# Minnesota Science Learning Standards — Grade 6

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#### 6.1.2.1.1

Identify a common engineered system and evaluate its impact on the daily life of humans. For example: Refrigeration, cell phone, or automobile.

#### 6.1.2.1.2

Recognize that there is no perfect design and that new technologies have consequences that may increase some risks and decrease others. For example: Seat belts and airbags.

#### 6.1.2.1.3

Describe the trade-offs in using manufactured products in terms of features, performance, durability and cost.

#### 6.1.2.1.4

Explain the importance of learning from past failures, in order to inform future designs of similar products or systems. For example: Space shuttle or bridge design.

#### 6.1.2.2.1

Apply and document an engineering design process that includes identifying criteria and constraints, making representations, testing and evaluation, and refining the design as needed to construct a product or system to solve a problem. For example: Investigate how energy changes from one form to another by designing and constructing a simple roller coaster for a marble.

#### 6.1.3.1.1

Describe a system in terms of its subsystems and parts, as well as its inputs, processes and outputs.

#### 6.1.3.1.2

Distinguish between open and closed systems. For example: Compare mass before and after a chemical reaction that releases a gas in sealed and open plastic bags.

#### 6.1.3.4.1

Determine and use appropriate safe procedures, tools, measurements, graphs, and mathematical analyses to describe and investigate natural and designed systems in a physical science context.

#### 6.1.3.4.2

Demonstrate the conversion of units within the International System of Units (S.I. or metric) and estimate the magnitude of common objects and quantities using metric units.

#### 6.2.1.1.1

Explain density, dissolving, compression, diffusion and thermal expansion using the particle model of matter.

#### 6.2.1.2.1

Identify evidence of physical changes, including changing phase or shape, and dissolving in other materials.

#### 6.2.1.2.2

Describe how mass is conserved during a physical change in a closed system. For example: The mass of an ice cube does not change when it melts.

#### 6.2.1.2.3

Use the relationship between heat and the motion and arrangement of particles in solids, liquids and gases to explain melting, freezing, condensdation and evaporation.

#### 6.2.2.1.1

Measure and calculate the speed of an object that is traveling in a straight line.

#### 6.2.2.1.2

For an object traveling in a straight line, graph the objects position as a function of time, and its speed as a function of time. Explain how these graphs describe the objects motion

#### 6.2.2.2.1

Recognize that when the forces acting on an object are balanced, the object remains at rest or continues to move at a constant speed in a straight line, and that unbalanced forces cause a change in the speed or direction of the motion of an object.

#### 6.2.2.2.2

Identify the forces acting on an object and describe how the sum of the forces affects the motion of the object. For example: Forces acting on a book on a table or a car on the road.

#### 6.2.2.2.3

Recognize that some forces between objects act when the objects are in direct contact and others, such as magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces can act from a distance.

#### 6.2.2.2.4

Distinguish between mass and weight.

#### 6.2.3.1.1

Describe properties of waves, including speed, wavelength, frequency and amplitude.

#### 6.2.3.1.2

Explain how the vibration of particles in air and other materials results in the transfer of energy through sound waves.

#### 6.2.3.1.3

Use wave properties of light to explain reflection, refraction and the color spectrum.

#### 6.2.3.2.1

Differentiate between kinetic and potential energy and analyze situations where kinetic energy is converted to potential energy and vice versa.

#### 6.2.3.2.2

Trace the changes of energy forms, including thermal, electrical, chemical, mechanical or others as energy is used in devices. For example: A bicycle, light bulb or automobile.

#### 6.2.3.2.3

Describe how heat energy is transferred in conduction, convection and radiation.