Nebraska Science Learning Standards — Grade 10


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SC12.1.1.a

Formulate a testable hypothesis supported by prior knowledge to guide an investigation

SC12.1.1.b

Design and conduct logical and sequential scientific investigations with repeated trials and apply findings to new investigations

SC12.1.1.c

Identify and manage variables and constraints

SC12.1.1.d

Select and use lab equipment and technology appropriately and accurately

SC12.1.1.e

Use tools and technology to make detailed qualitative and quantitative observations

SC12.1.1.f

Represent and review collected data in a systematic, accurate, and objective manner

SC12.1.1.g

Analyze and interpret data, synthesize ideas, formulate and evaluate models, and clarify concepts and explanations

SC12.1.1.h

Use results to verify or refute a hypothesis

SC12.1.1.i

Propose and/or evaluate possible revisions and alternate explanations

SC12.1.1.j

Share information, procedures, results, conclusions, and defend findings to a scientific community (peers, science fair audience, policy makers)

SC12.1.1.k

Evaluate scientific investigations and offer revisions and new ideas as appropriate

SC12.1.1.l

Use appropriate mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry

SC12.1.2.a

Recognize that scientific explanations must be open to questions, possible modifications, and must be based upon historical and current scientific knowledge

SC12.1.2.b

Describe how society influences the work of scientists and how science, technology, and current scientific discoveries influence and change society

SC12.1.2.c

Recognize that the work of science results in incremental advances, almost always building on prior knowledge, in our understanding of the world

SC12.1.2.d

Research and describe the difficulties experienced by scientific innovators who had to overcome commonly held beliefs of their times to reach conclusions that we now take for granted

SC12.1.3.a

Propose designs and choose between alternative solutions of a problem

SC12.1.3.b

Assess the limits of a technical design

SC12.1.3.c

Implement the selected solution

SC12.1.3.d

Evaluate the solution and its consequences

SC12.1.3.e

Communicate the problem, process, and solution

SC12.1.3.f

Compare and contrast the reasons for the pursuit of science and the pursuit of technology

SC12.1.3.g

Explain how science advances with the introduction of new technology

SC12.1.3.h

Recognize creativity, imagination, and a good knowledge base are all needed to advance the work of science and engineering

SC12.2.1.a

Recognize bonding occurs when outer electrons are transferred (ionic) or shared (covalent)

SC12.2.1.b

Describe the energy transfer associated with phase changes between solids, liquids, and gases

SC12.2.1.c

Describe the three normal states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) in terms of energy, particle arrangement, particle motion, and strength of bond between molecules

SC12.2.1.d

Recognize a large number of chemical reactions involve the transfer of either electrons (oxidation/reduction) or hydrogen ions (acid/base) between reacting ions, molecules, or atoms

SC12.2.1.e

Identify factors affecting rates of chemical reactions (temperature, particle size, surface area)

SC12.2.1.f

Recognize the charges and relative locations of subatomic particles (neutrons, protons, electrons)

SC12.2.1.g

Describe properties of atoms, ions, and isotopes

SC12.2.1.h

Describe the organization of the periodic table of elements with respect to patterns of physical and chemical properties

SC12.2.2.a

Describe motion with respect to displacement and acceleration

SC12.2.2.b

Describe how the law of inertia (Newtons 1st law) is evident in a real-world even

SC12.2.2.c

Make predictions based on relationships among net force, mass, and acceleration (Newtons 2nd law)

SC12.2.2.d

Recognize that all forces occur in equal and opposite pairs (Newtons 3rd law)

SC12.2.2.e

Describe how Newtons 3rd law of motion is evident in a real-world event

SC12.2.2.f

Describe gravity as a force that each mass exerts on another mass, which is proportional to the masses and the distance between them

SC12.2.2.g

Recognize that an attractive or repulsive electric force exists between two charged particles and that this force is proportional to the magnitude of the charges and the distance between them

SC12.2.3.a

Describe mechanical wave properties (speed, wavelength, frequency, amplitude) and how waves travel through a medium

SC12.2.3.b

Recognize that the energy in waves can be changed into other forms of energy

SC12.2.3.c

Recognize that light can behave as a wave (diffraction and interference)

SC12.2.3.d

Distinguish between temperature (a measure of the average kinetic energy of atomic or molecular motion) and heat (the quantity of thermal energy that transfers due to a change in temperature)

SC12.2.3.e

Compare and contrast methods of heat transfer and the interaction of heat with matter via conduction, convection, and radiation

SC12.2.3.f

Recognize that the production of electromagnetic waves is a result of changes in the motion of charges or by a changing magnetic field

SC12.2.3.g

Compare and contrast segments of the electromagnetic spectrum (radio, micro, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma) based on frequency and wavelength

SC12.2.3.h

Recognize that nuclear reactions (fission, fusion, radioactive decay) convert a fraction of the mass of interacting particles into energy, and this amount of energy is much greater than the energy in chemical interactions

SC12.2.3.i

Interpret the law of conservation of energy to make predictions for the outcome of an event

SC12.2.3.j

Identify that all energy can be considered to be either kinetic, potential, or energy contained by a field (e.g. electromagnetic waves)

SC12.2.3.k

Identify endothermic and exothermic reactions

SC12.3.1.a

Identify the complex molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) that make up living organisms

SC12.3.1.b

Identify the form and function of sub-cellular structures that regulate cellular activities

SC12.3.1.c

Describe the cellular functions of photosynthesis, respiration, cell division, protein synthesis, transport of materials, and energy capture/release

SC12.3.1.d

Describe how an organism senses changes in its internal or external environment and responds to ensure survival

SC12.3.2.a

Identify that information passed from parents to offspring is coded in DNA molecules

SC12.3.2.b

Describe the basic structure of DNA and its function in genetic inheritance

SC12.3.2.c

Recognize how mutations could help, harm, or have no effect on individual organisms

SC12.3.2.d

Describe that sexual reproduction results in a largely predictable, variety of possible gene combinations in the offspring of any two parents

SC12.3.3.a

Explain how the stability of an ecosystem is increased by biological diversity

SC12.3.3.b

Recognize that atoms and molecules cycle among living and nonliving components of the biosphere

SC12.3.3.c

Explain how distribution and abundance of different organisms in ecosystems are limited by the availability of matter and energy and the ability of the ecosystem to recycle materials

SC12.3.4.a

Identify different types of adaptations necessary for survival (morphological, physiological, behavioral)

SC12.3.4.b

Recognize that the concept of biological evolution is a theory which explains the consequence of the interactions of: (1) the potential for a species to increase its numbers, (2) the genetic variability of offspring due to mutation and recombination of genes, (3) a finite supply of the resources required for life, and (4) the ensuing selection by the environment of those offspring better able to survive and leave offspring

SC12.3.4.c

Explain how natural selection provides a scientific explanation of the fossil record and the molecular similarities among the diverse species of living organisms

SC12.3.4.d

Apply the theory of biological evolution to explain diversity of life over time

SC12.4.1.a

Describe the formation of the universe using the Big Bang Theory

SC12.4.1.b

Recognize that stars, like the Sun, transform matter into energy by nuclear reactions which leads to the formation of other elements

SC12.4.1.c

Describe stellar evolution

SC12.4.2.a

Recognize how Earth materials move through geochemical cycles (carbon, nitrogen, oxygen) resulting in chemical and physical changes in matter

SC12.4.2.b

Describe how heat convection in the mantle propels the plates comprising Earths surface across the face of the globe (plate tectonics)

SC12.4.3.a

Describe how radiation, conduction, and convection transfer heat in Earths systems

SC12.4.3.b

Identify internal and external sources of heat energy in Earths systems

SC12.4.3.c

Compare and contrast benefits of renewable and nonrenewable energy sources

SC12.4.3.d

Describe natural influences (Earths rotation, mountain ranges, oceans, differential heating) on global climate

SC12.4.4.a

Recognize that in any sequence of sediments or rocks that has not been overturned, the youngest sediments or rocks are at the top of the sequence and the oldest are at the bottom (law of superposition)

SC12.4.4.b

Interpret Earths history by observing rock sequences, using fossils to correlate the sequences at various locations, and using data from radioactive dating methods

SC12.4.4.c

Compare and contrast the physical and biological differences of the early Earth with the planet we live on today