Arizona Social Studies Standards — Grade 10

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Historical research is a process in which students examine topics or questions related to historical studies and/or current issues. By using primary and secondary sources effectively students obtain accurate and relevant information.


Interpret historical data displayed in maps, graphs, tables, charts, and geologic time scales.


Distinguish among dating methods that yield calendar ages (e.g., dendrochronology), numerical ages (e.g., radiocarbon), correlated ages (e.g., volcanic ash), and relative ages (e.g., geologic time).


Formulate questions that can be answered by historical study and research.


Construct graphs, tables, timelines, charts, and narratives to interpret historical data.


a) authors' main points; b) purpose and perspective; c) facts vs. opinions; d) different points of view on the same historical event (e.g., Geography Concept 6 - geographical perspective can be different from economic perspective); e) credibility and validity.


Apply the skills of historical analysis to current social, political, geographic, and economic issues facing the world.


a) cause and effect; b) change over time; c) different points of view.


Current events and issues continue to shape our nation and our involvement in the global community.


Describe current events using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).


Identify the connection between current and historical events and issues using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).


Describe how key political, social, environmental, and economic events of the late 20th century and early 21st century (e.g., Watergate, OPEC/oil crisis, Central American wars/Iran-Contra, End of Cold War, first Gulf War, September 11) affected, and continue to affect, the United States.


The geographic, political, economic and cultural characteristics of early civilizations made significant contributions to the later development of the United States.


a) Paleo-Indians, including Clovis, Folsom, and Plano; b) Moundbuilders, including Adena, Hopewell, and Mississippian; c) Southwestern, including Mogollon, Hohokam, and Ancestral Puebloans (Anasazi).


The varied causes and effects of exploration, settlement, and colonization shaped regional and national development of the U.S.


a) religious (e.g., conversion attempts); b) economic (e.g., land disputes, trade); c) social (e.g., spread of disease, partnerships); d) food (e.g., corn); e) government (e.g., Iroquois Confederacy, matriarchal leadership, democratic influence).


Describe the reasons for colonization of America (e.g., religious freedom, desire for land, economic opportunity, and a new life).


a) Colonial governments; geographic influences, resources, and economic systems; b) religious beliefs and social patterns.


Describe the impact of key colonial figures (e.g., John Smith, William Penn, Roger Williams Anne Hutchinson, John Winthrop).


The development of American constitutional democracy grew from political, cultural and economic issues, ideas and event.


a) British attempts to tax and regulate colonial trade as a result of the French and Indian War; b) colonists' reaction to British policy ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence.


Analyze the effects of European involvement in the American Revolution on the outcome of the war.


a) Lexington and Concord; b) Bunker Hill; c) Saratoga; d) writing and ratification of the Declaration of Independence; e) Yorktown.


a) Albany Plan of Union influenced by the Iroquois Confederation; b) Articles of Confederation; c) Constitutional Convention; d) struggles over ratification of the Constitution; e) creation of the Bill of Rights.


a) presidency of George Washington; b) economic policies of Alexander Hamilton; c) creation of political parties under Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton; d) the establishment of the Supreme Court as a co-equal third branch of government under John Marshall with cases such as Marbury v. Madison.


a) property owners; b) African Americans; c) women; d) Native Americans; e) indentured servants.


Westward expansion, influenced by political, cultural, and economic factors, led to the growth and development of the U.S.


a) Northwest Territory; b) Louisiana Territory; c) Florida; d) Texas; e) Oregon Country; f) Mexican Cession; g) Gadsden Purchase; h) Alaska.


a) Jefferson's Presidency; b) War of 1812; c) Jackson's Presidency.


a) explorers (e.g., Lewis and Clark, Pike, Fremont); b) fur traders; c) miners; d) missionaries (e.g., Father Kino, Circuit Riders).


Describe the impact of European-American expansion on native peoples.


a) transportation improvements (e.g., railroads, canals, steamboats); b) factory system manufacturing; c) urbanization; d) inventions (e.g., telegraph, cotton gin, interchangeable parts).


Regional conflicts led to the Civil War and resulted in significant changes to American social, economic, and political structures.


a) economic and social differences between the North, South, and West; b) balance of power in the Senate (e.g., Missouri and 1850 Compromises); c) extension of slavery into the territories (e.g., Dred Scott Decision, the Kansas-Nebraska Act); d) role of abolitionists (e.g., Frederick Douglass and John Brown); e) debate over popular sovereignty/states rights; f) Presidential election of 1860.


a) changes in technology; b) importance of resources; c) turning points; d) military and civilian leaders; e) effect of the Emancipation Proclamation; f) effect on the civilian populations.


a) various plans for reconstruction of the South; b) Lincoln's assassination; c) Johnson's impeachment; d) Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments; e) resistance to and end of Reconstruction (e.g., Jim Crow laws, KKK, Compromise of 1877).


Economic, social, and cultural changes transformed the U.S. into a world power.


a) mass production; b) monopolies and trusts (e.g., Robber Barons, Taft- Hartley Act); c) economic philosophies (e.g., laissez faire, Social Darwinism, free silver); d) labor movement (e.g., Bisbee Deportation); trade.


a) Civil Rights issues (e.g., Women's Suffrage Movement, Dawes Act, Indian schools, lynching, Plessy v. Ferguson); b) changing patterns in Immigration (e.g., Ellis Island, Angel Island, Chinese Exclusion Act, Immigration Act of 1924); c) urbanization and social reform (e.g., health care, housing, food & nutrition, child labor laws); d) mass media (e.g., political cartoons, muckrakers, yellow journalism, radio); e) consumerism (e.g., advertising, standard of living, consumer credit); f) Roaring Twenties (e.g., Harlem Renaissance, leisure time, jazz, changed social mores)


a) Indian Wars (e.g., Little Bighorn, Wounded Knee); b) Imperialism (e.g., Spanish American War, annexation of Hawaii, Philippine-American War); c) Progressive Movement (e.g., Sixteenth through Nineteenth Amendments, child labor); d) Teddy Roosevelt (e.g., conservationism, Panama Canal, national parks, trust busting); e) corruption (e.g., Tammany Hall, spoils system); f) World War I (e.g., League of Nations, Isolationism); g) Red Scare/Socialism; h) Populism.


Analyze the effect of direct democracy (initiative, referendum, recall) on Arizona statehood.


Domestic and world events, economic issues, and political conflicts redefined the role of government in the lives of U.S. citizens.


a) economic causes of the Depression (e.g., economic policies of 1920s, investment patterns and stock market crash); b) Dust Bowl (e.g., environmental damage, internal migration); c) effects on society (e.g., fragmentation of families, Hoovervilles, unemployment, business failure, breadlines); d) changes in expectations of government (e.g., New Deal programs).


a) movement away from isolationism; b) economic recovery from the Great Depression; c) homefront transformations in the roles of women and minorities; d) Japanese, German, and Italian internments and POW camps; e) war mobilization ( e.g., Native American Code-Talkers, minority participation in military units, media portrayal); f) turning points such as Pearl Harbor, D-Day, Hiroshima/Nagasaki.


Postwar tensions led to social change in the U.S. and to a heightened focus on foreign policy.


a) international activism (e.g., Marshall Plan, United Nations, NATO); b) Cold War (e.g., domino theory, containment, Korea, Vietnam); c) Arms Race (e.g., Cuban Missile Crisis, SALT); d) United States as a superpower (e.g., political intervention and humanitarian efforts).


a) McCarthyism; b) Civil Rights (e.g., Birmingham, 1964 Civil Rights Act, Voting Rights Act, Constitutional Amendments); c) Supreme Court Decisions (e.g., the Warren and Burger Courts); d) Executive Power (e.g., War Powers Act, Watergate); e) social reforms Great Society and War on Poverty; f) Space Race and technological developments.


a) postwar prosperity (e.g., growth of suburbs, baby boom, GI Bill); b) popular culture (e.g., conformity v. counter-culture, mass-media); c) protest movements (e.g., anti-war, women's rights, civil rights, farm workers, Cesar Chavez); d) assassinations (e.g., John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King, Jr., Robert F. Kennedy, Malcolm X); e) shift to increased immigration from Latin America and Asia.


Historical research is a process in which students examine topics or questions related to historical studies and/or current issues.


Interpret historical data displayed in maps, graphs, tables, charts, and geologic time scales.


Distinguish among dating methods that yield calendar ages (e.g., dendrochronology), numerical ages (e.g., radiocarbon), correlated ages (e.g., volcanic ash), and relative ages (e.g., geologic time).


Formulate questions that can be answered by historical study and research.


Construct graphs, tables, timelines, charts, and narratives to interpret historical data.


Evaluate primary and secondary sources for a) authors' main points; b) purpose and perspective; c) facts vs. opinions; d) different points of view on the same historical event (e.g., Geography Concept 6 - geographical perspective can be different from economic perspective); e) credibility and validity.


Apply the skills of historical analysis to current social, political, geographic, and economic issues facing the world.


Compare present events with past events a) cause and effect; b) change over time; c) different points of view.


The geographic, political, economic and cultural characteristics of early civilizations significantly influenced the development of later civilizations.


Describe the development of early prehistoric people, their agriculture, and settlements.


Analyze the development and historical significance of Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam.


Analyze the enduring Greek and Roman contributions and their impact on later civilization a) development of concepts of government and citizenship (e.g., democracy, republics, codification of law, and development of empire); b) scientific and cultural advancements (e.g., network of roads, aqueducts, art and architecture, literature and theater, mathematics, and philosophy)


Analyze the enduring Chinese contributions and their impact on other civilizations a) development of concepts of government and citizenship (e.g., Confucianism, empire); b) scientific, mathematical, and technical advances (e.g., roads, aqueducts); c) cultural advancements in art, architecture, literature, theater, and philosophy,


People of different regions developed unique civilizations and cultural identities characterized by increased interaction, societal complexity and competition.


Contrast the fall of Rome with the development of the Byzantine and Arab Empires (e.g., religion, culture, language, governmental structure).


Compare feudalism in Europe and Japan and its connection with religious and cultural institutions.


Compare the development of empires (e.g., Roman, Han, Mali, Incan/Inkan, Ottoman) throughout the world.


Describe the interaction of European and Asian civilizations from the 12th to the 16th centuries a) Crusades; b) commerce and the Silk Road; c) impact on culture; d) plague


The rise of individualism challenged traditional western authority and belief systems resulting in a variety of new institutions, philosophical and religious ideas, and cultural and social achievements.


Analyze the results of Renaissance thoughts and theories a) rediscovery of Greek and Roman ideas; b) humanism and its emphasis on individual potential and achievements; c) scientific approach to the natural world; d) Middle Eastern contributions (e.g., mathematics, science); e) innovations in the arts and sciences.


Explain how the ideas of the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Reformation (e.g., secular authority, individualism, migration, literacy and vernacular, the arts) affected society.


Innovations, discoveries, exploration, and colonization accelerated contact, conflict, and interconnection among societies world wide, transforming and creating nations.


Describe the religious, economic, social, and political interactions among civilizations that resulted from early exploration a) reasons for European exploration; b) impact of expansion and colonization on Europe; c) impact of expansion and colonization on Africa, the Americas, and Asia; d) role of disease in conquest; e) role of trade; f) navigational technology; g) impact and ramifications of slavery and international slave trade; h) contrasting motivations and methods for colonization


Intensified internal conflicts led to the radical overthrow of traditional governments and created new political and economic systems.


Contrast the development of representative, limited government in England with the development and continuation of absolute monarchies in other European nations a) absolute monarchies (e.g., Louis XIV, Peter the Great, Philip II); b) the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, and parliamentary government; c) the ideas of John Locke


Explain how new ideas (i.e., Heliocentrism, Scientific Method, Newton's Laws) changed the way people understood the world.


Explain how Enlightenment ideas influenced political thought and social change a) Deism; b) role of women; c) political thought; d) social change


Analyze the developments of the French Revolution and rule of Napoleon a) Reign of Terror; b) rise of Napoleon; c) spread of nationalism in Europe; d) defeat of Napoleon and Congress of Vienna


Explain the revolutionary and independence movements in Latin America (e.g., Mexico, Haiti, South America).


Analyze the social, political, and economic development and impact of the Industrial Revolution a) origins in England's textile and mining industries; b) urban growth and the social impact of industrialization; c) unequal spread of industrialization to other countries; d) political and economic theories (nationalism, anarchism, capitalism, socialism)


Industrialized nations exerted political, economic, and social control over less developed areas of the world.


Explain the rationale (e.g., need for raw materials, domination of markets, advent of national competition, spread of European culture/religion) for imperialism.


Trace the development of the British Empire around the world (e.g., America, Southeast Asia, South Pacific, India, Africa, the Suez).


Describe the division of the world into empires and spheres of influence during the 18th and 19th centuries (e.g., British, French, Dutch, Spanish, American, Belgian).


Analyze the effects of European and American colonialism on their colonies (e.g., artificially drawn boundaries, one-crop economies, creation of economic dependence, population relocation, cultural suppression).


Analyze the responses to imperialism (e.g., Boxer Rebellion, Sepoy Rebellion, Opium Wars, Zulu Wars) by people under colonial rule at the end of the 19th century.


Explain Japanese responses to European/American imperialism from a closed door policy to adoption of Euro-American ideas.


Global events, economic issues and political ideologies ignited tensions leading to worldwide military conflagrations and diplomatic confrontations in a context of development and change.


Examine the causes of World War I a) rise of nationalism in Europe; b) unification of Germany and Otto Von Bismarck's leadership; c) rise of ethnic and ideological conflicts - the Balkans, Austria-Hungary, the decline of the Ottoman Empire


Analyze the impact of the changing nature of warfare in World War I a) trench warfare; b) mechanization of war - machine gun, gasoline, submarine, tanks, chemical; c) American involvement


Explain the end of World War I and its aftermath a) Russian Revolution; b) Treaty of Versailles; c) end of empires (e.g., Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, Russian); d) continuation of colonial systems (e.g., French Indochina, India, Philippines)


Examine the period between World War I and World War II a) rise of fascism and dictatorships; b) postwar economic problems; c) new alliances; d) growth of the Japanese empire; e) challenges to the world order


Analyze aspects of World War II a) political ideologies (e.g., Totalitarianism, Democracy); b) military strategies (e.g., air warfare, atomic bomb, Russian front, concentration camps); c) treatment of civilian populations; d) Holocaust


Examine genocide as a manifestation of extreme nationalism in the 20th century (e.g., Armenia, Holocaust, Cambodia, Bosnia, Rwanda, Kosovo and Sudan).


Analyze the political, economic and cultural impact of the Cold War a) superpowers - Soviet Union, United States, China; b) division of Europe; c) developing world; d) Korean and Vietnam Wars


Compare independence movements of emerging nations (e.g., Africa, Asia, Middle East, Latin America).


The nations of the contemporary world are shaped by their cultural and political past. Current events, developments and issues continue to shape the global community.


Explain the fall of the Soviet Union and its impact on the world.


Explain the roots of terrorism a) background and motives; b) religious conflict (e.g., Northern Ireland, Chechnya, Southwestern Philippines, southern Thailand, Kashmir); c) background of modern Middle East conflicts (e.g., Israeli - Palestinian conflict, Persian Gulf conflicts, Afghanistan); d) economic and political inequities and cultural insensitivities


Describe the development of political and economic interdependence during the second half of the twentieth century a) economics, global wage inequalities; b) technology; c) multinational corporations; d) growth of international governmental organizations (e.g., World Trade Organization); e) growth of non-governmental organizations (e.g., Red Cross, Red Crescent)


Examine environmental issues from a global perspective (e.g., pollution, population pressures, global warming, scarcity of resources).


Connect current events with historical events and issues using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).


The United States democracy is based on principles and ideals that are embodied by symbols, people and documents.


a) Greek direct democracy; b) Roman republic


a) Magna Carta; b) English Bill of Rights; c) Representative government - Parliament, colonial assemblies, town meetings


a) moral and ethical ideals from Judeo-Christian tradition; b) John Locke and social contract; c) Charles de Montesquieu and separation of powers


Examine the fundamental principles (e.g., equality, natural rights of man, rule of law) in the Declaration of Independence.


The United States structure of government is characterized by the separation and balance of powers.


Analyze why the weak central government and limited powers of the Articles of Confederation demonstrated the need for the Constitution.


a) representative government as developed by the Great Compromise and the Three-Fifths Compromise; b) Federalism; c) Separation of Powers/Checks and Balances; d) Judicial Review; e) Amendment Process


a) powers of the national government; b) powers of the state governments; c) powers of the people


a) Federalist and Anti-Federalist positions (e.g., The Federalist Papers); b) Bill of Rights; c) ratification


a) specific powers delegated in Article I of the Constitution; b) role of competing factions and development of political parties; c) lawmaking process; d) different roles of Senate and House; e) election process and types of representation; f) influence of staff, lobbyists, special interest groups and political action committees (PACs)


a) specific powers delegated in Article II of the Constitution; b) roles and duties of the president; c) development and function of the executive branch, including the cabinet and federal bureaucracy; d) election of the president through the nomination process, national conventions, and electoral college


a) specific powers delegated by the Constitution in Article III; b) judicial review developed in Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, and Gibbons v. Ogden; c) dual court system of state and federal courts


a) direct democracy by initiative, referendum, and recall processes; b) election process such as redistricting, (e.g., gerrymandering, clean elections), voter registration, and primaries; c) the structure and processes of Arizona's legislature; d) the roles of the Governor, Secretary of State, Treasurer, Attorney General, and Superintendent of Public Instruction; e) appointment and continuing election of judges.


a) county government, boards of supervisors, sheriffs, county attorneys, and others; b) mayor, council, city manager, and other city officials; c) issues of large urban area governments (e.g., transportation, zoning growth management and funding, urban planning, water and sanitation, pollution, annexation); d) special districts, governance funding and purpose (e.g., school, sanitation, water, fire, library, community college)


Examine the sovereignty of tribal governments and their relationship to state and federal governments (e.g., jurisdiction, land use, water and mineral rights, gaming pacts).


Identify other forms of government under U.S. federal auspices (e.g., protectorates, territories, federal districts).


Laws and policies are developed to govern, protect, and promote the well-being of the people.


Analyze the functions of government as defined in the Preamble to the Constitution.


a) Constitutional mandates (e.g., the right of habeas corpus, no bill of attainder, and the prohibition of ex post facto laws); b) Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Amendments; c) protection provided by the Fourteenth Amendment


a) federal - income tax, duties , excise taxes, corporate tax; b) state - income tax, sales tax; c) local - property tax, sales tax


Describe the regulatory functions of government pertaining to consumer protection, environment, health, labor, transportation, and communication.


Describe the factors and processes that determine major domestic policies (e.g., Social Security, education, health care, parks, environmental protection).


The rights, responsibilities and practices of United States citizenship are founded in the Constitution and the nation's history.


a) freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition in the First Amendment; b) right to bear arms in the Second Amendment; c) Ninth Amendment and guarantee of people's unspecified rights; d) civil rights in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments; e) voting rights in the Fifteenth, Nineteenth, Twenty-third, Twenty fourth, and Twenty-sixth Amendments; Native American citizenship and voting rights (Arizona, 1948); Voting Rights Act of 1965; f) conflicts which occur between rights (e.g., the tensions between the right to a fair trial and freedom of the press, and between majority rule and individual rights); g) right to work laws


Define citizenship according to the Fourteenth Amendment.


a) connections between self-interest, the common good, and the essential element of civic virtue (e.g., George Washington's Farewell Speech), volunteerism; b) obligations of upholding the Constitution; c) obeying the law, serving on juries, paying taxes, voting, and military service; d) analyzing public issues, policy making, and evaluating candidates


Demonstrate the skills and knowledge (e.g., group problem solving, public speaking, petitioning and protesting) needed to accomplish public purposes.


a) political perspectives (e.g., liberalism, conservatism, progressivism, libertarianism); b) influence of interest groups, lobbyists, and PAC's on elections, the political process and policy making; c) influence of the mass media on elections, the political process and policy making


Different governmental systems exist throughout the world. The United States influences and is influenced by global interactions.


Compare the United States system of politics and government to other systems of the world (e.g., monarchies, dictatorship, theocracy, oligarchy, parliamentary, unitary, proportional elections).


Describe factors (e.g., trade, political tensions, sanctions, terrorism) that influence United States foreign policy.


Describe world governmental and non-governmental organizations (e.g., the United Nations and its agencies, NATO, the European Union, the International Red Cross).


The spatial perspective and associated geographic tools are used to organize and interpret information about people, places and environments.


Construct maps using appropriate elements (i.e., date, orientation, grid, scale, title, author, index, legend, situation).


Interpret maps and images (e.g., political, physical, relief, thematic, Geographic Information Systems [GIS], Landsat).


Use appropriate maps and other graphic representations to analyze geographic problems and changes over time.


Use an atlas to access information.


Places and regions have distinct physical and cultural characteristics.


Identify the characteristics that define a region a) physical processes such as climate, terrain, and resources; b) human processes such as religion, political organization, economy, and demographics


Describe the factors (e.g., demographics, political systems, economic systems, resources, culture) that contribute to the variations between developing and developed regions.


Examine geographic issues (e.g., drought in Sahel, migration patterns, desertification of Aral Sea, spread of religions such as Islam, conflicts in Northern Ireland/Ireland, Jerusalem, Tibet) in places and world regions.


Analyze the differing political, religious, economic, demographic, and historical ways of viewing places and regions.


Examine how the geographic characteristics of a place affect the economics and culture (e.g., changing regional economy of the sunbelt, location with respect of natural hazards, location of Panama Canal, Air Force Bases in Arizona).


Analyze how a region changes over time (e.g., U.S./Mexico border, Europe from World War I to the development of European Union, change from pre- to post-colonialism in Africa, Hong Kong).


Analyze sides of scientific debates over how human actions (e.g., global warming, ozone decline) modify a region.


Physical processes shape the Earth and interact with plant and animal life to create, sustain, and modify ecosystems. These processes affect the distribution of resources and economic development.


Analyze how weather and climate (e.g., the effect of heat transfer, Earth's rotation, and severe weather systems) influence the natural character of a place.


Analyze different points of view on the use of renewable and non-renewable resources in Arizona.


Analyze how earth's internal changes (e.g., earthquakes, volcanic activity, folding, faulting) and external changes (e.g., geochemical, water and carbon cycles, erosion, deposition) influence the character of places.


Analyze how hydrology (e.g., quality, reclamation, conservation) influences the natural character of a place.


Human cultures, their nature, and distribution affect societies and the Earth.


Interpret population growth and demographics (e.g., birth and death rates, population growth rates, doubling time and life expectancy, carrying capacity).


Analyze push/pull factors that contribute to human migration.


Analyze the effects of migration on places of origin and destination, including border areas.


Analyze issues of globalization (e.g., widespread use of English, the role of the global media, resistance to 'cultural imperialism', trade, outsourcing).


Analyze the development, growth, and changing nature of cities (e.g., urban sprawl, suburbs, city revitalization).


Analyze factors (e.g., social, biotic, abiotic) that affect human populations.


Predict the effect of a change in a specific factor (e.g., social, biotic, abiotic) on a human population.


Explain how ideas, customs, and innovations (e.g., religion, language, political philosophy, technological advances, higher education, economic principles) are spread through cultural diffusion.


Human and environmental interactions are interdependent upon one another. Humans interact with the environment- they depend upon it, they modify it; and they adapt to it. The health and well-being of all humans depends upon an understanding of the interconnections and interdependence of human and physical systems.


Analyze how the Earth's natural systems (e.g., Gulf Stream permitting habitation of northern Europe, earthquakes, tsunamis, periodic droughts, river civilizations) affect humans.


Analyze how natural hazards impact humans (e.g., differences in disaster preparation between developed and developing nations, why people continue to build in disaster-prone places).


Analyze how changes in the natural environment can increase or diminish its capacity to support human activity (e.g., major droughts, warm and cold periods, volcanic eruptions, El Nino events, pollution).


Analyze the environmental effects of human use of technology (e.g., irrigation, deforestation, overgrazing, global warming, atmospheric and climate changes, energy production costs and benefits, water management) on the environment.


Analyze how humans impact the diversity and productivity of ecosystems (e.g., invading non-native plants and animals).


Analyze policies and programs for resource use and management (e.g., the trade-off between environmental quality and economic growth in the twentieth century).


Predict how a change in an environmental factor (e.g., extinction of species, volcanic eruptions) can affect an ecosystem.


Geographic thinking (asking and answering geographic questions) is used to understand spatial patterns of the past, the present, and to plan for the future.


Analyze how geographic knowledge, skills, and perspectives (e.g., use of Geographic Information Systems in urban planning, reapportionment of political units, locating businesses) are used to solve contemporary problems.


Analyze how changing perceptions of places and environments (e.g., where individuals choose to live and work, Israeli settlements, role of military bases, Viking colonization and naming of Iceland) affect the choices of people and institutions.


Analyze how geography influences historical events and movements (e.g., Trail of Tears, Cuban Missile Crisis, location of terrorist camps, pursuit of Pancho Villa, Mao's long march, Hannibal crossing the Alps, Silk Road).


The foundations of economics are the application of basic economic concepts and decision-making skills. This includes scarcity and the different methods of allocation of goods and services.


a) limited resources and unlimited human wants influence choice at individual, national, and international levels; b) factors of production (e.g., natural, human, and capital resources, entrepreneurship, technology); c) marginal analysis by producers, consumers, savers, and investors


Analyze production possibilities curves to describe opportunity costs and trade-offs.


a) property rights; b) profit motive; c) consumer sovereignty; d) competition; e) role of the government; f) rational self-interest; g) invisible hand


Evaluate the economic implications of current events from a variety of sources (e.g., magazine articles, newspaper articles, radio, television reports, editorials, Internet sites).


Interpret economic information using charts, tables, graphs, equations, and diagrams.


Microeconomics examines the costs and benefits of economic choices relating to individuals, markets and industries, and governmental policies.


a) why voluntary exchange occurs only when all participating parties expect to gain from the exchange; b) role and interdependence of households, firms, and government in the circular flow model of economic activity; c) role of entrepreneurs in a market economy and how profit is an incentive that leads entrepreneurs to accept risks of business failure; d) financial institutions and securities markets; e) importance of rule of law in a market economy for enforcement of contracts


a) laws of supply and demand; b) how a market price is determined; c) graphs that demonstrate changes in supply and demand; d) how price ceilings and floors cause shortages or surpluses; e) comparison of monopolistic and competitive behaviors; f) theory of production and the role of cost


a) need to compare costs and benefits of government policies before taking action; b) use of federal, state, and local government spending to provide national defense; address environmental concerns; define and enforce property, consumer and worker rights; regulate markets; and provide goods and services; c) effects of progressive, proportional, and regressive taxes on different income groups; d) role of self-interest in decisions of voters, elected officials, and public employees


Macroeconomics examines the costs and benefits of economic choices made at a societal level and how those choices affect overall economic well being.


Determine how inflation, unemployment, and gross domestic product statistics are used in policy decisions.


Explain the effects of inflation and deflation on different groups (e.g., borrowers v. lenders, fixed income/cost of living adjustments).


Describe the economic and non-economic consequences of unemployment.


Analyze fiscal policy and its effects on inflation, unemployment, and economic growth.


Describe the functions of the Federal Reserve System (e.g., banking regulation and supervision, financial services, monetary policy) and their influences on the economy.


Explain the effects of monetary policy on unemployment, inflation, and economic growth.


Determine how investment in factories, machinery, new technology, and the health, education, and training of people can raise future standards of living.


Patterns of global interaction and economic development vary due to different economic systems and institutions that exist throughout the world.


a) characteristics of market, command, and mixed economic systems, including roles of production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services; b) benefits and costs of market and command economies; c) characteristics of the mixed-market economy of the United States, including such concepts as private ownership, profit motive, consumer sovereignty, competition, and government regulation; d) role of private property in conserving scarce resources and providing incentives in a market economy


a) how people and nations gain through trade; b) how the law of comparative advantage leads to specialization and trade; c) effects of protectionism, including tariffs and quotas on international trade and on a nation's standard of living; d) how exchange rates work and how they affect international trade; e) how the concepts of balance of trade and balance of payments are used to measure international trade; f) factors that influence the major world patterns of economic activity including the differing costs of production between developed and developing countries; g) economic connections among different regions, including changing alignments in world trade partners; h) identify the effects of trade agreements (e.g., North American Free Trade Agreement)


Decision-making skills foster a person's individual standard of living. Using information wisely leads to better informed decisions as consumers, workers, investors and effective participants in society.


Explain how education, career choices, and family obligations affect future income.


Analyze how advertising influences consumer choices.


Determine short- and long-term financial goals and plans, including income, spending, saving, and investing.


Compare the advantages and disadvantages of using various forms of credit and the determinants of credit history.


Explain the risk, return, and liquidity of short- and long-term saving and investment vehicles.


Identify investment options, (e.g., stocks, bonds, mutual funds) available to individuals and households.