Minnesota Science Learning Standards — Grade 6

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Identify a common engineered system and evaluate its impact on the daily life of humans. For example: Refrigeration, cell phone, or automobile.

Recognize that there is no perfect design and that new technologies have consequences that may increase some risks and decrease others. For example: Seat belts and airbags.

Describe the trade-offs in using manufactured products in terms of features, performance, durability and cost.

Explain the importance of learning from past failures, in order to inform future designs of similar products or systems. For example: Space shuttle or bridge design.

Apply and document an engineering design process that includes identifying criteria and constraints, making representations, testing and evaluation, and refining the design as needed to construct a product or system to solve a problem. For example: Investigate how energy changes from one form to another by designing and constructing a simple roller coaster for a marble.

Describe a system in terms of its subsystems and parts, as well as its inputs, processes and outputs.

Distinguish between open and closed systems. For example: Compare mass before and after a chemical reaction that releases a gas in sealed and open plastic bags.

Determine and use appropriate safe procedures, tools, measurements, graphs, and mathematical analyses to describe and investigate natural and designed systems in a physical science context.

Demonstrate the conversion of units within the International System of Units (S.I. or metric) and estimate the magnitude of common objects and quantities using metric units.

Explain density, dissolving, compression, diffusion and thermal expansion using the particle model of matter.

Identify evidence of physical changes, including changing phase or shape, and dissolving in other materials.

Describe how mass is conserved during a physical change in a closed system. For example: The mass of an ice cube does not change when it melts.

Use the relationship between heat and the motion and arrangement of particles in solids, liquids and gases to explain melting, freezing, condensdation and evaporation.

Measure and calculate the speed of an object that is traveling in a straight line.

For an object traveling in a straight line, graph the objects position as a function of time, and its speed as a function of time. Explain how these graphs describe the objects motion

Recognize that when the forces acting on an object are balanced, the object remains at rest or continues to move at a constant speed in a straight line, and that unbalanced forces cause a change in the speed or direction of the motion of an object.

Identify the forces acting on an object and describe how the sum of the forces affects the motion of the object. For example: Forces acting on a book on a table or a car on the road.

Recognize that some forces between objects act when the objects are in direct contact and others, such as magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces can act from a distance.

Distinguish between mass and weight.

Describe properties of waves, including speed, wavelength, frequency and amplitude.

Explain how the vibration of particles in air and other materials results in the transfer of energy through sound waves.

Use wave properties of light to explain reflection, refraction and the color spectrum.

Differentiate between kinetic and potential energy and analyze situations where kinetic energy is converted to potential energy and vice versa.

Trace the changes of energy forms, including thermal, electrical, chemical, mechanical or others as energy is used in devices. For example: A bicycle, light bulb or automobile.

Describe how heat energy is transferred in conduction, convection and radiation.