3c

Investigate and describe the formation of severe weather including severe thunderstorms, hurricane, tornadoes and their role in energy transfer.

SM3d

Describe the role of technological advancements on weather forecasting and relate that to the improvement of weather watch/warning issuance.

SM4

Students will analyze the relationship of weather and society

SM4a

Analyze the implications of severe weather events (droughts, floods, thunderstorms, tornadoes, winter weather, hurricanes, etc.) on local, national, and global economies.

SM4b

Interpret the relationship between weather and pollution (smog, ground level ozone, acid rain, etc.) and the impact of pollution on the economy, health, and the environment.

SM4c

Analyze the concept of the urban heat island and its effects on weather and society

SM4d

Compare and contrast the reasons for decreasing stratospheric ozone and its implications to humans.

SM4e

Evaluate political, social, and economic decisions and their relationship to the development and/or reduction of acid rain, smog, and the urban heat island effect.

SM5

Students will differentiate the climates of Earth, how climate changes through time, and the theories regarding current climate change.

SM5a

Compare and contrast the various climates found on Earth.

SM5b

Demonstrate knowledge of the reasons for continual climate change

SM5c

Evaluate the effects of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on climate.

SM5d

Analyze current methods of climate prediction. (Predictions of ENSO, NAO, long-range outlooks, etc.)

SM5e

Explore radiative equilibrium and demonstrate the differences between the greenhouse effect and global warming.

SM5f

Judge the current theories explaining global warming and argue the potential implications of global warming on global weather patterns and severe weather events

SMI1

Students will analyze different types of microorganisms and their defining characteristics.

SMI1a

Distinguish between different kinds of microorganisms based on cellular structure, molecular biology and biochemical composition.

SMI1b

Describe how viruses differ from other parasitic microorganisms

SMI1c

Compare relative sizes of microorganisms, different types of cell shapes, and various methods used to visualize microorganisms.

SMI2

Students will examine structural components of microbes and their functions.

SMI2a

Investigate structural properties of microbial membranes and functions associated with these membranes

SMI2b

Compare structures of prokaryotic cell envelope (e.g., cell membrane, wall and capsule and S-layers) and virus envelopes and their functions in providing support and protection.

SMI2c

Examine intracellular organization in microbes and explain how these structures play roles in energy generation, transcription, translation, DNA replication and cellular locomotion.

SMI3

Students will examine different ways in which microbial cells generate energy for growth and reproduction.

SMI3a

Explain different types of energy generation used by microbes, including respiration, photosynthesis, and lithotrophy.

SMI3b

Describe how microorganisms differ with respect to their nutritional requirements for growth.

SMI4

Students will investigate molecular mechanisms involved in gene expression in microbes.

SMI4a

Investigate molecular basis for transcription, translation, and DNA replication in prokaryotes and eukaryotes

SMI4b

Examine how DNA rearrangements occur in bacteria.

SMI4c

Describe how genetic information is transferred between cells

SMI4d

Describe how genetic transfer impacts microbial evolution and how it can be utilized in biotechnological applications.

SMI5

Students will compare and contrast parameters affecting microbial growth, ways of controlling growth of microorganisms, and examine the effects that physicochemical factors can have on microbes.

SMI5a

Explain different growth phases of microbial in a batch cultures and the factors that influence these phases.

SMI5b

Describe environmental factors that influence microbial growth and how these factors vary for different species.

SMI5c

Compare various physical and chemical methods used to control or prevent microbial growth

SMI5d

Explain the various modes of action of specific antibiotics in preventing the growth of microorganisms

SMI5e

Describe how exposure to certain chemicals or radiation increase rates of heritable mutations in microorganisms.

SMI5f

Examine the evolution and spread of antibiotic resistant pathogens.

SMI6

Students will analyze the impact of microorganisms in the environment and the use of microbes in biotechnology, agriculture, and industry.

SMI6a

Explain the prevalence and diversity of microbes in various environments (e.g., hot springs, arctic ice, hypersaline environments, alkaline soils, acid mine drainage.)

SMI6b

Relate biotic and abiotic factors to the development of microbial populations and diversity

SMI6c

Describe the importance of microorganisms in global nutrient cycling within both soil, freshwater, and marine habitats.

SMI6d

Describe applications of microbes in industry, biotechnology and food processing.

SMI6e

Relate water and soil quality to microbial contamination and its impact on human populations.

SMI7

Students will analyze symbiotic and pathogenic relationships in host-microbe interactions

SMI7a

Relate Kochs postulates to identifying disease-causing microbes

SMI7b

Describe examples of pathogenic microorganisms and how they cause disease in plants and animals.

SMI7c

Compare mechanisms of how communicable diseases are spread among individuals within a population and how genetic changes in pathogenic microbes (such as influenza virus) result in new outbreaks of disease

SMI7d

Explain animal host defense mechanisms for combating microbial invaders, including both adaptive and innate immune systems.

SMI7e

Describe plant-host defense mechanisms in response to microbial invasion

SMI7f

Describe symbiotic relationships between plants or animals and microorganisms and the importance of these relationships to both partners.

SO1

Students will identify characteristics, physical features, and boundaries of the oceans.

SO1a

Trace the development of the theory of plate tectonics.

SO1b

Explain how the dynamic events at plate boundaries influence oceans and continents.

SO1c

Differentiate between features of the continental margins and the deep ocean basins

SO1d

Identify the sources of the main types of marine sediments and describe how marine sediments are used in paleoceanography.

SO2

Students will relate how the oceans are integral to all life on earth and how biogeochemical processes in the oceans influence the entire planet.

SO2a

Explain how the hydrologic cycle integrates the oceans and the land.

SO2b

Identify the role of the oceans in global biogeochemical cycles.

SO2c

Distinguish between photosynthesis and chemosynthesis in ocean flora

SO2d

Analyze the flow of energy in marine ecosystems

SO2e

Describe the limiting factors that influence the primary productivity of the oceans.

SO3

Students will analyze how weather and climate are influenced by the oceans.

SO3a

Identify general global patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation including variations such as El Nino and monsoons.

SO3b

Explain the influence of the Coriolis Effect on winds, ocean currents, and on weather and climate.

SO3c

Describe the effects of tilt of the earth, solar energy inputs, and heat capacity of land and oceans on the resulting patterns of weather and climate.

SO3d

Explain relationships between climate change, the greenhouse effect, and the consequences of global warming on the ocean.

SO4

Students will investigate waves and tides and analyze their influence on coastal processes.

SO4a

Explain how waves are generated.

SO4b

Explain the role of the moon and the sun in the formation of tides and tide patterns

SO4c

Describe the role of waves, tides, and sea level change on the physical structure of the coast

SO4d

Investigate the relationship of tides and waves on the distribution and diversity of organisms in shallow water communities such as rocky intertidal zones and estuaries

SO4e

Identify natural hazards (e.g., tsunamis, hurricanes, and sea level change) and their impact on coastal communities.

SO5

Students will analyze how the unique attributes of seawater determine the types of marine organisms and the ecology of marine food webs.

SO5a

Compare and contrast the physical and chemical structure of pure water and seawater

SO5b

Identify adaptations of marine organisms that allow them to live in seawater rather than on land.

SO5c

Describe patterns and relationships between biotic and abiotic factors among marine ecosystems, including estuaries, coral reefs, open waters, and the deep ocean.

SO5d

Explain the relationship between productivity, the flow of energy, and the structure of marine food webs

SO6

Students will identify how humans use the oceans for food, commerce, and energy and will evaluate the potential for abuse in the absence of responsible stewardship.

SO6a

Describe how physical, geological, and biological resources are extracted from the oceans, and assess the consequences for marine ecosystems.

SO6b

Identify how the oceans are used as sources of alternative energy.

SO6c

Explain how the oceans are used for recreation and transportation, and evaluate their impacts on marine ecosystems

SO6d

Analyze issues, policies, and laws that promote responsible stewardship of the oceans, including trade, fisheries, transportation, and resources.

SP1

Students will analyze the relationships between force, mass, gravity, and the motion of objects.

SP1a

Calculate average velocity, instantaneous velocity, and acceleration in a given frame of reference

SP1b

Compare and contrast scalar and vector quantities.

SP1c

Compare graphically and algebraically the relationships among position, velocity, acceleration, and time

SP1d

Measure and calculate the magnitude of frictional forces and Newtons three Laws of Motion

SP1e

Measure and calculate the magnitude of gravitational forces.

SP1f

Measure and calculate two-dimensional motion (projectile and circular) by using component vectors

SP1g

Measure and calculate centripetal force.

SP1h

Determine the conditions required to maintain a body in a state of static equilibrium.

SP2

Students will evaluate the significance of energy in understanding the structure of matter and the universe.

SP2a

Relate the energy produced through fission and fusion by stars as a driving force in the universe.

SP2b

Explain how the instability of radioactive isotopes results in spontaneous nuclear reactions.

SP3

Students will evaluate the forms and transformations of energy.

SP3a

Analyze, evaluate, and apply the principle of conservation of energy and measure the components of work-energy theorem by

SP3ai

describing total energy in a closed system.

SP3aii

identifying different types of potential energy.

SP3aiii

calculating kinetic energy given mass and velocity.

SP3aiv

relating transformations between potential and kinetic energy.

SP3b

Explain the relationship between matter and energy.

SP3c

Measure and calculate the vector nature of momentum

SP3d

Compare and contrast elastic and inelastic collisions

SP3e

Demonstrate the factors required to produce a change in momentum.

SP3f

Analyze the relationship between temperature, internal energy, and work done in a physical system.

SP3g

Analyze and measure power.

SP4

Students will analyze the properties and applications of waves

SP4a

Explain the processes that results in the production and energy transfer of electromagnetic waves.

SP4b

Experimentally determine the behavior of waves in various media in terms of reflection, refraction, and diffraction of waves.

SP4c

Explain the relationship between the phenomena of interference and the principle of superposition.

SP4d

Demonstrate the transfer of energy through different mediums by mechanical waves.

SP4e

Determine the location and nature of images formed by the reflection or refraction of light.

SP5

Students will evaluate relationships between electrical and magnetic forces.

SP5a

Describe the transformation of mechanical energy into electrical energy and the transmission of electrical energy.

SP5b

Determine the relationship among potential difference, current, and resistance in a direct current circuit

SP5c

Determine equivalent resistances in series and parallel circuits.

SP5d

Determine the relationship between moving electric charges and magnetic fields.

SP6

The student will describe the corrections to Newtonian physics given by quantum mechanics and relativity when matter is very small, moving fast compared to the speed of light, or very large

SP6a

Explain matter as a particle and as a wave.

SP6b

Describe the Uncertainty Principle.

SP6c

Explain the differences in time, space, and mass measurements by two observers when one is in a frame of reference moving at constant velocity parallel to one of the coordinate axes of the other observers frame of reference if the constant velocity is greater than one tenth the speed of light.

SP6d

Describe the gravitational field surrounding a large mass and its effect on a ray of light.

SPS1

Students will investigate our current understanding of the atom.

SPS10

Students will investigate the properties of electricity and magnetism.

SPS10a

Investigate static electricity in terms of

SPS10b

Explain the flow of electrons in terms of

SPS10bi

alternating and direct current.

SPS10bii

the relationship among voltage, resistance and current.

SPS10biii

simple series and parallel circuits

SPS10c

Investigate applications of magnetism and/or its relationship to the movement of electrical charge as it relates to

SPS1a

Examine the structure of the atom in terms of

SPS1ai

proton, electron, and neutron locations.

SPS1aii

atomic mass and atomic number.

SPS1aiii

atoms with different numbers of neutrons (isotopes).

SPS1aiv

explain the relationship of the proton number to the elements identity.

SPS1b

Compare and contrast ionic and covalent bonds in terms of electron movement.

SPS2

Students will explore the nature of matter, its classifications, and its system for naming types of matter

SPS2a

Calculate density when given a means to determine a substances mass and volume

SPS2b

Predict formulas for stable binary ionic compounds based on balance of charges.

SPS2c

Use IUPAC nomenclature for transition between chemical names and chemical formulas of

SPS2ci

binary ionic compounds (containing representative elements).

SPS2cii

binary covalent compounds (i.e. carbon dioxide, carbon tetrachloride).

SPS2d

Demonstrate the Law of Conservation of Matter in a chemical reaction

SPS2e

Apply the Law of Conservation of Matter by balancing the following types of chemical equations:

SPS3

Students will distinguish the characteristics and components of radioactivity.

SPS3a

Differentiate among alpha and beta particles and gamma radiation.

SPS3b

Differentiate between fission and fusion

SPS3c

Explain the process half-life as related to radioactive decay

SPS3d

Describe nuclear energy, its practical application as an alternative energy source, and its potential problems.

SPS4

Students will investigate the arrangement of the Periodic Table

SPS4a

Determine the trends of the following:

SPS4ai

Number of valence electrons

SPS4aii

Location of metals, nonmetals, and metalloids

SPS4aiv

Phases at room temperature

SPS4b

Use the Periodic Table to predict the above properties for representative elements.

SPS5

Students will compare and contrast the phases of matter as they relate to atomic and molecular motion.

SPS5a

Compare and contrast the atomic/molecular motion of solids, liquids, gases and plasmas.

SPS5b

Relate temperature, pressure, and volume of gases to the behavior of gases.

SPS6

Students will investigate the properties of solutions.

SPS6a

Describe solutions in terms of

SPS6b

Observe factors affecting the rate a solute dissolves in a specific solvent

SPS6c

Demonstrate that solubility is related to temperature by constructing a solubility curve.

SPS6d

Compare and contrast the components and properties of acids and bases.

SPS6e

Determine whether common household substances are acidic, basic, or neutral.

SPS7

Students will relate transformations and flow of energy within a system.

SPS7a

Identify energy transformations within a system (e.g. lighting of a match).

SPS7b

Investigate molecular motion as it relates to thermal energy changes in terms of conduction, convection, and radiation

SPS7c

Determine the heat capacity of a substance using mass, specific heat, and temperature.

SPS7d

Explain the flow of energy in phase changes through the use of a phase diagram.

SPS8

Students will determine relationships among force, mass, and motion.

SPS8a

Calculate velocity and acceleration

SPS8b

Apply Newtons three laws to everyday situations by explaining the following:

SPS8bii

Equal and opposite forces

SPS8c

Relate falling objects to gravitational force

SPS8d

Explain the difference in mass and weight

SPS8e

Calculate amounts of work and mechanical advantage using simple machines.

SPS9

Students will investigate the properties of waves.

SPS9a

Recognize that all waves transfer energy

SPS9b

Relate frequency and wavelength to the energy of different types of electromagnetic waves and mechanical waves.

SPS9c

Compare and contrast the characteristics of electromagnetic and mechanical (sound) waves.

SPS9d

Investigate the phenomena of reflection, refraction, interference, and diffraction.

SPS9e

Relate the speed of sound to different mediums.

SPS9f

Explain the Doppler Effect in terms of everyday interactions.

SZ1

Students will derive the phylogeny of animal taxa (monophyletic clades in a cladogram) using informative characteristics.

SZ1a

Construct a classification of representative animal taxa including: Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Rotifera, Mollusca, Arthropoda (Mandibulata, Chelicerata, and Crustacea), Bryozoa, Brachiopoda, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, Urochordata, Cephalochordata, and Vertebrata

SZ1b

Place taxa in a phylogenetic (evolutionary) context and provide data to support hypotheses of relationships

SZ1bi

Construct a graphical representation of animal evolution (cladogram)

SZ1bii

Recognize characters that are shared and derived, uniting taxa

SZ1biii

Interpret graphical representations of animal evolution (cladograms)

SZ1d

Recognize types of data used to test hypotheses of relationships

SZ2

Students will explain the evolutionary history of animals over the geological history of Earth

SZ2a

Outline the geological history of Earth and discuss the major environmental changes that have occurred over time

SZ2b

Explain the concepts evolution, adaptation, natural selection, convergence, and speciation

SZ2c

Describe the fossil record of the animals including discussing the Cambrian Explosion and major extinction events.

SZ3

Students will compare form and function relationships within animal groups (clades) and across key taxa.

SZ3a

Explain the similarities and differences among major body plans (e.g., asymmetry, radial and bilateral symmetry).

SZ3b

Compare and contrast taxa based on morphological and genetic characters.

SZ3c

Relate important structural changes to key functional transitions

SZ3d

Dissect representative taxa and describe their internal anatomy and the function of major organ systems and organs and relate to cell specializations.

SZ4

Students will assess how animals interact with their environment including key adaptations found within animal taxa.

SZ4a

Discuss morphological and physiological adaptations relative to ecological roles.

SZ4b

Relate animal adaptations, including behaviors, to the ecological roles of animals.

SZ4c

Explain various life cycles found among animals (e.g., polyp and medusa in cnidarians; multiple hosts and stages in the platyhelminthe life cycle; arthropod metamorphosis; egg, tadpole, adult stages in the amphibian life cycle).

SZ5

Students will evaluate the relationships between humans and other animals

SZ5a

Describe the effects of human activities such as habitat destruction, over hunting, introduced species, and pollution on animal biodiversity.

SZ5b

Explain the importance of species diversity to the biological resources needed by human populations including food, medicine, and natural aesthetics

SZ5c

Compare and contrast how humans can preserve animal diversity in captive and natural environments with regard to habitat creation and conservation, research, legislation, animal enrichment, diet, medical, breeding programs and management of genetic diversity at local and global levels.

SZ5d

Investigate how moral, legal, societal, political, and economic decisions impact animal diversity with short-term and long-term effects.