Arizona Social Studies Standards — Grade 8


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SS08-S1C1.

Historical research is a process in which students examine topics or questions related to historical studies and/or current issues. By using primary and secondary sources effectively students obtain accurate and relevant information.

SS08-S1C1.a

Construct charts, graphs, and narratives using historical data.

SS08-S1C1.b

Interpret historical data displayed in graphs, tables, and charts.

SS08-S1C1.c

Construct timelines (e.g., presidents/world leaders, key events, people) of the historical era being studied.

SS08-S1C1.d

Formulate questions that can be answered by historical study and research.

SS08-S1C1.e

Describe the difference between a primary source document and a secondary source document and the relationships between them.

SS08-S1C1.f

Determine the credibility and bias of primary and secondary sources

SS08-S1C1.g

Analyze cause and effect relationships between and among individuals and/or historical events.

SS08-S1C1.h

Analyze two points of view on the same historical event.

SS08-S1C10

Current events and issues continue to shape our nation and our involvement in the global community.

SS08-S1C10.a

Describe events (e.g., opening of foreign relations with China, Watergate, resignation) of the presidency of Richard Nixon.

SS08-S1C10.b

Describe events (e.g., succession to presidency, pardoning of Nixon) of the presidency of Gerald Ford.

SS08-S1C10.c

Describe events (e.g., Camp David Peace Accords, Iran Hostage Crisis) of the presidency of Jimmy Carter.

SS08-S1C10.d

Describe events (e.g., Star Wars, Iran-Contra Affair) of the presidency of Ronald Reagan.

SS08-S1C10.e

Describe events (e.g., Persian Gulf War, Berlin Wall falls) of the presidency of George H.W. Bush.

SS08-S1C10.f

Describe events (e.g., economic growth, impeachment) of the presidency of William Clinton.

SS08-S1C10.g

Describe events (e.g., September 11 Terrorist Attacks, Afghanistan, Iraq War) of the presidency of George W. Bush.

SS08-S1C10.h

Describe current events using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).

SS08-S1C10.i

Identify the connection between current and historical events and issues studied at this grade level using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).

SS08-S1C10.j

Describe how key political, social, geographic, and economic events of the late 20th century and early 21st century affected, and continue to affect, the United States.

SS08-S1C4.

The development of American constitutional democracy grew from political, cultural and economic issues, ideas and event.

SS08-S1C4.a

Analyze the following events which led to the American Revolution a) Tea Act; b) Stamp Act; c) Boston Massacre; d) Intolerable Acts; e) Declaration of Independence.

SS08-S1C4.b

Describe the significance of key events of the Revolutionary War a) major battles (e.g., Lexington, Saratoga, Trenton); b) aid from France; c) surrender at Yorktown.

SS08-S1C4.c

Describe the impact of the following key individuals on the Revolutionary War a) Benjamin Franklin; b) Thomas Jefferson; c) George Washington; d) Patrick Henry; e) Thomas Paine; f) King George III.

SS08-S1C4.d

Describe the significance of the following documents a) Declaration of Independence; b) Articles of Confederation; c) Constitution; d) Bill of Rights.

SS08-S1C4.e

Explain the influence of the following individuals in the establishment of a new government a) Thomas Jefferson; b) James Madison; c) John Adams; d) Benjamin Franklin.

SS08-S1C4.f

Describe how one nation evolved from thirteen colonies a) Constitutional Convention; b) George Washington's presidency; c) creation of political parties (e.g., Federalists, Whigs, Democratic-Republicans).

SS08-S1C8.

Domestic and world events, economic issues, and political conflicts redefined the role of government in the lives of U.S. citizens.

SS08-S1C8.a

Review the impact of the Great Depression on the United States.

SS08-S1C8.b

Explain how Pearl Harbor led to United States involvement in World War II.

SS08-S1C8.c

Explain the impact of World War II on economic recovery from the Great Depression.

SS08-S1C8.d

a) war bond drives; b) war industry; c) women and minorities in the work force; d) rationing; e) internment of Japanese-, German-, and Italian -Americans.

SS08-S1C8.e

a) Native American Code Talkers; b) Ira Hayes; c) mining; d) training bases; e) POW and internment camps.

SS08-S1C8.f

a) D-day invasion; b) battles of the Pacific; c) development and use of the atomic bomb; d) V-E Day /V-J Day.

SS08-S1C8.g

a) Franklin D. Roosevelt; b) Dwight Eisenhower; c) George Patton; d) Douglas MacArthur; e) Harry Truman; f) Eleanor Roosevelt.

SS08-S1C9.

Postwar tensions led to social change in the U.S. and to a heightened focus on foreign policy.

SS08-S1C9.a

Describe the following origins of the Cold War a) Western fear of communist expansion; b) Soviet fear of capitalist influences; c) development of nuclear weapons; e) Truman Doctrine.

SS08-S1C9.b

Describe the impact of the Cold War on the United States a) McCarthyism; b) arms race; c) space race; d) Cuban Missile Crisis; e) creation of the CIA.

SS08-S1C9.c

Identify the role of the United States in the Korean War a) Communist containment; b) military involvement; c) resolution of conflict.

SS08-S1C9.d

Identify the role of the United States in the Vietnam Conflict a) containment of Communism - Domino Theory; b) Gulf of Tonkin Resolution; c) Tet Offensive; d) anti-war protests; e) Vietnam Peace Accords.

SS08-S1C9.e

Describe life (e.g., transportation, communication, technology, medical, entertainment, growth of suburbs) in the U.S. during the Post War period.

SS08-S1C9.f

Describe the importance of the following civil rights issues and events a) Jim Crow Laws; b) nonviolent protests; c) desegregation; d) Civil Rights Act of 1964; e) Voting Rights Act of 1965.

SS08-S2C1

Historical research is a process in which students examine topics or questions related to historical studies and/or current issues.

SS08-S2C1.a

Construct charts, graphs and narratives using historical data.

SS08-S2C1.b

Interpret historical data displayed in graphs, tables, and charts.

SS08-S2C1.c

Construct timelines (e.g., presidents/world leaders, key events, people) of the historical era being studied.

SS08-S2C1.d

Formulate questions that can be answered by historical study and research.

SS08-S2C1.e

Describe the difference between a primary source document and a secondary source document and the relationships between them.

SS08-S2C1.f

Determine the credibility and bias of primary and secondary sources

SS08-S2C1.g

Analyze cause and effect relationships between and among individuals and/or historical events.

SS08-S2C1.h

Analyze two points of view on the same historical event.

SS08-S2C8

Global events, economic issues and political ideologies ignited tensions leading to worldwide military conflagrations and diplomatic confrontations in a context of development and change.

SS08-S2C8.a

Review the rise of totalitarianism in Europe following World War I.

SS08-S2C8.b

Analyze the major causes of World War II a) aggressive search for resources by Japan; b) political ideologies of Fascism and Nazism; c) resentment toward the Treaty of Versailles.

SS08-S2C8.c

Trace the series of invasions and conquests in the European and Pacific Theaters in World War II.

SS08-S2C8.d

Describe the following events leading to the Allied victory a) D-Day Invasion; b) Battle of the Bulge; c) Japanese defeat in Iwo Jima and Okinawa; d) atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

SS08-S2C8.e

Describe how racism and intolerance contributed to the Holocaust.

SS08-S2C8.f

Summarize each of the following outcomes of World War II a) redrawing of political boundaries in Europe; b) tensions leading to Cold War; c) formation of the United Nations; d) beginning of atomic age; e) rebuilding of Japan.

SS08-S2C8.g

Compare the rebuilding of Japan with the rebuilding of Germany following World War II.

SS08-S2C8.h

Describe the following events resulting from World War II a) Nuremburg Trial; b) Marshall Plan; c) NATO /Warsaw Pact; d) creation of United Nations; e) creation of Israel.

SS08-S2C8.i

Describe the spread of Communism after World War II a) China - Mao Tse-tung and Chinese Revolution; b) Korea - 38th parallel and division of country; c) Cuba - Fidel Castro and Cuban Missile Crisis; d) Vietnam - Ho Chi Minh.

SS08-S2C8.j

Describe the impact of the Cold War (i.e., creation of the Iron Curtain, arms race, space race) that led to global competition.

SS08-S2C8.k

Describe the following events of the Korean War a) Chinese involvement; b) U.N. police actions; c) containment of Communism; d) partition of Korea at the 38th Parallel.

SS08-S2C8.l

Describe how the following impacted the Vietnam War a) historical relationship of China and Vietnam; b) French Indochina War; c) containment of Communism; d) Ho Chi Minh Trail; e) conflict resolution.

SS08-S2C8.m

Examine the fall of Communism and the unification of European nations a) Germany - reunification, Berlin Wall torn down; b) Russia - Gorbachev, Glasnost and Perestroika; c) Union of Soviet Socialist Republics - countries regained independence; d) European Union formed.

SS08-S2C8.n

Describe the following events in the Middle East during the 20th and 21st centuries a) creation of Israel; b) conflicts between Israeli and Palestinian governments; c) Camp David Peace Treaty; d) Persian Gulf War; e) Iraq War.

SS08-S2C8.o

Compare independence movements in various parts of the world (e.g., India/Pakistan, Latin America, Africa, Asia) during the 20th century.

SS08-S2C8.p

Examine human rights issues during the 20th century (e.g., Apartheid, genocide, famine, disease).

SS08-S2C9

The nations of the contemporary world are shaped by their cultural and political past. Current events, developments and issues continue to shape the global community.

SS08-S2C9.a

Describe current events using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).

SS08-S2C9.b

Identify the connection between current and historical events and issues studied at this grade level using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).

SS08-S2C9.c

Analyze how world events of the late 20th century and early 21st century affected, and continue to affect, the social, political, geographic, and economic climate of the world (e.g., terrorism, globalization, conflicts, interdependence, natural disasters, advancements in science and technology and environmental issues).

SS08-S3C1.

The United States democracy is based on principles and ideals that are embodied by symbols, people and documents.

SS08-S3C1.a

a) Magna Carta; b) English Bill of Rights; c) Montesquieu's separation of power; d) John Locke's theories - natural law, social contract; e) Mayflower Compact; f) Declaration of Independence; g) Articles of Confederation.

SS08-S3C1.b

Analyze the purpose (e.g., weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation) and outcome (e.g., compromises) of the Constitutional Convention.

SS08-S3C1.c

Analyze the struggle (e.g., Federalists' Papers, Bill of Rights) between the federalists and the anti-federalists over the ratification of the Constitution.

SS08-S3C2.

The United States structure of government is characterized by the separation and balance of powers.

SS08-S3C2.a

a) federalism (i.e., enumerated, reserved, and concurrent powers); b) popular sovereignty; c) Separation of Powers; d) checks and balances; e) limited government; f) flexibility (i.e., Elastic Clause, amendment process).

SS08-S3C2.b

Differentiate the roles and powers of the three branches of the federal government.

SS08-S3C2.c

Explain the electoral process (e.g., primary and general elections, electoral college).

SS08-S3C2.d

Explain how a candidate can be elected president (e.g., Adams-Jackson, Hayes-Tilden, Bush-Gore) without receiving a majority of popular vote.

SS08-S3C2.e

Describe the line of succession to the presidency as stated in the 25th Amendment.

SS08-S3C3.

Laws and policies are developed to govern, protect, and promote the well-being of the people.

SS08-S3C3.a

a) three branches; b) Constitution; c) election process (e.g., congressional and legislative districts, propositions, voter registration).

SS08-S3C3.b

Compare the process of how a bill becomes a law at the federal and state level.

SS08-S3C3.c

a) initiative; b) referendum; c) recall process.

SS08-S3C3.d

Compare the roles and relationships of different levels of government (e.g., federal, state, county, city/town, tribal).

SS08-S3C3.e

Describe the significance of the Amendments to the Constitution.

SS08-S3C3.f

Compare the adult and juvenile criminal justice systems.

SS08-S3C3.g

a) Marbury v. Madison; b) Plessy v. Ferguson; c) Brown v. Board of Education; d) Gideon v. Wainright; e) Miranda v. Arizona; f) Korematsu v. United States.

SS08-S3C3.h

a) Executive Order 9066 - creation of internment camps on U.S. soil; b) Manhattan Project; c) use of Atomic Bomb.

SS08-S3C3.i

a) Civil Rights Act of 1964; b) Voting Rights Act of 1965; c) Indian Rights Act of 1968; d) Americans with Disabilities Act.

SS08-S3C4

The rights, responsibilities and practices of United States citizenship are founded in the Constitution and the nation's history.

SS08-S3C4.a

Describe the benefits of community service.

SS08-S3C4.b

Discuss the character traits (e.g., respect, responsibility, fairness, involvement) that are important to the preservation and improvement of constitutional democracy in the United States

SS08-S3C4.c

Describe the importance of citizens being actively involved in the democratic process (i.e., voting, student government, involvement in political decision making, analyzing issues, petitioning public officials).

SS08-S3C4.d

a) upholding the Constitution; b) obeying the law; c) paying taxes; d) registering for selective service; e) jury duty.

SS08-S3C4.e

a) Jim Crow Laws - literacy test, poll taxes, Grandfather Clause; b) Civil Rights Movement (i.e., Martin Luther King, Jr., Rosa Parks); c) desegregation - military, schools, transportation, sports; d) United Farm Workers (i.e., Cesar Chavez); e) National Organization for Women (NOW) - Equal Rights Amendment (ERA).

SS08-S3C5

Different governmental systems exist throughout the world. The United States influences and is influenced by global interactions.

SS08-S3C5.a

a) dictatorship; b) totalitarian (fascist, Nazis); c) democracy; d) Socialism; e) Communism.

SS08-S3C5.b

a) Truman Doctrine; b) NATO; c) Warsaw Pact; d) Marshall Plan.

SS08-S3C5.c

Identify U.S. and world foreign policies (e.g., economic sanctions, arms reduction agreements) resulting from the Cold War.

SS08-S4C1

The spatial perspective and associated geographic tools are used to organize and interpret information about people, places and environments.

SS08-S4C1.a

Construct maps, charts, and graphs to display geographic information.

SS08-S4C1.b

Identify purposes and differences of maps, globes, aerial photographs, charts, and satellite images.

SS08-S4C1.c

Interpret maps, charts, and geographic databases using geographic information.

SS08-S4C1.d

Locate physical and cultural features (e.g., continents, cities, countries, bodies of water, landforms, mountain ranges, climate zones) throughout the world.

SS08-S4C1.e

Interpret thematic maps, graphs, charts, and databases depicting various aspects of the United States and world regions. (Apply to regions studied.)

SS08-S4C2

Places and regions have distinct physical and cultural characteristics.

SS08-S4C2.a

Identify common characteristics of contemporary and historical regions on the basis of climate, landforms, ecosystems, and culture.

SS08-S4C2.b

Explain the factors that contribute to political and social change in various world regions (e.g., USSR/Russia, Israel, European Union, China, Korea, Germany).

SS08-S4C2.c

Examine relationships and interactions (e.g., Middle East Conflicts, NATO, European Union) among regions.

SS08-S4C2.d

Identify how the role of the media, images, and advertising influences the perception of a place.

SS08-S4C2.e

Describe how a place changes over time.

SS08-S4C3

Physical processes shape the Earth and interact with plant and animal life to create, sustain, and modify ecosystems. These processes affect the distribution of resources and economic development.

SS08-S4C3.a

Analyze risk factors of and possible solutions to chemical and biological hazards.

SS08-S4C4

Human cultures, their nature, and distribution affect societies and the Earth.

SS08-S4C4.a

Identify the push and pull factors (e.g., economic conditions, human rights conditions, famines, political strife/wars, natural disasters, changes in technology) that drive human migrations.

SS08-S4C4.b

Describe the effects (e.g., economic, environmental, cultural, political) of human migrations on places and regions.

SS08-S4C4.c

Describe the characteristics and locations of various cultures throughout the world.

SS08-S4C4.d

Identify the factors (e.g., breakup of USSR, unification of Germany, cheap labor forces, outsourcing of services, oil industry) that influence the location, distribution and interrelationships of economic activities in different regions.

SS08-S4C4.e

Explain how cooperation contributes to political, economic, and social organization (e.g., United Nations, European Union, NAFTA).

SS08-S4C4.f

Describe the aspects of culture (e.g., literacy, occupations, clothing, property rights) related to beliefs and understandings that influence the economic, social, and political activities of men and women.

SS08-S4C4.g

Describe how changes in technology, transportation, communication, and resources affect economic development.

SS08-S4C5

Human and environmental interactions are interdependent upon one another. Humans interact with the environment- they depend upon it, they modify it; and they adapt to it. The health and well-being of all humans depends upon an understanding of the interconnections and interdependence of human and physical systems.

SS08-S4C5.a

Describe how (e.g., deforestation, desertification) humans modify ecosystems.

SS08-S4C5.b

Describe why (e.g., resources, economic livelihood) humans modify ecosystems.

SS08-S4C5.c

Explain how changes in the natural environment can increase or diminish its capacity to support human activities.

SS08-S4C5.d

Explain how technology positively and negatively affects the environment.

SS08-S4C5.e

Analyze changing ideas and viewpoints on the best use of natural resources (e.g., value of oil, water use, forest management).

SS08-S4C5.f

Explain how societies and governments plan for and respond to natural disasters (e.g., evacuation routes, changing farming techniques, warning systems).

SS08-S4C6.

Geographic thinking (asking and answering geographic questions) is used to understand spatial patterns of the past, the present, and to plan for the future.

SS08-S4C6.a

Describe ways geographic features and conditions influence history. (Connect to time periods studied as well as current events.)

SS08-S4C6.b

Describe ways different groups of people (i.e., Native Americans, Hispanics, retirees) create and shape the same environment.

SS08-S4C6.x

Use geographic knowledge and skills (e.g., recognizing patterns, mapping, graphing) when discussing current events.

SS08-S5C1.

The foundations of economics are the application of basic economic concepts and decision-making skills. This includes scarcity and the different methods of allocation of goods and services.

SS08-S5C1.a

Explain how limited resources and unlimited human wants cause people to choose some things and give up others.

SS08-S5C1.b

Analyze how scarcity, opportunity costs, and trade-offs, influence decision-making.

SS08-S5C1.c

Analyze how individuals, governments and businesses make choices based on the availability of resources.

SS08-S5C1.d

a) property rights; b) freedom of enterprise; c) competition; d) consumer choice; e) limited role of government.

SS08-S5C1.e

Describe the impact of the availability and distribution of natural resources on an economy.

SS08-S5C2.

Microeconomics examines the costs and benefits of economic choices relating to individuals, markets and industries, and governmental policies.

SS08-S5C2.a

Identify the functions and relationships among various institutions (e.g., business firms, banks, government agencies, labor unions, corporations) that make up an economic system.

SS08-S5C2.b

a) health (e.g., immunizations); b) education (e.g., college grants, loans); c) training of people (e.g., Job Corps).

SS08-S5C2.c

Explain the impact of government investment in physical capital (e.g., NASA, transportation).

SS08-S5C2.d

Describe how income for most people is determined by the value of the goods and services they sell.

SS08-S5C2.e

Describe the impact of entrepreneurs (e.g., Bill Gates, Martha Stewart, Oprah Winfrey, Ted Turner Donald Trump) in the free enterprise system.

SS08-S5C2.f

Analyze how investment in physical capital (e.g., factories, medical advancements, new technologies) leads to economic growth.

SS08-S5C2.g

Describe how competition (e.g., Microsoft/Apple, Wal-Mart/Target) affects supply and demand from the vantage point of the consumer and producer.

SS08-S5C2.h

Describe how market prices provide incentives to buyers and sellers.

SS08-S5C2.i

Describe how protection of private property rights provides incentives to conserve and improve property (e.g., resale market).

SS08-S5C3.

Macroeconomics examines the costs and benefits of economic choices made at a societal level and how those choices affect overall economic well being.

SS08-S5C3.a

Identify the organization and functions of the Federal Reserve System.

SS08-S5C3.b

Identify the effects of inflation on society.

SS08-S5C3.c

Analyze the government's role in economic recovery.

SS08-S5C4.

Patterns of global interaction and economic development vary due to different economic systems and institutions that exist throughout the world.

SS08-S5C4.a

Compare how private property rights differ in market (capitalism) economies versus command (communist) economies.

SS08-S5C4.b

Identify the effects of trade restrictions between national and world regions.

SS08-S5C4.c

Describe the role of the United States government in influencing international commerce in regions studied.

SS08-S5C4.d

Identify interdependence (e.g., North American Free Trade Agreement, European Union, International Monetary Fund/World Bank) between nations.

SS08-S5C5.

Decision-making skills foster a person's individual standard of living. Using information wisely leads to better informed decisions as consumers, workers, investors and effective participants in society.

SS08-S5C5.a

Explain how scarcity influences personal financial choices (e.g., budgeting, saving, investing, credit).

SS08-S5C5.b

Describe types of personal investments (e.g., saving accounts, stocks, mutual funds, bonds, retirement funds, land).

SS08-S5C5.c

Describe the role of the stock market in personal investing.

SS08-S5C5.d

Describe various forms of credit. (e.g., personal loans, credit cards, lines of credit, mortgages, auto loans).

SS08-S5C5.e

Analyze the, advantages, disadvantages, and alternatives to consumer credit.

SS08-S5C5.f

Analyze the costs and benefits of producing a personal budget.

SS08-S5C5.g

Create a personal budget to include fixed and variable expenses.

SS08-S5C5.h

Identify the benefits of future financial planning.