# Georgia Science Learning Standards — Grade 8

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#### S8CS1

Students will explore the importance of curiosity, honesty, openness, and skepticism in science and will exhibit these traits in their own efforts to understand how the world works.

#### S8CS10

Enhance reading in all curriculum areas by:

#### S8CS10a

Read a minimum of 25 grade-level appropriate books per year from a variety of subject disciplines and participate in discussions related to curricular learning in all areas.

#### S8CS10b

Examine authors purpose in writing

#### S8CS10c

Recognize the features of disciplinary texts.

#### S8CS10d

Explore life experiences related to subject area content.

#### S8CS1a

Understand the importance ofand keephonest, clear, and accurate records in science.

#### S8CS1b

Understand that hypotheses can be valuable even if they turn out not to be completely accurate.

#### S8CS2

Use standard safety practices for all classroom laboratory and field investigations.

#### S8CS2a

Follow correct procedures for use of scientific apparatus.

#### S8CS2b

Demonstrate appropriate techniques in all laboratory situations.

#### S8CS2c

Follow correct protocol for identifying and reporting safety problems and violations.

#### S8CS3

Computation and estimation skills necessary for analyzing data and following scientific explanations.

#### S8CS3a

Analyze scientific data by using, interpreting, and comparing numbers in several equivalent forms, such as integers, fractions, decimals, and percents.

#### S8CS3b

Find the mean, median, and mode and use them to analyze a set of scientific data

#### S8CS3c

Apply the metric system to scientific investigations that include metric to metric conversions (i.e., centimeters to meters).

#### S8CS3d

Decide what degree of precision is adequate, and round off appropriately.

#### S8CS3e

Address the relationship between accuracy and precision.

#### S8CS3f

Use ratios and proportions, including constant rates, in appropriate problems.

#### S8CS4

Use tools and instruments for observing, measuring, and manipulating equipment and materials in scientific activities utilizing safe laboratory procedures.

#### S8CS4a

Use appropriate technology to store and retrieve scientific information in topical, alphabetical, numerical, and keyword files, and create simple files.

#### S8CS4b

Use appropriate tools and units for measuring objects and/or substances.

#### S8CS4c

Learn and use standard safety practices when conducting scientific investigations.

#### S8CS5

Use the ideas of system, model, change, and scale in exploring scientific and technological matters.

#### S8CS5a

Observe and explain how parts can be related to other parts in a system such as the role of simple machines in complex machines.

#### S8CS5b

Understand that different models (such as physical replicas, pictures, and analogies) can be used to represent the same thing.

#### S8CS6

Communicate scientific ideas and activities clearly.

#### S8CS6a

Write clear, step-by-step instructions for conducting scientific investigations, operating a piece of equipment, or following a procedure.

#### S8CS6b

Write for scientific purposes incorporating information from a circle, bar, or line graph, data tables, diagrams, and symbols.

#### S8CS6c

Organize scientific information in appropriate tables, charts, and graphs, and identify relationships they reveal.

#### S8CS7

Question scientific claims and arguments effectively.

#### S8CS7a

Question claims based on vague attributions (such as Leading doctors say...) or on statements made by people outside the area of their particular expertise.

#### S8CS7b

Identify the flaws of reasoning in arguments that are based on poorly designed research (e.g., facts intermingled with opinion, conclusions based on insufficient evidence).

#### S8CS7c

Recognize that there may be more than one way to interpret a given set of findings.

#### S8CS8

Be familiar with the characteristics of scientific knowledge and how it is achieved.

#### S8CS8a

When similar investigations give different results, the scientific challenge is to judge whether the differences are trivial or significant, which often requires further study. Even with similar results, scientists may wait until an investigation has been repeated many times before accepting the results as meaningful.

#### S8CS8b

When new experimental results are inconsistent with an existing, well-established theory, scientists may pursue further experimentation to determine whether the results are flawed or the theory requires modification.

#### S8CS8c

As prevailing theories are challenged by new information, scientific knowledge may change.

#### S8CS9

Understand the features of the process of scientific inquiry.

#### S8CS9a

Investigations are conducted for different reasons, which include exploring new phenomena, confirming previous results, testing how well a theory predicts, and comparing different theories. Scientific investigations usually involve collecting evidence, reasoning, devising hypotheses, and formulating explanations to make sense of collected evidence.

#### S8CS9b

Scientific investigations usually involve collecting evidence, reasoning, devising hypotheses, and formulating explanations to make sense of collected evidence.

#### S8CS9c

Scientific experiments investigate the effect of one variable on another. All other variables are kept constant.

#### S8CS9d

Scientists often collaborate to design research. To prevent this bias, scientists conduct independent studies of the same questions.

#### S8CS9e

Accurate record keeping, data sharing, and replication of results are essential for maintaining an investigators credibility with other scientists and society.

#### S8CS9f

Scientists use technology and mathematics to enhance the process of scientific inquiry.

#### S8CS9g

The ethics of science require that special care must be taken and used for human subjects and animals in scientific research. Scientists must adhere to the appropriate rules and guidelines when conducting research.

#### S8P1

Examine the scientific view of the nature of matter.

#### S8P1a

Distinguish between atoms and molecules.

#### S8P1b

Describe the difference between pure substances (elements and compounds) and mixtures.

#### S8P1c

Describe the movement of particles in solids, liquids, gases, and plasmas states.

#### S8P1d

Distinguish between physical and chemical properties of matter as physical (i.e., density, melting point, boiling point) or chemical (i.e., reactivity, combustibility).

#### S8P1e

Distinguish between changes in matter as physical (i.e., physical change) or chemical (development of a gas, formation of precipitate, and change in color).

#### S8P1f

Recognize that there are more than 100 elements and some have similar properties as shown on the Periodic Table of Elements.

#### S8P1g

Identify and demonstrate the Law of Conservation of Matter.

#### S8P2

Be familiar with the forms and transformations of energy.

#### S8P2a

Explain energy transformation in terms of the Law of Conservation of Energy.

#### S8P2b

Explain the relationship between potential and kinetic energy.

#### S8P2c

Compare and contrast the different forms of energy (heat, light, electricity, mechanical motion, sound) and their characteristics.

#### S8P2d

Describe how heat can be transferred through matter by the collisions of atoms (conduction) or through space (radiation). In a liquid or gas, currents will facilitate the transfer of heat (convection).

#### S8P3

Investigate relationship between force, mass, and the motion of objects.

#### S8P3a

Determine the relationship between velocity and acceleration.

#### S8P3b

Demonstrate the effect of balanced and unbalanced forces on an object in terms of gravity, inertia, and friction.

#### S8P3c

Demonstrate the effect of simple machines (lever, inclined plane, pulley, wedge, screw, and wheel and axle) on work.

#### S8P4

Explore the wave nature of sound and electromagnetic radiation.

#### S8P4a

Identify the characteristics of electromagnetic and mechanical waves.

#### S8P4b

Describe how the behavior of light waves is manipulated causing reflection, refraction diffraction, and absorption.

#### S8P4c

Explain how the human eye sees objects and colors in terms of wavelengths.

#### S8P4d

Describe how the behavior of waves is affected by medium (such as air, water, solids).

#### S8P4e

Relate the properties of sound to everyday experiences.

#### S8P4f

Diagram the parts of the wave and explain how the parts are affected by changes in amplitude and pitch.

#### S8P5

Students will recognize characteristics of gravity, electricity, and magnetism as major kinds of forces acting in nature.

#### S8P5a

Recognize that every object exerts gravitational force on every other object and that the force exerted depends on how much mass the objects have and how far apart they are

#### S8P5b

Demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of series and parallel circuits and how they transfer energy.

#### S8P5c

Investigate and explain that electric currents and magnets can exert force on each other.