Indiana Learning Standards - Social Studies — Grade 9

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Define and identify each of the productive resources (natural, human, capital) and explain why each is necessary for the production of goods and services.


Explain that entrepreneurs combine productive resources to produce goods and services with the goal of making a profit.


Identify incentives and explain how they influence decisions.


Explain that voluntary exchange occurs when households, businesses, and governments expect to gain


Define scarcity and explain how choices incur opportunity costs and tradeoffs.


Use a production possibilities curve to explain the concepts of choice, scarcity, opportunity cost, tradeoffs, unemployment, productivity, and growth.


Describe and compare the various economic systems (traditional, market, command, mixed); explain their strengths and weaknesses


Describe how clearly defined and enforced property rights are essential to a market economy.


Diagram and explain the circular flow model of a market economy.


Define supply and demand and explain the causes of the Law of Supply and the Law of Demand.


Recognize that consumers ultimately determine what is produced in a market economy.


Illustrate how supply and demand determine equilibrium price and quantity.


Identify factors that cause changes in market supply and demand and how these changes affect price and quantity in a competitive market.


Describe how elasticity (price) sends signals to buyers and sellers.


Demonstrate how government wage and price controls, such as rent controls and minimum wage laws, create shortages and surpluses.


Describe how the earnings of workers are determined by the market value of the product produced and workers productivity, as well as other factors.


Illustrate how physical and human capital investment raise productivity and future standards of living


Identify the ways that firms raise financial capital and explain the advantages and disadvantages of each.


Demonstrate how firms determine optimum levels of output by comparing marginal cost and marginal revenue


Compare and contrast the basic characteristics of the four market structures: monopoly, oligopoly, monopolistic competition, and pure competition; explain how various amounts of competition affect price and quantity


Recognize the benefits of natural monopolies (economies of scale) and explain the purposes of government regulation of these monopolies.


Explain the roles of government in a market economy.


Explain how markets underproduce public goods and explain why the government has an interest in producing these public goods.


Describe how the government taxes negative externalities (spillovers) and subsidizes positive externalities (spillovers) to resolve the inefficiencies they cause.


Describe major revenue and expenditure categories and their respective proportions of state and federal budgets


Define progressive, proportional, and regressive taxation and determine whether different types of taxes (including income, sales, and Social Security) are progressive, proportional, or regressive.


Explain how costs of government policies may exceed benefits because social or political goals (rather than economic efficiency) are being pursued.


Define the national debt, explain the effects of the debt on the economy, and explain how to achieve a balanced budget.


Explain measures of a country's economic performance such as gross domestic product (GDP), unemployment, and inflation


Recognize that a countrys overall level of income, employment, and prices is determined by rational spending and production decisions of households, firms, and government.


Explain the limitations of using GDP to measure economic welfare.


Identify the different causes of inflation (including cost-push and demand-pull) and explain the impact of inflation on economic decisions.


Explain and illustrate the impact of changes in aggregate supply and aggregate demand.


Explain the causes and effects of business cycles in a market economy.


Explain the different types of unemployment.


Describe the impact of unemployment and unexpected inflation on an economy and how individuals and organizations try to protect themselves.


Explain the basic functions of money.


Identify the composition of the money supply of the United States


Explain the roles of financial institutions.


Demonstrate how banks create money through the principle of fractional reserve banking


Describe the structure and functions of the Federal Reserve System.


Explain how interest rates act as an incentive for savers and borrowers.


Compare and contrast different types of financial investments.


Demonstrate how supply and demand determine equilibrium price and quantity in the financial markets.


Define and explain fiscal and monetary policy.


Explain the tools of fiscal and monetary policy


Analyze how the government uses fiscal policy to promote price stability, full employment, and economic growth.


Explain how the use of fiscal policy affects budget deficits or surpluses and the national debt


Analyze how the Federal Reserve uses monetary policy to promote price stability, full employment, and economic growth.


Compare and contrast the major macroeconomic theories.


Explain that most trade occurs because producers have a comparative advantage (rather than an absolute advantage) in the production of a good or service


Explain the benefits of trade among households and countries.


Explain the difference between balance of trade and balance of payments.


Define and explain the impact of trade barriers, such as quotas and tariffs, and analyze why countries erect them.


Evaluate the arguments for and against free trade.


Explain how changes in exchange rates affects the value of imports and exports.


Define, identify and explain the productive resources


Define scarcity and explain how opportunity costs and tradeoffs exist


Explain incentives and how they affect choice


Use a production possibilities curve to explain the concepts of choice, scarcity, opportunity cost, tradeoffs, unemployment, productivity, and growth


Critique the trade-off among economic growth, national security, efficiency, and personal freedom


Explain measures of a country's economic performance such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP), unemployment, and inflation


Describe the various economic systems


Identify questions that must be answered by any economic system and how they are categorized by how they answer the basic economic questions


Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of various economic systems


Explain the fundamental role of government in the various economic systems


Investigate the effect of taxes on economic systems


Describe fiscal policy and its relationship to various economic systems


Explain and evaluate how and why governments control businesses and individuals through laws and taxes


Define labor productivity and explain the basic factors which affect productivity


Analyze the relationship between price, supply, and demand


Demonstrate the efficiency of an economic systems decision making through production possibility curves


Describe different types of competitive structures in economic systems


Explain the role and effect of labor unions, nonprofit organizations, and cooperatives in a given economy


Assess the influence of monopolies and oligopolies on marketplaces


Describe and evaluate how businesses are formed, operated, and funded


Explain the business cycle and the factors that influence it


Demonstrate how all countries are interdependent


Explain how specialization promotes international trade and how international trade increases total world output


Explain how governments and cartels/syndicates influence world trade


Differentiate absolute advantage versus comparative advantage


Discuss the components that make up the balance of payments and balance of trade among nations


Evaluate the effects of trade agreements among nations and barriers to trade


Explain what the Federal Reserve is, its function, and its impact on the U.S. economy


Differentiate between monetary policy and fiscal policies


Explain what is money and how it is given value


Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the barter system, currency, and near money


Analyze how changing interest rates are used to influence economies


Research the structure of financial institutions and analyze the consumer and commercial products offered


Investigate the effect of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), unemployment, and inflation on economies


Analyze the history and current trends of U.S. and international commercial banking


Analyze and discuss the structure of, the purpose for, and the effects of government taxation


Formulate the value of different currencies among nations


Explain the roles and functions of the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and other international banking/financial institutions


Compare and analyze the securities exchanges and their effect on the world economy


Analyze the influence of phenomenon such as trade policies, politics, disasters, and cultural factors on the value of currency


Explain how the value of money and the exchange rate influence the standard of living in an economy


Analyze U.S. and foreign economies to forecast how trade may affect job opportunities and income potential


Identify and assess personal interests, abilities, life goals, and possible career choices


Predict your future lifestyle and income based on current global economic trends


Evaluate the impact of sociological, economic and technological changes on future careers


Use maps, timelines and/or other graphic representations to identify and describe the location, distribution and main events in the development of culture hearths in Asia, Mesoamerica and North Africa.


Ask and answer geographic and historical questions about the locations and growth of culture hearths. Assess why some of these culture hearths have endured to this day, while others have declined or disappeared


Analyze agricultural hearths and exchanges of crops among regions. Evaluate the impact of agriculture on the subsequent development of culture hearths in various regions of the world.


Identify and describe the factors that explain how the local and regional human and physical environments of selected culture hearths were modified over time in terms of such features as urban development and agricultural activities.


Differentiate between a state (country) and a nation, specifically focusing on the concepts of territorial control and self-determination of internal and foreign affairs and analyze the relationship between nations and the states in which they lie.


Analyze the formation of states (countries) in selected regions and identify and appraise the contribution of factors, such as nationalism, in their formation.


Evaluate and predict the successes and failures of democratic reform movements in challenging authoritarian or despotic regimes in different countries.


Investigate and assess the impact of imperialistic policies on the formation of new countries in various regions of the world.


Use a variety of sources, such as atlases, written materials and statistical source materials, to identify countries of the world that are true nation-states and draw conclusions about why certain regions of the world contain more nation-states than others.


Analyze the human and physical geographic forces that either bind and unite (centripetal forces) or divide (centrifugal forces) a country or countries. Predict the impact of these forces on the future of these countries and analyze possible strategies that could be implemented to overcome the impact of centrifugal forces.


Use graphic representations, such as maps and timelines, to describe the spread of specific sports and/or sporting events from their geographic origins and analyze the spatial patterns that emerge.


Analyze the ways in which peoples changing views of particular places and regions as recreation and/or tourist destinations reflect cultural changes.


Identify and assess the impact of sports and recreation on the human and physical environments in selected countries


Analyze and predict the changing patterns of space devoted to sports and recreation in the local community and region


Analyze the impact of tourism on the physical and human environments of selected world regions. Predict the environmental impact of a continued growth in tourism in these regions.


Use geographical and historical knowledge and skills to analyze problems related to tourism and to propose solutions related to these problems.


Analyze global climate change (sometimes called global warming) and assess the validity of this idea, the variable climate changes it forecasts for different parts of Earth, and the implications of these changes for humans


Explain the concepts of linear and exponential growth, and apply these concepts to geographical themes while analyzing the consequences of various human responses.


Map the development over time of world religions from their points of origin and identify those that exhibit a high degree of local and/or international concentration.


Differentiate among selected countries in terms of how their identities, cultural and physical environments, and functions and forms of government are affected by world religions.


Compare and contrast different religions in terms of perspectives on the environment and attitudes toward resource use, both today and in the past.


Analyze and assess the rise of fundamentalist movements in the worlds major religions during contemporary times (1980present) and describe the relationships between religious fundamentalism and the secularism and modernism associated with the Western tradition.


Map and analyze the distribution of the worlds human population for different time periods noting the population characteristics and population density for specific regions.


Identify and describe the push-pull factors that resulted in the migration of human population over time and detect changes in these factors.


Analyze the changes in population characteristics and physical and human environments that resulted from the migration of peoples within, between, and among world regions.


Give examples of and evaluate how the physical and human environments in different regions have changed over time due to significant population growth or decline.


Analyze population trends in the local community and suggest the impact of these trends on the future of the community in relation to issues such as development, employment, health, cultural diversity, schools, political representation and sanitation.


Explain the causes and conditions of worldwide voyages of exploration, discovery and conquest. Identify the countries involved. Provide examples of how people modified their view of world regions as a consequence of these voyages


Use a variety of text (writing, maps, timelines and/or other graphic representations) to show the movement, spread and changes in the worldwide exchange of flora, fauna and pathogens that resulted from transoceanic voyages of exploration and exchanges between peoples in different regions. Assess the consequences of these encounters for the people and environments involved.


Identify and compare the main causes, players, and events of imperialism during different time periods. Examine the global extent of imperialism using a series of political maps.


Analyze and assess how the physical and human environments (including languages used) of places and regions changed as the result of differing imperialist and colonial policies.


Analyze and assess ways that colonialism and imperialism have persisted and continue to evolve in the contemporary world.


Ask and answer geographic and historic questions about the origin and growth of towns and cities in different regions of the world and in different time periods. Compare and contrast the factors involved in the location and growth of towns and cities for different time periods


Describe, using a variety of text (writing, maps, timelines and/or other graphic presentations), the worldwide trend toward urbanization and the changing function of cities. Assess the impact of factors such as locational advantages and disadvantages, changing transportation technologies, population growth, changing agricultural production, and the demands of industry on this trend.


Describe how the internal structure of cities is similar and different in various regions of the world. Analyze and explain why these similarities and differences in structure exist.


Analyze and assess the impact of urbanization on the physical and human environments in various parts of the world.


Distinguish between violent and non-violent revolution. Describe the causes and events of political revolutions in two distinct regions of the world and use maps, timelines and/or other graphic representations to document the spread of political ideas that resulted from those events to other regions of the world.


Prepare maps, timelines and/or other graphic representations showing the origin and spread of specific innovations (e.g. Explosives; paper; printing press; steam engine; pasteurization; electricity; immunization; atomic energy; and computer and digital technology) . Assess the impact of these innovations on the human and physical environments of the regions to which they spread.


Map the spread of innovative art forms and scientific thought from their origins to other world regions. Analyze how the spread of these ideas influenced developments in art and science for different places and regions of the world.


Analyze how transportation and communication changes (e.g. Railroads; Automobiles and Airplanes; Computer Technology; Television; Cell Phones; Satellite Communications) have led to both cultural convergence and divergence in the world.


Analyze and assess the impact of the four major agricultural revolutions* on the worlds human and physical environments.* agricultural revolutions, in historical order: (1) fire used to alter natural vegetation; (2) domestication of plants; (3) industrialization and mechanization of agriculture with use of fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides; (4) applied microscopia for selective genetic manipulation


Compare and contrast the impact of the Industrial Revolution on developed countries with the economic processes acting upon less developed, and developing, countries in the contemporary world.


Recognize that conflict and cooperation among groups of people occur for a variety of reasons including nationalist, racial, ethnic, religious, political, economic and resource concerns that generally involve agreements and disagreements related to territory on Earths surface.


Analyze the physical and human factors involved in conflicts and violence related to nationalist, racial, ethnic, religious, economic, political, and/or resource issues in various parts of the world, over time. Assess the human and physical environmental consequences of the conflicts identified for study.


Analyze and explain why some countries achieved independence peacefully through legal means and others achieved independence as a consequence of armed struggles or wars.


Prepare a variety of text (writing, maps, timelines and/or other graphic representations) to trace the development and geographic extent of a variety of regional and global cooperative organizations for different time periods. Describe their establishment and assess their success or lack of success, consequences for citizens, and the role of particular countries in achieving the goals the organizations were established to accomplish.


Use maps to show the location and distribution of Earths resources and analyze how this distribution affects trade between and among countries and regions.


Prepare graphic representations, such as maps, tables and timelines, to describe the global movement of goods and services between and among countries and world regions over time. Analyze and assess the patterns and networks of economic interdependence or lack of interdependence that result


Analyze the impact of changing global patterns of trade and commerce on the state and local community and predict the impact of these patterns in the future.


Use maps to identify regions in the world where particular natural disasters occur frequently and analyze how the physical and human environments have been modified over time in response to environmental threats. Assess the success of international aid to these disasters.


Identify regional resource issues that may impede sustainability, economic expansion and/or diversification and assess the impact of these issues on the physical and human environments of specific regions


Identify and describe ways in which humans have used technology to modify the physical environment in order to settle areas in different world regions and evaluate the impact of these technologies on the physical and human environments affected.


Distinguish and assess the human and physical factors associated with the spread of selected epidemics and/or pandemics over time


Define psychology as a discipline and identify its goals as a science.


Explain the reasons and approaches for studying the methodology of psychology; past and present.


Describe the differences between descriptive and experimental research methods.


Explain the interaction among independent and dependent variables as well as the difference between experimental and control groups.


Distinguish between scientific and nonscientific research.


Describe the key concepts of the ethical guidelines applied by the American Psychological Association regarding the use of human and non-human animal subjects.


Describe the differences between quantitative and qualitative research strategies.


Define correlation coefficients and explain their appropriate interpretation.


Analyze human behavior from modern day perspectives in psychology.


Describe the structure and function of the major regions of the brain; specifically the forebrain, hindbrain, midbrain, and the four lobes.


Compare and contrast between the left and right hemispheres of the brain and identify how vision, motor, language and other functions are regulated by each hemisphere.


Describe the structure and function of the neuron and describe the basic process of neural transmission.


Compare and contrast the methods for studying the brain.


Identify the major divisions and subdivisions of the nervous system and describe how they function.


Analyze the structure and function of the endocrine system and its effect on human behavior.


Compare and contrast the effect of neurotransmitters on human behavior.


Explain the role of prenatal and post-natal development on human development.


Explain the physical, motor, and perceptual development of infants.


Understand the physical, motor and cognitive development of children.


Describe the physical, cognitive, and moral changes that occur during adolescence.


Understand the major physical, cognitive, and social issues that accompany adulthood and aging.


Explain how nature and nurture influence human development.


Describe the theories of various developmental psychologists.


Explain the process of learning, including principles of operant, classical, and observational


Identify key psychologists in the fields of learning and cognition and explain the impact of their contributions.


Describe language development in humans.


Differentiate between learning, reflexes, and fixed-action patterns


Explain the concept of learned helplessness.


P.4.4 Describe the processes of memory, including encoding, storage, and retrieval.


Differentiate between the three different stages of memory, including sensory, short-term, and long-term.


Identify the factors that interfere with memory.


Discuss various strategies that can be used to improve memory.


Compare and contrast between explicit and implicit memory.


Discuss the obstacles and strategies involved in problem solving.


Identify the major psychologists involved in the study of personality and describe the main characteristics of their theories.


Distinguish between objective and projective techniques of personality assessment and give examples of each


Distinguish between stress and distress.


Identify environmental factors that lead to stress.


Explain Hans Seyles General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS).


Evaluate the influences of variables, such as culture, family and genetics, on personality development and identify the psychologists associated with each.


Describe the common characteristics of abnormal behavior.


Explain how both cultural and historical influences have affected the definition of abnormal behavior.


Identify and describe the theories of abnormality.


Discuss major categories of abnormal behavior and distinguish which disorders fit under which categories DSMIV/DSM-V


Describe availability and appropriateness of various modes of treatment and prevention for people with psychological disorders.


Understand and identify social norms and how they differ across cultures.


Explain how perceptions and attitudes develop, including attribution theory, fundamental attribution error, Actor- observer bias, self-serving bias, central vs. peripheral route of persuasion, and cognitive dissonance.


Analyze the studies that lead to current understandings of conformity, obedience, nonconformity, and compliance.


Explain the concepts of groupthink and group polarization.


Discuss the various types of conflict and the processes involved in conflict resolution.


Explain how stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination influence behavior.


Understand the six steps involved in critical thinking; knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation


Locate and analyze primary sources of landmark experiments in psychology and other counter arguments.


Construct a testable hypothesis and apply the principles of research design to an appropriate experiment.

S 1.1

Define sociology and trace its development as a distinct discipline

S 1.2

Identify key figures in the development of the discipline of sociology

S 1.3

Illustrate the relationship of sociology to the other social science disciplines, including history, economics, psychology, political science

S 1.5

Describe how observations become generalizations which become theories through replication with the use of the scientific method

S 1.8

Develop a research design applying appropriate methodology, and use of the scientific method as it applies to social scientific research; include the development of a hypothesis, data collection, data interpretation, and drawing conclusions.

S 2.1

Define culture as a human survival strategy; Identify the, material and non-material components of culture.

S 2.3

Identify and apply elements of nature vs. nurture in explaining human social behavior.

S 2.4

Identify American cultural values; explain how the U.S. is a heterogeneous society

S 2.7

Define and explore the defining characteristics of subcultures in the United States


Explain the major theoretical perspectives (paradigms) common to sociology including structural functional; symbolic interaction; and conflict theory. Identify key theorists with each. Recognize how each perspective sheds light on human social behavior


Identify the research methods commonly used by sociologists including survey research, content/historical analysis, secondary analysis, laboratory method, observation, participant observation, case study. Explain the strengths and weaknesses of each


Distinguish fact from opinion in data sources to analyze various points of view about a social issue


Prepare original written and oral reports and presentations on specific events, people or historical eras as related to sociological research.


Describe traditions, roles and expectations necessary for a community to continue


Identify a community social problem and discuss appropriate actions to address the problem.


Investigate how incorrect communications, such as rumors or gossip, can influence group behavior.


Describe how collective behavior (working in groups) can influence and change society. Use historical and contemporary examples to define collective behavior.


Discuss theories that attempt to explain collective behavior.


Define a social issue to be analyzed.


Examine factors that could lead to the breakdown and disruption of an existing community.


Discuss the impact of leaders of different social movements.


Define propaganda and discuss the methods of propaganda used to influence social behavior.


Discuss both the benefits and social costs of collective behavior in society.


Determine a cause-and-effect relationship among historical events, themes and concepts in United States and world history as they relate to sociology.


Define deviance and analyze deviance from a functionalist, a conflict, and an interactionist perspective.


Explore theoretical foundations of punishment. (retributive, rehabilitative, deterrent)


Identify formal and informal, as well as positive and negative forms of social control employed in our society.


Explore the functions deviance serves as identified by Emile Durkheim


Explore explanations of deviance such as Mertons Strain theory, Sutherlands differential association theory, and Hirschis control theory.


Identify deviant subcultures.


From a symbolic interaction analysis, examine labeling theory.


Examine deviance from a conflict perspective.


Identify types of crime and its consequences.


Identify the consequences of the medicalization of deviance


Identify both rights and responsibilities the individual has to the group.


Explain how functionalists, interactionists, and conflict theorists differ in their view culture


Explain the differences between the concepts: culture and society.


Identify culture conflict, cultural similarity, cultural diversity.


Explain the relationship between norms and values; explain how norms develop and change in a society; distinguish between folkways and mores.


Compare and contrast different types of societies, such as hunting and gathering, agrarian, industrial, and postindustrial.


Prepare original written and oral reports and presentations on specific events, people or historical eras as related to sociological research.


Define socialization as a process unique to humans that takes place from birth to death, and how it changes through the life cycle


Explain how the self concept is formed (from the interactionist perspective)


Explain how human capacity for extensive symbolic communication allows for socialization and cultural transmission


Explore the contributions of George Herbert Mead and Charles Horton Cooley (as well as Freud and Piaget) to the development of theories of self concept


Identify the goals of socialization (transmission of culture including values inculcation, self-control and social control, appropriate role behavior, skills attainment)


Identify the major agents of socialization and evaluate the role each plays (family, play group, peer group, school, mass media, job, religion, total institutions re-socialization, and others)


Discuss how societies recognize rites of passage.


Define stratification (as sociologists define it).


Examine Webers multi-dimensional model of stratification and compare with Marxs one dimensional model.


Identify how different types of societies compare regarding stratification. (i.e. competitive vs. noncompetitive, caste and class systems: ascribed vs. achieved status)


Explore the origins of stratification in human societies from a functionalist perspective and from a conflict perspective.


Explain how stratification differs from simple inequality and how stratification relates to ideology.


Explore some of the consequences (or results) of stratification.


Explore stratification and inequality in the United States including its causes and consequences; distinguish between inequality of opportunity and inequality of condition.


Distinguish between the terms role, status, and esteem.


Explain how roles and role expectations can lead to role conflict.


Distinguish between biological (ascribed) status and socially assigned gender roles


Explore how gender role socialization occurs


Explore sexism in language


Describe the functional explanation of gender role socialization and contrast it with the conflict explanation


Explore how gender roles differ in different societies and how they change over time


Examine gender roles from the functionalist, the interactionist, and the conflict perspectives


Sociologically define social group and distinguish groups from crowds, aggregates, etc


Demonstrate democratic approaches to managing disagreements and solving conflicts.


Distinguish between primary groups and secondary groups with examples of each


Explore reasons for group formation; distinguish instrumental from expressive needs


Outline and illustrate the functions of groups both for individual group members and for society


Explain how the importance of primary and secondary groups have changed over time, particularly in relation to pre-industrial and industrial society


Describe group leadership styles (authoritarian, democratic, laissez-faire) and the functions of each style


Define ethnocentrism and explain how it can be beneficial or destructive to a culture.


Define different types of groups (involuntary, voluntary, coercive, reference)


Explore the formation of group norms


Define social institution as made up of norms and values surrounding an activity considered important to society.


Identify basic social institutions and explain their impact on individuals, groups and organizations within society and how they transmit the values of society


Discuss the concept of political power and factors that influence political power.


Conduct research and analysis on an issue associated with social structure or social institutions.


Examine in depth one or more important social institutions (such as marriage and family, education, health care, judicial, health care, religion) and its functions for society. Also consider how conflict theory sees the institution.


Describe how and why societies change over time


Cite examples of the use of technology in social research.


Evaluate a current issue that has resulted from scientific discoveries and/or technological innovations


Examine various social influences that can lead to immediate and long-term changes.


Using an example, describe how collective behavior can influence and change society.


Examine how technological innovations and scientific discoveries have influenced major social institutions.


Discuss how innovations in science and technology affect social interaction and culture.


Describe how the role of the mass media has changed over time and project what changes might occur in the future


Distinguish major differences between social movements and collective behavior with examples.


Investigate the consequences to society as a result of changes.


Trace the development of the use of a specific type of technology in the community.


Identify characteristics of a social problem, as opposed to an individual problem.


Describe how social problems have changed over time. (History)


Explain how patterns of behavior are found with certain social problems.


Discuss the implications of social problems for society.


Examine how individual and group responses are often associated with social problems.


Evaluate possible solutions to resolving social problems and the consequences that might result from those solutions.


Survey local agencies involved in addressing social problems to determine the extent of the problems in the local community.


Design and carry out school- and community-based projects to address a local aspect of a social problem. (Economics)


Describe the events and people central to the transformation of the United States developing into a world power. (Government, Geography)


Define civic life, political life, and private life and describe the activities of individuals in each of these spheres. (Individuals, Society and Culture)


Define the terms and explain the relationship between politics, government, and public policy. (Economics)


Interpret the purposes and functions of government found in the Preamble of the United States Constitution. (Economics)


Compare and contrast types of government including direct democracy, monarchy, oligarchy, and totalitarianism. (History; Individuals, Society and Culture)


Compare and contrast characteristics of limited and unlimited governments and provide historical and contemporary examples of each type of government.


Compare and contrast unitary, confederate, and federal systems of government.


Define and provide examples of constitutionalism, rule of law, limited government, and popular sovereignty in the United States Constitution and explain the relationship of these constitutional principles to the protection of the rights of individuals. (History; Individuals, Society and Culture)


Evaluate the importance of a written constitution in establishing and maintaining the principles of rule of law and limited government.


Evaluate how the United States Constitution establishes majority rule while protecting minority rights and balances the common good with individual liberties. (History; Individuals, Society and Culture)


Summarize the colonial, revolutionary, and Founding-Era experiences and events that led to the writing, ratification, and implementation of the United States Constitution (1787) and Bill of Rights (1791). (History; Individuals, Society and Culture)


Understand the concept of compromise and evaluate its application during the Constitutional Convention.


Analyze and interpret central ideas on government, individual rights, and the common good in founding documents of the United States.


Explain the history and provide examples of foundational ideas of American government embedded in the Founding-Era documents such as: natural rights philosophy, social contract, popular sovereignty, constitutionalism, representative democracy, political factions, federalism, and individual rights.


Identify and explain elements of the social contract and natural rights theories in United States founding-era documents


Explain how a shared American civic identity is based on commitment to foundational ideas in FoundingEra documents and in core documents of subsequent periods of United States history. (History)


Using primary documents compare and contrast the ideas of the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists regarding the respective roles of state and national government on ratification of the United States Constitution (17871788). (History)


Explain the history and provide historical and contemporary examples of fundamental principles and values of American political and civic life, including liberty, security, the common good, justice, equality, law and order, rights of individuals, diversity, popular sovereignty, and representative democracy. (Individuals, Society and Culture)


Analyze the United States Constitution and explain characteristics of government in the United States, which define it as a federal, presidential, constitutional and representative democracy.


Describe the procedures for amending the United States and Indiana Constitutions and analyze why it is so difficult to amend these Constitutions.


Analyze the functions of the judicial branch of the United States and Indiana governments with emphasis on the principles of due process, judicial review and an independent judiciary.


Analyze the functions of major departments of the executive branch in the United States and in Indiana. (Individuals, Society and Culture)


Explain the electoral process in terms of election laws and election systems on the national, state and local level.


Analyze the election of Benjamin Harrison, Indianas only president, his approach to the presidency, his relationship to the legislative branch, and his re-election defeat, considering the effects of party politics and public opinion.


Summarize the evolution of political parties and their ideologies in the American governmental system and analyze their functions in elections and government at national, state and local levels of the federal system. (History; Individuals, Society and Culture)


Explain and evaluate the original purpose and function of the Electoral College and its relevance today.


Explain the organization of state and local governments in Indiana and analyze how they affect the lives of citizens.


Identify the role and development of special interest groups in politics and explain their impact on the development of state and local public policy. (Economics; History; Individuals, Society and Culture)


Identify the historical significance of and analyze decisions by the United States Supreme Court about the constitutional principles of separation of powers and checks and balances in such landmark cases as Marbury v. Madison (1803), Baker v. Carr (1962), United States v. Nixon (1974), Clinton v. City of New York (1998) and Bush v. Gore (2000).


Explain the constitutional principles of federalism, separation of powers, the system of checks and balances, republican government or representative democracy, and popular sovereignty; provide examples of these principles in the governments of the United States and the state of Indiana.


Identify the historical significance of and analyze decisions by the United States Supreme Court about the constitutional principle of federalism in cases such as McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), Alden v. Maine (1999) and the denial of certiorari for the Terri Schiavo case (2005). (History; Individuals, Society and Culture) certiorari: a writ from a high court to a low court requesting a transcript of the proceedings of a case for review


Describe the influence of the media and technology on public opinion and public policy.


Identify and describe provisions of the United States Constitution and the Indiana Constitution that define and distribute powers and authority of the federal or state government.


Explain the relationship between limited government and a market economy. (Economics)


Explain the section of Article IV, Section 4, of the United States Constitution which says, The United States shall guarantee to every State in the Union a Republican form of government.


Compare and contrast the enumerated, implied and denied powers in the United States Constitution and the Indiana Constitution.


Explain the relationships among branches of the United States government and Indiana government, which involve separation and sharing of powers as a means to limited government.


Describe the fiscal and monetary policies incorporated by the United States government and Indiana government and evaluate how they affect individuals, groups and businesses. (Economics)


Explain how a bill becomes law in the legislative process of the United States and the state of Indiana.


Compare and contrast governments throughout the world with the United States government in terms of source of the governments power.


Describe how different governments interact in world affairs. (Individuals, Society and Culture)


Analyze reasons for conflict among nations, such as competition for resources and territory, differences in ideology, and religious or ethnic conflicts.


Provide examples of governmental and non-governmental international organizations and explain their role in international affairs.


Analyze powers the United States Constitution gives to the executive, legislative and judicial branches of government in the area of foreign affairs.


Identify and describe strategies available to the United States government to achieve foreign policy objectives. (Economics; Geography; History; Individuals, Society and Culture)


Examine the influence individuals, businesses, labor, and other organizations, interest groups, and public opinion has on United States foreign policy. (Economics)


Identify and explain world issues, including political, cultural, demographic, economic and environmental challenges that affect the United States foreign policy in specific regions of the world.


Discuss specific foreign policy issues that impact local community and state interests. (Economics; Individuals, Society and Culture)


Define the legal meaning of citizenship in the United States; identify the requirements for citizenship in the United States and residency in Indiana and understand the criteria used for attaining both.


Analyze the roles and responsibilities of citizens in Indiana and the United States. (Individuals, Society and Culture)


Discuss the individuals legal obligation to obey the law, serve as a juror, and pay taxes.


Identify and describe the civil and constitutional rights found in the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights and expanded by decisions of the United States Supreme Court; analyze and evaluate landmark cases of the United States Supreme Court concerning civil rights and liberties of individuals.


Identify when it is constitutional for our government to limit the rights of individuals and explain the reasons why the government would want to do this. (History


Explain and give examples of important citizen actions that monitor and influence local, state, and national government as individuals and members of interest groups.


Explain how citizens in the United States participate in public elections as voters and supporters of candidates for public office.


Describe opportunities available to individuals to contribute to the well-being of their communities and participate responsibly in the political process at local, state and national levels of government.


Use information from a variety of resources to describe and discuss current American political issues. (History, Economics, Geography)

USH 2.3

Analyze the factors associated with the development of the West and how these factors affected the lives of those who settled there. (Government, Economics, Individuals, Society, and Culture)

USH. 1.4

Describe causes and lasting effects of the Civil War and Reconstruction as well as the political controversies surrounding this time such as Andrew Johnsons impeachment, the Black Codes, and the Compromise of 1877. (Government, Economics)


Read key documents from the Founding Era and analyze major ideas about government, individual rights and the general welfare embedded in these documents. (Government)


Summarize major themes in the early history of the United States such as federalism, sectionalism, nationalism, and states rights. (Economics, Government)


Identify and tell the significance of controversies pertaining to slavery, abolitionism, and social reform movements. (Government, Economics)


Describe the economic developments that transformed the United States into a major industrial power and the factors necessary for industrialization. (Economics)


Explain key ideas, movements, and inventions and summarize their impact on rural and urban communities throughout the United States. (Economics, Sociology)


Explain how the lives of American Indians changed with the development of the West. (Government, Individuals, Society, and Culture)


Summarize the impact industrialization and immigration had on social movements of the era including the contributions specific individuals and groups. (Economics, Geography, Individuals, Society, and Culture)


Describe the growth of unions and the labor movement and evaluate various approaches and methods used by different labor leaders and organizations. (Government, Economics)


Describe and assess the contribution of Indianas only president, Benjamin Harrison, to national policies on environmental protection, business regulation, immigration, and civil rights.


Evaluate the effectiveness of government attempts to regulate business (Interstate and Commerce Act-1887, Sherman Anti-Trust Act 1890). (Government, Economics)


Analyze the development of separate but equal policies culminating in the Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) case. (Government; Individuals, Society, and Culture)


Explain the origins, goals, achievements, and limitations of the Progressive Movement in addressing political, economic, and social reform. (Government; Economics; Individuals, Society, and Culture)


Compare and contrast the Progressive reforms of Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson. (Government; Economics; Individuals, Society, and Culture)


Explain the constitutional significance of the following landmark decisions of the United States Supreme Court: Northern Securities Company v. United States (1904), Muller v. Oregon (1908), Schenck v. United States (1919) and Abrams v. United States (1919).


Identify and give the significance of contributions to American culture made by individuals and groups--1897-1920 such as Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. DuBois, NAACP, muckrakers, Upton Sinclair. (Individuals, Society, and Culture)


Analyze the reasons why the United States became involved in World War I. (Government, Economics)


Analyze President Wilsons Fourteen Points and describe the obstacles he faced in getting European leaders to accept his approach to peace. (Government)


Summarize the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles and analyze reasons why the treaty was never ratified by the U.S. Senate. (Government)


Explain the impact of New Immigration and the Great Migration on industrialization and urbanization and in promoting economic growth. (Economics, Geography)


Understand the significance of the pro-business policies of Presidents Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover and the effect these policies had on the economy of the 1920s. (Economics, Government)


Identify new cultural movements of the 1920s and analyze how these movements reflected and changed American society. (Individuals, Society, and Culture)


Identify areas of social tension such as the Red Scare, Prohibition, Religious Fundamentalism, the KKK, New Morality, and the New Woman and explain their consequences in the post-WWI era. (Individuals, Society, and Culture)


Describe technological developments during the 1920s and explain their impact on rural and urban America. (Economics; Geography; Individuals, Society, and Culture)


Analyze the causes of the Great Depression and explain how they affected American society. (Economics; Individuals, Society, and Culture)


Identify and describe the contributions of political and social reformers during the Great Depression Era. (Government; Economics; Individuals, Society and Culture)


Analyze the impact the Great Depression had on Americas standard of living (Economics, Government)


Identify and explain the significance of New Deal relief programs. (Government)


Identify and explain the significance of the expansion of federal power during the New Deal Era in the areas of agriculture, money and banking, industry, labor, social welfare, and conservation.


Analyze the causes and effects of American isolationism during the 1930s and the effect this policy had on Americas war preparation. (Government, Economics, Geography)


Compare and contrast President Franklin D. Roosevelts world view with that of Germanys Adolf Hitler, Italys Benito Mussolini, the Soviet Unions Joseph Stalin, and Japans Hideki Tojo. (Government; Individuals, Society and Culture)


Identify and explain key events from Versailles to Pearl Harbor that resulted in the United States entry into World War II. (Government, Geography)


Identify key leaders and events from World War II and explain the significance of each. (Government)


Describe Hitlers final solution policy and explain the Allied responses to the Holocaust and war crimes. (Government; Geography; Individuals, Society and Culture)


Explain how the United States dealt with individual rights and national security during World War II by examining the following groups: Japanese-Americans, African Americans, Native-Americans, Hispanics, and women. (Government)


Summarize the efforts the national government made to regulate production, labor, and prices during the war and evaluate the success or failure of these efforts. (Government)


Identify and describe the impact of World War II on American culture. (Individuals, Society and Culture)


Explain how World War II led to the rise of the United States and the Soviet Union as rival superpowers.


Understand the domino theory and its relationship to the principle of containment. Identify key events and individuals as well as their connections to post World War II tensions (Cold War). (Government, Geography)


Summarize and assess the various actions which characterized the early struggle for civil rights (1945-1960). (Government; Individuals, Society and Culture)


Describe the constitutional significance and lasting societal effects of the United States Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court case. (Government)


Summarize key economic and social changes in post-WW II American life. (Individuals, Society and Culture)


Explain the civil rights movement of the 1960s and 1970s by describing the ideas and actions of federal and state leaders, grassroots movements, and central organizations that were active in the movement. (Government; Economics; Individuals, Society and Culture)


Explain and analyze U.S. foreign policy issues during the 1960s and 1970s. (Africa, Middle East, China)


Explain the constitutional, political, and cultural significance of the Watergate Scandal and the United States Supreme Court decision of United States v. Nixon. (Government)


Evaluate various methods and philosophies (e.g. Martin Luther King, Jr., the Black Panthers, and Malcolm X) to bring about social justice during the Civil Rights Movement. (Individuals, Society and Culture)


Identify and explain the significance of federal programs, policies and legal rulings designed to improve the lives of Americans during the 1960s. (Government, Economics)


Describe developing trends in science and technology and explain how they impacted the lives of Americans during the period 1960-1980.


Identify and analyze the significance of key decisions of the Warren Court. (Government)


Identify the problems confronting different minorities during this period of economic and social change and describe the solutions to these problems. (Economics; Individuals, Society and Culture)


Identify areas of social tension from this time period and explain how social attitudes shifted as a result.


Explain and analyze changing relations between the United States and the Soviet Union from 1960 to 1980.


Analyze the foreign and domestic consequences of U.S. involvement in Vietnam.


Explain the significance of social, economic and political issues during the period 1980 to the present and how these issues affected individuals and organizations.


Describe developing trends in science and technology and explain how they impact the lives of Americans today such as: NASA and space programs; identification of DNA; the Internet; global climate change; and U.S. energy policy


Discuss and explain the significance of the rise of the new conservative coalition of the 1980s.


Explain the assumptions of supply-side economics or "Reaganomics" and how the Reagan administration implemented it. (Economics)


Explain how the Cold War ended and identify new challenges to U.S. leadership in the world. (Economics, Geography)


Analyze important domestic and foreign policies and events of the Clinton and Bush administrations.


Explain the constitutional significance of the following landmark decisions of the United States Supreme Court: Westside Community School District v. Mergens (1990), Reno v. American Civil Liberties Union (1997), Mitchell v. Helms (2000) and Bush v. Gore (2000).


Explain the background and significance of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack and the resulting War on Terror


Analyze the impact of globalization on U.S. culture and U.S. economic, political and foreign policy. (Government, Economics, Geography)


Identify patterns of historical succession and duration in which historical events have unfolded and apply them to explain continuity and change.


Locate and analyze primary sources and secondary sources related to an event or issue of the past; discover possible limitations in various kinds of historical evidence and differing secondary opinions.


Analyze multiple, unexpected, and complex causes and effects of events in the past.


Explain issues and problems of the past by analyzing the interests and viewpoints of those involved.


Formulate and present a position or course of action on an issue by examining the underlying factors contributing to that issue.


Use locational technology such as remote sensing, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS), to establish spatial relationships


Evaluate the source of particular maps to determine possible biases contained in them.


Create and compare mental maps or personal perceptions of places. Explain how experiences and culture influence these perceptions and identify ways in which mental maps influence decisions


Evaluate the applications of geographic tools (locational technologies) and supporting technologies to serve particular purposes.


Ask geographic questions and obtain answers from a variety of sources, such as books, atlases and other written materials; statistical source material; fieldwork and interviews; remote sensing; and GIS. Reach conclusions and give oral, written, graphic and cartographic expression to conclusions.


Give examples of how and why places and regions change or do not change over time.


Give examples and analyze ways in which peoples changing views of places and regions reflect cultural changes; understand how peoples views of physical features influence and are influenced by human behavior.


Explain how the concept of region is used as a way of categorizing, interpreting and ordering complex information about Earth.


Give examples of how people create regions to understand Earths complexity. (Individuals, Society and Culture)


Define Earths physical systems: atmosphere, lithosphere, biosphere or hydrosphere. Categorize the elements of the natural environment as belonging to one of the four components.


Identify and account for the distribution pattern of the worlds climates, taking into account the Earth/Sun relationship, ocean currents, prevailing winds, and latitude and longitude.


Describe the world patterns of natural vegetation and biodiversity and their relations to world climate patterns


Explain and give examples of the physical processes that shape Earths surface that result in existing landforms and identify specific places where these processes occur.


Illustrate and graph with precision the occurrence of earthquakes on Earth over a given period of time (at least several months) and draw conclusions concerning regions of tectonic instability.


Using maps, establish world patterns of population distribution, density and growth. Relate population growth rates to health statistics, food supply or measure of well-being. Explain that population patterns differ not only among countries but also among regions within a single country.


Describe and locate on maps the worldwide occurrence of the three major economic systems traditional, planned and market and describe the characteristics of each.


Compare the levels of economic development of countries of the world in terms of Gross Domestic Product per capita and key demographic and social indicators. Map and summarize the results


Explain the meaning of the word infrastructure and analyze its relationship to a countrys level of development.


Identify contemporary spatial patterns in the movement of goods and services throughout the world


Use global political, economic, cultural, or social flows to describe and illustrate interdependence between places, countries and regions.


Describe and explain the worldwide trend toward urbanization and be able to graph the trend.


Explain how the internal structures of cities varies in different regions of the world and give examples.


Analyze the changing functions of cities over time.


Identify specific situations where human or cultural factors are involved in geographic conflict and identify different viewpoints in the conflict. Create scenarios under which these cultural factors would no longer trigger conflict


Identify international political, economic, and social networks and organizations of global power and influence of places, countries, and regions, (Facebook, Doctors without Borders, the United Nations, the European Union, Association of Southeast Asian Nations/ASEAN) and report on the impact of each.


Develop maps of human migration and settlement patterns at different times in history and compare them to the present.


Hypothesize about the impact of push factors and pull factors on human migration in selected regions and about changes in these factors over time.


Evaluate the impact of human migration on physical and human systems. (Economic; Government; Individuals, Society and Culture)


Assess the consequences of population growth or decline in various parts of the United States and determine whether the local community is shrinking or growing.


Map the distribution patterns of the worlds major religions and identify cultural features associated with each.


Map the distribution pattern of the worlds major languages. Map and explain the concept of a lingua franca* in various parts of the world. (History; Individuals, Society and Culture)


Explain how changes in communication and transportation technology contribute to the spread of ideas and to cultural convergence* and divergence.


Identify patterns of economic activity in terms of primary (growing or extracting), secondary (manufacturing) and tertiary (distributing and services) activities. Plot data and draw conclusions about how the percentage of the working population in each of these categories varies by country and changes over time.


Identify and describe the effect of human interaction on the worlds environment.


Identify solutions to problems caused by environmental changes brought on by human activity


Map the occurrence and describe the effects of natural hazards throughout the world and explain ways to cope with them.


Analyze the possible effect of a natural disaster on the local community and devise plans to cope with a disaster so as to minimize or mitigate its effects


Describe how and why the ability of people to use Earths resources to feed themselves has changed over time.


Identify patterns of world resource distribution and utilization, and explain the consequences of the use of renewable and nonrenewable resources.


Identify examples from different world regions, involving the use and management of resources. Explain how different points of view influence policies relating to the use of these resources.


Create basic policies designed to guide the use and management of Earths resources and that reflect multiple points of view.


Describe and evaluate social, cultural, and economic changes of small agriculture communities which led to the development of large agricultural settlements such as the movement from hunting and gathering societies to civilization. (Economics, Geography)


Identify the key components that make up a civilization and the key differences between civilizations and other forms of social organization. (Geography, Sociology)


Review the key elements of the development of early river valley civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus River Valley, and Shang China. (Geography, Sociology)


Examine the development and characteristics of early empires such as Assyria, Persia, Israel, Minoan, and Zhou. (Geography, Sociology)


Review the development and key concepts of major world religions and philosophies including Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. (Sociology)


Trace the development and major achievements of civilizations in India such as the Mauryan and Gupta empires. (Geography, Sociology)


Compare and contrast the influence of Hinduism and Buddhism on civilization in India and Buddhisms spread throughout Asia. (Psychology, Sociology)


Compare and contrast the influence of Confucianism, Taoism, and Legalism on East Asian civilizations. (Sociology)


Trace the developments and achievements of the Qin and Han Dynasties. (Government, Sociology)


Examine the development of Judaism and the civilization of Ancient Israel, including the origins of monotheism, the significance of the Exodus from Egypt, the Hebrew Bible and the Ten Commandments as the source of many moral and ethical traditions of Western civilization.


Examine the development of Greek civilization including differing political and social structures as well as conflicts such as the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. (Sociology, Economics, Government, Geography)


Describe the rise of Alexander the Great and the influence of Hellenism in Southwest and South Asia, North Africa, and parts of Europe.


Analyze the development of Roman Republican government and society. (History, Government, Sociology)


Trace the changes that culminated in the end of the Republic and the formation of the Roman Empire.


Examine the origins, rise, and spread of Christianity including the life of Jesus, and Christianitys impact on the Roman Empire. (Sociology)


Analyze the causes, conditions, and consequences of the decline and fall of the western part of the Roman Empire.


Examine the significant achievements of the Greeks and Romans and their impact on the modern world. (Individuals, Society and Culture)


Analyze the impact of trade networks such as the Silk Road and Indian Ocean trade network.


Describe the improvements in agriculture, the growth of towns, and the commercial revival during the Middle Ages.


Examine the key achievements of civilizations in Africa prior to European contact.


Compare and contrast the developments and achievements of the Maya, Aztec and Inca civilizations.


Explain and understand the achievements of the Tang and Song Dynasties.


Describe and explain the rise, expansion and decline of the Mongol Empire and its consequences for Eurasian peoples.


Examine the development of feudalism in Japan and its impact on Japanese society and government.


Explain the rise and achievements of the Byzantine Empire.


Explain the division between the Eastern and Western branches of Christianity as a result of the Great Schism of 1054.


Examine the origins, rise, and spread of Islam including the life of Muhammad, and Islams division into the Sunnis and Shiites..


Trace the spread of Islam and its impact throughout Southern Europe, Northern Africa and Asia.


Explain the role of Christianity as a unifying force in medieval Europe.


Describe the rise and achievements of Charlemagne and the birth of the Holy Roman Empire.


Analyze the consequences of the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the development of feudalism and manorialism on Europe


Explain the cultural, political and religious causes of the Crusades and their consequences for Europe and Southwest Asia, including the growth in power of the monarchies in Europe.


Trace the origins and developments of the European Renaissance and its impact throughout Western Europe.


Analyze the factors that led to the rise and spread of the Protestant Reformation, the Catholic CounterReformation, as well as reforming movements in other religions, including the wars of religion.


Discuss the emergence of nationalism and nation-states as well as the increased impact of the citizen as a result of the decline of the European medieval period.


Explain the causes of the worldwide voyages of exploration.


Explain consequences of the conquests and colonization as a result of the worldwide voyages of exploration including the transatlantic slave trade, Columbian Exchange, and the effects on native populations in the Americas.


Examine the growth and development of the European economic system as a result of exploration and the growth of mercantilism.


Trace the development of the gunpowder empires such as the Ottoman, Mughal, and Ming empires and their reaction to Western interaction.


Trace the development and impact of absolute monarchies in Europe


Describe the progression of events in England that led to constitutional monarchy such as the Magna Carta, the English Civil War, and the Glorious Revolution of 1688.


Explain the key developments of the Scientific Revolution and its impact on the world.


Explain the key ideas of the Enlightenment in European history and describe its impact upon political and religious thought and culture in Europe and the Americas including the foundation of American government.


Examine the key causes, events, and consequences of the French Revolution as well as the rise and fall of Napoleon.


Trace events, explain the causes, and analyze the outcomes for the Latin American independence movements of the nineteenth century.


Explain the reasons for the rise of nation-states and the effects of nationalism in Europe, North America and Asia


Explain the causes and conditions of the Industrial Revolution in England, Europe, and the United States.


Examine the economic, social, and political changes caused by the Industrial Revolution and their impact on the development of political and economic theory.


Analyze the causes and consequences of European imperialism upon the indigenous peoples of Africa, Asia and Oceania.


Compare and contrast the responses of China and Japan to challenges by Western imperial powers.


Trace and explain the long-term and immediate causes (including Nationalism, Imperialism, Militarism, and Alliances), major events and global consequences of World War I.


Describe and analyze the global expansion of democracy and globalization in the late 20th century


Investigate current global issues such as terrorism, genocide, and environmental issues.


Explain the causes and consequences of the Russian Revolutions of 1917 and the establishment of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.


Examine the events and developments of the interwar period and their impact on the beginning of WWII including the impact of WWI on society, the Great Depression, and the rise of totalitarianism.


Identify the causes and key events of World War II and analyze the impact this war had on the global community.


Examine the causes, course, and effects of the Holocaust including accounts of camp inmates, survivors, liberators, and perpetrators; and, summarize world responses including the Nuremberg Trials.


Explain the causes and consequences of the Cold War and describe the role it played in ethnic or nationalistic conflicts in various parts of the world.


Describe the paths to decolonization and independence from colonial rule in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.


Explain the origins of the modern State of Israel.


Trace the rise of communism in China including its foundations, the Cultural Revolution, and modern day developments.


Identify patterns of historical change and duration and construct a representation that illustrates continuity and change.


Locate and analyze primary sources and secondary sources related to an event or issue of the past.


Investigate and interpret multiple causation in analyzing historical actions and analyze cause-and-effect relationships.


Explain issues and problems of the past by analyzing various interests and viewpoints of the participants involved.


Use technology in the process of conducting historical research and to present products of historical research.


Formulate and present a position or course of action on an issue by examining the underlying factors contributing to that issue and support that position.