Arizona Social Studies Standards — Grade 4


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SS04-S1C1.

Historical research is a process in which students examine topics or questions related to historical studies and/or current issues. By using primary and secondary sources effectively students obtain accurate and relevant information.

SS04-S1C1.a

a) timelines - B.C.E. and B.C.; C.E. and A.D.; b) graphs, tables, charts, and maps.

SS04-S1C1.b

Describe the difference between primary and secondary sources.

SS04-S1C1.c

Locate information using both primary and secondary sources.

SS04-S1C1.d

Describe how archaeological research adds to our understanding of the past.

SS04-S1C10

Current events and issues continue to shape our nation and our involvement in the global community.

SS04-S1C10.a

Describe current events using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).

SS04-S1C10.b

Discuss the connections between current and historical events and issues from content studied in Strand 1 using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).

SS04-S1C10.c

Describe the influence of key individuals (e.g., Sandra Day O'Connor, Carl Hayden, Ernest W. McFarland, Barry Goldwater, Cesar Chavez, John McCain) in Arizona.

SS04-S1C10.d

Discuss the contributions of diverse populations to Arizona.

SS04-S1C2.

The geographic, political, economic and cultural characteristics of early civilizations made significant contributions to the later development of the United States.

SS04-S1C2.a

a) characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies; b) development of agriculture.

SS04-S1C2.b

Describe the cultures and contributions of the Mogollon, Ancestral Puebloans (Anasazi), and Hohokam (e.g., location, agriculture, housing, arts, trade networks; adaptation and alteration of the environment).

SS04-S1C2.c

Identify other groups (e.g., Patayan, Sinagua, Salado) residing in the Southwest during this period.

SS04-S1C2.d

Identify the early civilizations (e.g., Maya, Aztec, Inca/Inka) that developed into empires in Central and South America.

SS04-S1C2.e

Recognize the achievements and features (e.g., mathematics, astronomy, architecture) of the Mayan, Aztec, and Incan/Inkan civilizations.

SS04-S1C3.

The varied causes and effects of exploration, settlement, and colonization shaped regional and national development of the U.S.

SS04-S1C3.a

a) Cabeza de Vaca; b) Estevan; c) Fray Marcos de Niza; d) Francisco Vasques de Coronado.

SS04-S1C3.b

a) establishment of missions and presidios; b) lifestyle changes of native people; c) contributions of Father Kino.

SS04-S1C3.c

Describe the location and cultural characteristics of Native American tribes (e.g., O'odham, Apache, Hopi) during the Spanish period.

SS04-S1C5.

Westward expansion, influenced by political, cultural, and economic factors, led to the growth and development of the U.S.

SS04-S1C5.a

Recognize the change of governance of the Southwest from Spain to Mexico as a result of the Mexican Revolution.

SS04-S1C5.b

Describe the influence of American explorers and trappers (e.g., James O. Pattie, Kit Carson, Bill Williams) on the development of the Southwest.

SS04-S1C5.c

a) Mexican - American War; b) Mexican Cession (Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo); c) Gadsden Purchase.

SS04-S1C5.d

Describe the impact of Native Americans, Hispanics, and newcomers from the United States and the world on the culture of Arizona (e.g., art, language, architecture, mining, ranching).

SS04-S1C5.e

a) Indian Wars; b) Navajo Long Walk; c) formation of reservations.

SS04-S1C6.

Regional conflicts led to the Civil War and resulted in significant changes to American social, economic, and political structures.

SS04-S1C6.a

a) Battle of Picacho Peak; b) Battle of Apache Pass; c) Arizona becomes a territory.

SS04-S1C7.

Economic, social, and cultural changes transformed the U.S. into a world power.

SS04-S1C7.a

a) mining; b) ranching; c) farming and dams.

SS04-S1C7.b

Describe the advent of innovations in transportation (e.g., steamboats, freighting, stagecoaches, railroads) that helped Arizona's growth and economy.

SS04-S1C7.c

Identify key individuals and groups (e.g., Charles Poston, Sharlot Hall, Buffalo Soldiers, Geronimo, George W.P. Hunt, Manuelito, Cochise) related to Arizona territorial days and early statehood.

SS04-S1C7.d

Recognize that Arizona changed from a territory to a state on February 14, 1912.

SS04-S1C7.e

Recognize the formation of Native American communities and reservations in Arizona (e.g., Gila River Reservation, Yaquis, Colorado River Indian Tribes).

SS04-S1C8.

Domestic and world events, economic issues, and political conflicts redefined the role of government in the lives of U.S. citizens.

SS04-S1C8.a

a) poverty; b) unemployment; c) loss of homes or businesses; d) migration.

SS04-S1C8.b

Describe the reasons (e.g., German and Japanese aggression) for the U.S. becoming involved in World War II.

SS04-S1C8.c

Describe the impact of World War II on Arizona (e.g., economic boost, military bases, Native American and Hispanic contributions, POW camps, relocation of Japanese Americans).

SS04-S1C8.e

Describe how lives were affected during World War II (e.g., limited goods, women worked in factories, increased patriotism).

SS04-S1C9.

Postwar tensions led to social change in the U.S. and to a heightened focus on foreign policy.

SS04-S1C9.a

Describe changes (e.g., population growth, economic growth, cultural diversity, civil rights) that took place in Arizona during the postwar era.

SS04-S2C1.

Historical research is a process in which students examine topics or questions related to historical studies and/or current issues.

SS04-S2C1.a

a) timelines - B.C.E. and B.C.; C.E. and A.D.; b) graphs, tables, charts, and maps.

SS04-S2C1.b

Describe the difference between primary and secondary sources.

SS04-S2C1.c

Locate information using both primary and secondary sources.

SS04-S2C1.d

Describe how archaeological research adds to our understanding of the past.

SS04-S2C3.

People of different regions developed unique civilizations and cultural identities characterized by increased interaction, societal complexity and competition.

SS04-S2C3.a

a) life in castles; b) knights traveling to new places during the Crusades; c) desire for new routes to the Indies.

SS04-S2C5.

Innovations, discoveries, exploration, and colonization accelerated contact, conflict, and interconnection among societies world wide, transforming and creating nations.

SS04-S2C5.a

Describe the reasons (e.g., trade routes, gold) for Spanish and Portuguese explorations of the Americas.

SS04-S2C5.b

Describe the impact of European explorers' encounters with the Aztec and Inca/Inka.

SS04-S2C9.

The nations of the contemporary world are shaped by their cultural and political past. Current events, developments and issues continue to shape the global community.

SS04-S2C9.a

Describe current events using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).

SS04-S3C1.

The United States democracy is based on principles and ideals that are embodied by symbols, people and documents.

SS04-S3C1.a

a) Great Seal of the United States; b) Arizona symbols (e.g., seal, flag); c) war memorials (e.g., Pearl Harbor- Arizona Memorial, WW II, Korean, and Vietnam Memorials).

SS04-S3C1.b

a) Preamble of the U.S. Constitution; b) Bill of Rights; c) Statement of Natural Rights as found in the Declaration of Independence (We hold these truths to be self evident...) (Note: Aligns to State Statute)

SS04-S3C1.c

a) locations of capital; b) founding people; c) Arizona's constitution.

SS04-S3C1.d

a) shared principles, goals, customs and traditions; b) diversity in one's school and community; c) benefits and challenges of a diverse population.

SS04-S3C2.

The United States structure of government is characterized by the separation and balance of powers.

SS04-S3C2.a

a) Executive; b) Legislative; c) Judicial.

SS04-S3C2.b

Describe different levels of government (e.g., local, tribal, state, national).

SS04-S3C3.

Laws and policies are developed to govern, protect, and promote the well-being of the people.

SS04-S3C3.a

Describe the responsibilities of state government (e.g., making laws, enforcing laws, collecting taxes).

SS04-S3C3.b

Describe the responsibilities (e.g., determining land use, enforcing laws, overlapping responsibilities with state government) of the local government.

SS04-S3C3.c

Describe the possible consequences of violating laws.

SS04-S3C4.

The rights, responsibilities and practices of United States citizenship are founded in the Constitution and the nation's history.

SS04-S3C4.a

Discuss ways an individual can contribute to a school or community.

SS04-S3C4.b

Identify traits of character (e.g., responsibility, respect, perseverance, loyalty, integrity, involvement, justice and tolerance) that are important to the preservation and improvement of democracy.

SS04-S3C4.c

Describe the importance of citizens being actively involved in the democratic process (e.g., voting, campaigning, civil and community service, volunteering, jury duty).

SS04-S4C1.

The spatial perspective and associated geographic tools are used to organize and interpret information about people, places and environments.

SS04-S4C1.a

Use different types of maps to solve problems (i.e., road maps -distance, resource maps-products, historical maps- boundaries, thematic map- climates).

SS04-S4C1.b

a) title; b) compass rose (cardinal and intermediate directions); c) symbols; d) legend; e) scale; f) road map index; g) grid (latitude and longitude).

SS04-S4C1.c

Construct maps using symbols to represent human and physical features.

SS04-S4C1.d

Construct charts and graphs to display geographic information.

SS04-S4C1.e

a) physical - (i.e., river, lake, mountain, range, coast, sea, desert, gulf, bay, strait, plain, valley, volcanoes, isthmus, canyon, plateau, mesa, oasis, dunes); b) human - (i.e., equator, four hemispheres, city, state, country, harbor, dams, territory, county).

SS04-S4C1.f

a) physical (i.e., river, lake, mountain range, coast, sea, desert, gulf, bay, strait); b) human (i.e., equator four hemispheres, city, state, country, roads, railroads).

SS04-S4C1.g

a) physical (e.g., Grand Canyon, Mogollon Rim, Colorado River, Gila River, Salt River); b) human (e.g., Phoenix, Yuma, Flagstaff, Tucson, Prescott, Hoover Dam, Roosevelt Dam).

SS04-S4C2.

Places and regions have distinct physical and cultural characteristics.

SS04-S4C2.a

Describe how the Southwest has distinct physical and cultural characteristics.

SS04-S4C2.b

Describe ways in which Arizona has changed over time from statehood to today.

SS04-S4C2.c

Locate the landform regions of Arizona (plateau, mountain, desert) on a map.

SS04-S4C2.d

Compare the landform regions of Arizona according to their physical features, plants, and animals.

SS04-S4C2.e

Describe how regions and places (e.g., Grand Canyon, Colorado River, Casa Grande Ruin, Canyon de Chelly, Yucatan Peninsula) have distinct characteristics.

SS04-S4C3.

Physical processes shape the Earth and interact with plant and animal life to create, sustain, and modify ecosystems. These processes affect the distribution of resources and economic development.

SS04-S4C3.a

Describe how natural events and human activities impact environments.

SS04-S4C3.b

Describe uses, types, and conservation of natural resources.

SS04-S4C3.c

Understand processes acting on the earth (erosion, floods, earthquakes, volcanoes, forest fires) and evidence of their occurrence.

SS04-S4C3.d

Understand characteristics of weather conditions and climate.

SS04-S4C4.

Human cultures, their nature, and distribution affect societies and the Earth.

SS04-S4C4.a

Describe the factors (push and pull) that have contributed to the settlement, economic development (e.g., mining, ranching, agriculture, and tourism), and growth of major Arizona cities.

SS04-S4C4.b

Describe how Mexico and Arizona are connected by the movement of people, goods, and ideas.

SS04-S4C4.c

Describe how the building of transportation routes (e.g., trails, stage routes, railroad) resulted in human settlement and economic development in Arizona.

SS04-S4C4.d

Describe the cultural characteristics (e.g., food, clothing, housing, sports, customs, beliefs) of Arizona's diverse population.

SS04-S4C4.e

Describe the major economic activities and land use patterns (e.g., agricultural, industrial, residential, commercial, recreational, harvesting of natural resources) of regions studied.

SS04-S4C4.f

Describe elements of culture in areas studied (e.g., Mexico, Central and South America).

SS04-S4C5.

Human and environmental interactions are interdependent upon one another. Humans interact with the environment- they depend upon it, they modify it; and they adapt to it. The health and well-being of all humans depends upon an understanding of the interconnections and interdependence of human and physical systems.

SS04-S4C5.a

Describe human dependence on the physical environment and natural resources to satisfy basic needs.

SS04-S4C5.b

Describe the impact of extreme natural events (e.g., fires, volcanoes, floods, droughts) on human and physical environments.

SS04-S4C5.c

Describe the impact of human modifications (e.g., dams, mining, air conditioning, irrigation, agricultural) on the physical environment and ecosystems.

SS04-S4C6.

Geographic thinking (asking and answering geographic questions) is used to understand spatial patterns of the past, the present, and to plan for the future.

SS04-S4C6.a

Describe the impact of geographic features (e.g., rivers, mountains, resources, deserts, climate) on migration and the location of human activities (e.g., exploration, mining, transportation routes, settlement patterns).

SS04-S4C6.b

Discuss geographic knowledge and skills related to current events.

SS04-S4C6.c

Use geography concepts and skills (e.g., recognizing patterns, mapping, graphing) to find solutions for local, state or national problems (e.g., shortage or abundance of natural resources).

SS04-S5C1.

The foundations of economics are the application of basic economic concepts and decision-making skills. This includes scarcity and the different methods of allocation of goods and services.

SS04-S5C1.a

Explain the decision for a personal spending choice.

SS04-S5C1.b

Identify that specialization improves standards of living (e.g., medical care, home building, agriculture).

SS04-S5C1.c

Give examples of how voluntary exchanges of goods and services can be mutually beneficial (e.g., ice cream vendor receives money, child receives ice cream; doctor receives monetary benefit, patient receives care).

SS04-S5C2.

Microeconomics examines the costs and benefits of economic choices relating to individuals, markets and industries, and governmental policies.

SS04-S5C2.a

Explain how price incentives affect peoples' behavior and choices, such as colonial decisions about what crops to grow and which products to produce.

SS04-S5C2.b

Describe why (e.g., schools, fire, police, libraries) state and local governments collect taxes.

SS04-S5C2.c

Describe how education, skills, and career choices affect income.

SS04-S5C2.d

Discuss how profit is an incentive to entrepreneurs.

SS04-S5C2.e

Describe risks that are taken by entrepreneurs.

SS04-S5C2.f

Identify the role of financial institutions in providing services (e.g., savings accounts, loans).

SS04-S5C5.

Decision-making skills foster a person's individual standard of living. Using information wisely leads to better informed decisions as consumers, workers, investors and effective participants in society.

SS04-S5C5.a

Describe how interest is an incentive to saving money.