Michigan Social Studies Standards — Grade 11

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Scarcity, Choice, Opportunity Costs, and Comparative Advantage - Using examples, explain how scarcity, choice, opportunity costs affect decisions that households, businesses, and governments make in the market place and explain how comparative advantage creates gains from trade.


Entrepreneurship - Identify the risks, returns and other characteristics of entrepreneurship that bear on its attractiveness as a career.


Identify and explain competing arguments about the necessity and purposes of government (such as to protect inalienable rights, promote the general welfare, resolve conflicts, promote equality, and establish justice for all).


Explain the purposes of politics, why people engage in the political process, and what the political process can achieve (e.g., promote the greater good, promote self-interest, advance solutions to public issues and problems, achieve a just society).


Business Structures - Compare and contrast the functions and constraints facing economic institutions including small and large businesses, labor unions, banks, and households.


Price in the Market - Analyze how prices send signals and provide incentives to buyers and sellers in a competitive market.


Investment, Productivity and Growth - Analyze the role investments in physical (e.g., technology) and human capital (e.g., education) play in increasing productivity and how these influence the market.


Compare and contrast direct and representative democracy.


Law of Supply - Explain the law of supply and analyze the likely change in supply when there are changes in prices of the productive resources (e.g., labor, land, capital including technology), or the profit opportunities available to producers by selling other goods or services, or the number of sellers in a market.


Law of Demand - Explain the law of demand and analyze the likely change in demand when there are changes in prices of the goods or services, availability of alternative (substitute or complementary) goods or services, or changes in the number of buyers in a market created by such things as change in income or availability of credit.


Price, Equilibrium, Elasticity, and Incentives - Analyze how prices change through the interaction of buyers and sellers in a market including the role of supply, demand, equilibrium, elasticity, and explain how incentives (monetary and non-monetary) affect choices of households and economic organizations.


Public Policy and the Market - Analyze the impact of a change in public policy (such as an increase in the minimum wage, a new tax policy, or a change in interest rates) on consumers, producers, workers, savers, and investors.


Government and Consumers - Analyze the role of government in protecting consumers and enforcing contracts, (including property rights), and explain how this role influences the incentives (or disincentives) for people to produce and exchange goods and services.


Government Revenue and Services - Analyze the ways in which local and state governments generate revenue (e.g., income, sales, and property taxes) and use that revenue for public services (e.g., parks and highways).


Functions of Government - Explain the various functions of government in a market economy including the provision of public goods and services, the creation of currency, the establishment of property rights, the enforcement of contracts, correcting for externalities and market failures, the redistribution of income and wealth, regulation of labor (e.g., minimum wage, child labor, working conditions), and the promotion of economic growth and security.


Economic Incentives and Government - Identify and explain how monetary and non-monetary incentives affect government officials and voters and explain how government policies affect the behavior of various people including consumers, savers, investors, workers, and producers.


Income - Describe how individuals and businesses earn income by selling productive resources.


Circular Flow and the National Economy - Using the concept of circular flow, analyze the roles of and the relationships between households, business firms, financial institutions, and government and non-government agencies in the economy of the United States.


Financial Institutions and Money Supply - Analyze how decisions by the Federal Reserve and actions by financial institutions (e.g., commercial banks, credit unions) regarding deposits and loans, impact the expansion and contraction of the money supply.


Money Supply, Inflation, and Recession - Explain the relationships between money supply, inflation, and recessions.


Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Economic Growth - Use GDP data to measure the rate of economic growth in the United States and identify factors that have contributed to this economic growth


Unemployment - Analyze the character of different types of unemployment including frictional, structural, and cyclical.


Economic Indicators - Using a number of indicators, such as GDP, per capita GDP, unemployment rates, and Consumer Price Index, analyze the characteristics of business cycles, including the characteristics of peaks, recessions, and expansions.


Relationship Between Expenditures and Revenue (Circular Flow) - Using the circular flow model, explain how spending on consumption, investment, government and net exports determines national income; explain how a decrease in total expenditures affects the value of a nation's output of final goods and services.


American Economy in the World - Analyze the changing relationship between the American economy and the global economy including, but not limited to, the increasing complexity of American economic activity (e.g., outsourcing, off-shoring, and supply-chaining) generated by the expansion of the global economy.


Federal Government and Macroeconomic Goals - Identify the three macroeconomic goals of an economic system (stable prices, low unemployment, and economic growth).


Macroeconomic Policy Alternatives - Compare and contrast differing policy recommendations for the role of the Federal government in achieving the macroeconomic goals of stable prices, low unemployment, and economic growth.


Fiscal Policy and its Consequences - Analyze the consequences - intended and unintended - of using various tax and spending policies to achieve macroeconomic goals of stable prices, low unemployment, and economic growth.


Federal Reserve and Monetary Policy - Explain the roles and responsibilities of the Federal Reserve System and compare and contrast the consequences - intended and unintended - of different monetary policy actions of the Federal Reserve Board as a means to achieve macroeconomic goals of stable prices, low unemployment, and economic growth.


Government Revenue and Services - Analyze the ways in which governments generate revenue on consumption, income and wealth and use that revenue for public services (e.g., parks and highways) and social welfare (e.g., social security, Medicaid, Medicare).


Major Economic Systems - Give examples of and analyze the strengths and weaknesses of major economic systems (command, market and mixed), including their philosophical and historical foundations (e.g., Marx and the Communist Manifesto, Adam Smith and the Wealth of Nations).


Developing Nations - Assess how factors such as availability of natural resources, investments in human and physical capital, technical assistance, public attitudes and beliefs, property rights and free trade can affect economic growth in developing nations.


International Organizations and the World Economy - Evaluate the diverse impact of trade policies of the World Trade Organization, World Bank, or International Monetary Fund on developing economies of Africa, Central America, or Asia, and the developed economies of the United States and Western Europe.


GDP and Standard of Living - Using current and historical data on real per capita GDP for the United States, and at least three other countries (e.g., Japan, Somalia, and South Korea) construct a relationship between real GDP and standard of living.


Comparing Economic Systems - Using the three basic economic questions (e.g., what to produce, how to produce, and for whom to produce), compare and contrast a socialist (command) economy (such as North Korea or Cuba) with the Capitalist as a mixed, free market system of the United States.


Impact of Transitional Economies - Analyze the impact of transitional economies, such as in China and India, on the global economy in general and the American economy in particular.


Explain why the federal government is one of enumerated powers while state governments are those of reserved powers.


Absolute and Comparative Advantage - Use the concepts of absolute and comparative advantage to explain why goods and services are produced in one nation or locale versus another.


Domestic Activity and World Trade - Assess the impact of trade policies (i.e. tariffs, quotas, export subsidies, product standards and other barriers), monetary policy, exchange rates, and interest rates on domestic activity and world trade.


Exchange Rates and the World Trade - Describe how interest rates in the United States impact the value of the dollar against other currencies (such as the Euro), and explain how exchange rates affect the value of goods and services of the United States in other markets.


Monetary Policy and International Trade - Analyze how the decisions made by a country's central bank (or the Federal Reserve) impact a nation's international trade.


The Global Economy and the Marketplace - Analyze and describe how the global economy has changed the interaction of buyers and sellers, such as in the automobile industry.


Describe limits the U.S. Constitution places on powers of the states (e.g., prohibitions against coining money, impairing interstate commerce, making treaties with foreign governments) and on the federal government's power over the states (e.g., federal government cannot abolish a state, Tenth Amendment reserves powers to the states).


Identify and define states' reserved and concurrent powers.


Explain the tension among federal, state, and local governmental power using the necessary and proper clause, the commerce clause, and the Tenth Amendment.


Describe how state and local governments are organized, their major responsibilities, and how they affect the lives of citizens.


Describe the mechanisms by which citizens monitor and influence state and local governments (e.g., referendum, initiative, recall).


Evaluate the major sources of revenue for state and local governments.


Explain the role of state constitutions in state governments.


Explain why the rule of law has a central place in American society (e.g., Supreme Court cases like Marbury v. Madison and U.S. v. Nixon; practices such as submitting bills to legal counsel to ensure congressional compliance with the law).


Describe what can happen in the absence or breakdown of the rule of law (e.g., Ku Klux Klan attacks, police corruption, organized crime, interfering with the right to vote, and perjury).


Explain the meaning and importance of equal protection of the law (e.g., the 14th Amendment, Americans with Disabilities Act, equal opportunity legislation).


Describe considerations and criteria that have been used to deny, limit, or extend protection of individual rights (e.g., clear and present danger, time, place and manner restrictions on speech, compelling government interest, security, libel or slander, public safety, and equal opportunity).


Analyze the various levels and responsibilities of courts in the federal and state judicial system and explain the relationships among them.


Explain how political parties, interest groups, the media, and individuals can influence and determine the public agenda.


Describe the origin and the evolution of political parties and their influence.


Identify and explain the roles of various associations and groups in American politics (e.g., political organizations, political action committees, interest groups, voluntary and civic associations, professional organizations, unions, and religious groups).


Explain the concept of public opinion, factors that shape it, and contrasting views on the role it should play in public policy.


Evaluate the actual influence of public opinion on public policy.


Explain the significance of campaigns and elections in American politics, current criticisms of campaigns, and proposals for their reform.


Explain the role of television, radio, the press, and the internet in political communication.


Evaluate, take, and defend positions about the formation and implementation of a current public policy issue, and examine ways to participate in the decision making process about the issue.


In making a decision on a public issue, analyze various forms of political communication (e.g., political cartoons, campaign advertisements, political speeches, and blogs) using criteria like logical validity, factual accuracy and/or omission, emotional appeal, distorted evidence, and appeals to bias or prejudice.


Scarcity and Opportunity Costs - Apply concepts of scarcity and opportunity costs to personal financial decision making.


Marginal Benefit and Cost - Use examples and case studies to explain and evaluate the impact of marginal benefit and marginal cost of an activity on choices and decisions.


Islam and Christianity (Roman Catholic and Orthodox) - increased trade and the Crusades


Islam and Hinduism in South Asia


Continuing tensions between Catholic and Orthodox Christianity


Personal Finance Strategy - Develop a personal finance strategy for earning, spending, saving and investing resources.


Land-based routes across the Sahara, Eurasia and Europe


Water-based routes across Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf, South China Sea, Red and Mediterranean Seas


Key Components of Personal Finance - Evaluate key components of personal finance including, money management, saving and investment, spending and credit, income, mortgages, retirement, investing (e.g., 401K, IRAs), and insurance.


Personal Decisions - Use a decision-making model (e.g., stating a problem, listing alternatives, establishing criteria, weighing options, making the decision, and evaluating the result) to evaluate the different aspects of personal finance including careers, savings and investing tools, and different forms of income generation.


Risk Management Plan - Develop a risk management plan that uses a combination of avoidance, reduction, retention, and transfer (insurance).


Describe how different political systems interact in world affairs with respect to international issues.


The founding geographic extent of Muslim empires and the artistic, scientific, technological, and economic features of Muslim society


Diverse religious traditions of Islam -- Sunni, Shi'a/Shi'ite, Sufi


Role of Dar al-Islam as a cultural, political, and economic force in Afro-Eurasia


The caliphate as both a religious and political institution, and the persistance of other traditions in the Arab World including Christianity


Analyze the impact of American political, economic, technological, and cultural developments on other parts of the world (e.g., immigration policies, economic, military and humanitarian aid, computer technology research, popular fashion, and film).


Analyze the impact of political, economic, technological, and cultural developments around the world on the United States (e.g., terrorism, emergence of regional organizations like the European Union, multinational corporations, and interdependent world economy).


Identify the purposes and functions of governmental and non-governmental international organizations, and the role of the United States in each (e.g., the United Nations, NATO, World Court, Organization of American States, International Red Cross, Amnesty International).


Evaluate the role of the United States in important bilateral and multilateral agreements (e.g., NAFTA, Helsinki Accords, Antarctic Treaty, Most Favored Nation Agreements, and the Kyoto Protocol).


Evaluate the impact of American political ideas and values on other parts of the world (e.g., American Revolution, fundamental values and principles expressed in the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution).


Africa to 1500 - Describe the diverse characteristics of early African societies and the significant changes in African society by


Comparing and contrasting at least two of the major states/civilizations of East, South, and West Africa (Aksum, Swahili Coast, Zimbabwe, Ghana, Mali, Songhai) in terms of environmental, economic, religious, political, and social structures.


Using historical and modern maps to identify the Bantu migration patterns and describe their contributions to agriculture, technology and language.


Analyzing the African trading networks by examining trans-Saharan trade in gold and salt and connect these to interregional patterns of trade.


Analyzing the development of an organized slave trade within and beyond Africa.


Analyzing the influence of Islam and Christianity on African culture and the blending of traditional African beliefs with new ideas from Islam and Christianity.


The Americas to 1500 - Describe the diverse characteristics of early American civilizations and societies in North, Central, and South America by comparing and contrasting the major aspects (government, religion, interactions with the environment, economy, and social life) of American Indian civilizations and societies such as the Maya, Aztec, Inca, Pueblo, and/or Eastern Woodland peoples.


China to 1500 - Explain how Chinese dynasties responded to the internal and external challenges caused by ethnic diversity, physical geography, population growth and Mongol invasion to achieve relative political stability, economic prosperity, and technological innovation.


The Eastern European System and the Byzantine Empire to 1500 - Analyze restructuring of the Eastern European system including


The rise and decline of the Byzantine Empire


The region's unique spatial location


The region's political, economic, and religious transformations


Emerging tensions between East and West


Western Europe to 1500 - Explain the workings of feudalism, manoralism, and the growth of centralized monarchies and city-states in Europe including


The role and political impact of the Roman Catholic Church in European medieval society


How agricultural innovation and increasing trade led to the growth of towns and cities


The role of the Crusades, 100 Years War, and the Bubonic Plague in the early development of centralized nation-states


The cultural and social impact of the Renaissance on Western and Northern Europe


Using examples, explain the idea and meaning of citizenship in the United States of America, and the rights and responsibilities of American citizens (e.g., people participate in public life, know about the laws that govern society, respect and obey those laws, participate in political life, stay informed and attentive about public issues, and voting).


Compare the rights of citizenship Americans have as a member of a state and the nation.


Explain the distinction between citizens by birth, naturalized citizens, and non-citizens.


Describing the geographic routes used in the exchange of plants, animals, and pathogens among the continents in the late 15th and the 16th centuries.


Explaining how forced and free migrations of peoples (push/pull factors) and the exchange of plants, animals, and pathogens impacted the natural environments, political institutions, societies, and commerce of European, Asian, African, and the American societies.


Describe the distinction between legal and illegal immigration and the process by which legal immigrants can become citizens.


Using historical and modern maps and other data to analyze the causes and development of the Atlantic trade system, including economic exchanges, the diffusion of Africans in the Americas (including the Caribbean and South America), and the Middle Passage.


Comparing and contrasting the trans-Atlantic slave system with the African slave system and another system of labor existing during this era (e.g., serfdom, indentured servitude, corvee labor, wage labor).


Evaluate the criteria used for admission to citizenship in the United States and how Americans expanded citizenship over the centuries (e.g., removing limitations of suffrage).


Identify and explain personal rights (e.g., freedom of thought, conscience, expression, association, movement and residence, the right to privacy, personal autonomy, due process of law, free exercise of religion, and equal protection of the law).


Using historical and modern maps to describe the empire's origins (Turkic migrations), geographic expansion, and contraction.


Analyzing the impact of the Ottoman rule.


Identify and explain political rights (e.g., freedom of speech, press, assembly, and petition; and the right to vote and run for public office).


Analyzing the major reasons for the continuity of Chinese society under the Ming and Qing dynasties, including the role of Confucianism, the civil service, and Chinese oceanic exploration.


the role of geography in the development of Japan, the policies of the Tokugawa Shogunate, and the influence of China on Japanese society.


Identify and explain economic rights (e.g., the right to acquire, use, transfer, and dispose of property, choose one's work and change employment, join labor unions and professional associations, establish and operate a business, copyright protection, enter into lawful contracts, and just compensation for the taking of private property for public use).


Describe the relationship between personal, political, and economic rights and how they can sometimes conflict.


Russian imperial expansion and top-down westernization/modernization.


The impact of its unique location relative to Europe and Asia.


The political and cultural influence (e.g., written language) of Byzantine Empire, Mongol Empire, and Orthodox Christianity.


Explain considerations and criteria commonly used in determining what limits should be placed on specific rights.


Explaining the origins, growth, and consequences of European overseas expansion, including the development and impact of maritime power in Asia and land control in the Americas.


Analyzing transformations in Europe's state structure, including the rising military, bureaucratic, and nationalist power of European states including absolutism


Analyzing how the Renaissance, Reformation, Scientific Revolution, and the Enlightenment contributed to transformations in European society


Analyzing the transformation of the European economies including mercantilism, capitalism, and wage labor.


Describe the rights protected by the First Amendment, and using case studies and examples, explore the limit and scope of First Amendment rights.


The near-elimination of American Indian civilizations and peoples


Social stratifications of the population (e.g., peninsulares, creoles, mestizos)


The regional and global role of silver and sugar


Resource extraction and the emerging system of labor (e.g., mita, slavery)


Using the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Amendments, describe the rights of the accused; and using case studies and examples, explore the limit and scope of these rights.


Explain and give examples of the role of the Fourteenth Amendment in extending the protection of individual rights against state action.


Use examples to explain why rights are not unlimited and absolute.


Distinguish between personal and civic responsibilities and describe how they can sometimes conflict with each other.


Describe the importance of citizens' civic responsibilities including obeying the law, being informed and attentive to public issues, monitoring political leaders and governmental agencies, assuming leadership when appropriate, paying taxes, registering to vote and voting knowledgeably on candidates and issues, serving as a juror, serving in the armed forces, performing public service.


Explain why meeting personal and civic responsibilities is important to the preservation and improvement of American constitutional democracy.


Describe dispositions people think lead citizens to become independent members of society (e.g., self-discipline, self-governance, and a sense of individual responsibility) and thought to foster respect for individual worth and human dignity (e.g., respect for individual rights and choice, and concern for the well-being of others).


Describe the dispositions thought to encourage citizen involvement in public affairs (e.g., ''civic virtue'' or attentiveness to and concern for public affairs; patriotism or loyalty to values and principles underlying American constitutional democracy) and to facilitate thoughtful and effective participation in public affairs (e.g., civility, respect for the rights of other individuals, respect for law, honesty, open-mindedness, negotiation and compromise; persistence, civic mindedness, compassion, patriotism, courage, and tolerance for ambiguity).


Explain why the development of citizens as independent members of society who are respectful of individual worth and human dignity, inclined to participate in public affairs, and are thoughtful and effective in their participation, is important to the preservation and improvement of American constitutional democracy.


Identify and research various viewpoints on significant public policy issues.


Organizational ''revolution'' (e.g., development of corporations and labor organizations)


Advantages of physical geography


Increase in labor through immigration and migration


Economic polices of government and industrial leaders (including Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller)


Technological advances


Locate, analyze, and use various forms of evidence, information, and sources about a significant public policy issue, including primary and secondary sources, legal documents (e.g., Constitutions, court decisions, state law), non-text based information (e.g., maps, charts, tables, graphs, and cartoons), and other forms of political communication (e.g., oral political cartoons, campaign advertisements, political speeches, and blogs).


Development of organized labor, including the Knights of Labor, American Federation of Labor, and the United Mine Workers


Southern and western farmers' reactions, including the growth of populism and the populist movement (e.g., Farmers Alliance, Grange, Platform of the Populist Party, Bryan's ''Cross of Gold'' speech)


Develop and use criteria (e.g., logical validity, factual accuracy and/or omission, emotional appeal, credibility, unstated assumptions, logical fallacies, inconsistencies, distortions, and appeals to bias or prejudice, overall strength of argument) in analyzing evidence and position statements.


The location and expansion of major urban centers


The growth of cities linked by industry and trade


The development of cities divided by race, ethnicity, and class


Resulting tensions among and within groups


Different perspectives about immigrant experiences in the urban setting


Address a public issue by suggesting alternative solutions or courses of action, evaluating the consequences of each, and proposing an action to address the issue or resolve the problem.


Make a persuasive, reasoned argument on a public issue and support using evidence (e.g., historical and contemporary examples), constitutional principles, and fundamental values of American constitutional democracy; explain the stance or position.


The impact of resource availability


Entrepreneurial decision making by Henry Ford and others


Domestic and international migrations


The development of an industrial work force


The impact on Michigan


The impact on American society


Describe the relationship between politics and the attainment of individual and public goals (e.g., how individual interests are fulfilled by working to achieve collective goals).


Participate in a real or simulated public hearing or debate and evaluate the role of deliberative public discussions in civic life.


Identify typical issues, needs, or concerns of citizens (e.g., seeking variance, zoning changes, information about property taxes), and actively demonstrate ways citizens might use local governments to resolve issues or concerns.


Distinguish between and evaluate the importance of political participation and social participation.


Describe how, when, and where individuals can participate in the political process at the local, state, and national levels (including, but not limited to voting, attending political and governmental meetings, contacting public officials, working in campaigns, community organizing, demonstrating or picketing, boycotting, joining interest groups or political action committees); evaluate the effectiveness of these methods of participants.


Britain, Germany, United States, or France.


Describing the social and economic impacts of industrialization, particularly its effect on women and children, and the rise of organized labor movements.


Describing the environmental impacts of industrialization and urbanization.


Participate in a real or simulated election, and evaluate the results, including the impact of voter turnout and demographics.


Using historical and modern maps and other evidence to analyze and explain the causes and global consequences of nineteenth-century imperialism, including encounters between imperial powers (Europe, Japan) and local peoples in India, Africa, Central Asia, and East Asia.


Describing the connection between imperialism and racism, including the social construction of race.


Comparing British policies in South Africa and India, French polices in Indochina, and Japanese policies in Asia.


Analyze the responses to imperialism by African and Asian peoples.


Describe how citizen movements seek to realize fundamental values and principles of American constitutional democracy.


Analyze different ways people have used civil disobedience, the different forms civil disobedience might take (e.g., violent and non-violent) and their impact.


Participate in a service-learning project, reflect upon experiences, and evaluate the value of the experience to the American ideal of participation.


Describe various forms and functions of political leadership and evaluate the characteristics of an effective leader.


Evaluate the claim that constitutional democracy requires the participation of an attentive, knowledgeable, and competent citizenry.


Social Issues - Describe at least three significant problems or issues created by America's industrial and urban transformation between 1895 and 1930 (e.g., urban and rural poverty and blight, child labor, immigration, political corruption, public health, poor working conditions, and monopolies).


Analyzing and explaining the impact of economic development on European society.


Explaining how democratic ideas and revolutionary conflicts influenced European society, noting particularly their influence on religious institutions, education, family life, and the legal and political position of women


Using historical and modern maps to describe how the wars of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic periods and growing nationalism changed the political geography of Europe and other regions (e.g., Louisiana Purchase).


Causes and Consequences of Progressive Reform - Analyze the causes, consequences, and limitations of Progressive reform in the following areas


Major changes in the Constitution, including 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th Amendments


New regulatory legislation (e.g., Pure Food and Drug Act, Sherman and Clayton Anti-Trust Acts)


The Supreme Court's role in supporting or slowing reform


Role of reform organizations, movements and individuals in promoting change (e.g., Women's Christian Temperance Union, settlement house movement, conservation movement, and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Jane Addams, Carrie Chapman Catt, Eugene Debs, W.E.B. DuBois, Upton Sinclair, Ida Tarbell)


Efforts to expand and restrict the practices of democracy as reflected in post-Civil War struggles of African Americans and immigrants


Women's Suffrage - Analyze the successes and failures of efforts to expand women's rights, including the work of important leaders (e.g., Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton) and the eventual ratification of the 19th Amendment.


The Twenties - Identify and explain the significance of the cultural changes and tensions in the ''Roaring Twenties'' including


Cultural movements, such as the Harlem Renaissance and the ''lost generation''


The struggle between ''traditional'' and ''modern'' America (e.g., Scopes Trial, immigration restrictions, Prohibition, role of women, mass consumption)


Causes and Consequences of the Great Depression - Explain and evaluate the multiple causes and consequences of the Great Depression by analyzing


The political, economic, environmental, and social causes of the Great Depression including fiscal policy, overproduction, under consumption, and speculation, the 1929 crash, and the Dust Bowl


The economic and social toll of the Great Depression, including unemployment and environmental conditions that affected farmers, industrial workers and families


Hoover's policies and their impact (e.g., Reconstruction Finance Corporation)


Expanding federal government's responsibilities to protect the environment (e.g., Dust Bowl and the Tennessee Valley), meet challenges of unemployment, address the needs of workers, farmers, poor, and elderly


Opposition to the New Deal and the impact of the Supreme Court in striking down and then accepting New Deal laws


Consequences of New Deal policies (e.g., promoting workers' rights, development of Social Security program, and banking and financial regulation conservation practices, crop subsidies)


Global Technology - Describe significant technological innovations and scientific breakthroughs in transportation, communication, medicine, and warfare and analyze how they both benefited and imperiled humanity.


Total War - Compare and contrast modern warfare and its resolution with warfare in the previous eras; include analysis of the role of technology and civilians.


Causes of WWII - Analyze the factors contributing to World War II in Europe and in the Pacific region, and America's entry into war including


The political and economic disputes over territory (e.g., failure of Versailles Treaty, League of Nations, Munich Agreement)


The differences in the civic and political values of the United States and those of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan


United States neutrality


The bombing of Pearl Harbor


U.S. and the Course of WWII - Evaluate the role of the U.S. in fighting the war militarily, diplomatically and technologically across the world (e.g., Germany First strategy, Big Three Alliance and the development of atomic weapons).


Examining the causes and consequences of the economic depression on different regions, nations, and the globe


Describing and explaining the rise of fascism and the spread of communism in Europe and Asia


Comparing and contrasting the rise of nationalism in China, Turkey, and India


Mobilization of economic, military, and social resources


Role of women and minorities in the war effort


Role of the home front in supporting the war effort (e.g., rationing, work hours, taxes)


Internment of Japanese-Americans


Analyzing the immediate consequences of the war's end including the devastation, effects on population, dawn of the atomic age, the occupation of Germany and Japan


Describing the emergence of the United States and the Soviet Union as global superpowers


Responses to Genocide - Investigate development and enactment of Hitler's ''final solution'' policy, and the responses to genocide by the Allies, the U.S. government, international organizations, and individuals (e.g., liberation of concentration camps, Nuremberg war crimes tribunals, establishment of state of Israel).


Russian Revolution - Determine the causes and results of the Russian Revolution from the rise of Bolsheviks through the conclusion of World War II, including the five-year plans, collectivization of agriculture, and military purges.


Europe and Rise of Fascism and Totalitarian States - Compare the ideologies, policies, and governing methods of at least two 20th-century dictatorial regimes (Germany, Italy, Spain, and the Soviet Union) with those absolutist states in earlier eras.


Japanese imperialism


Chinese nationalism, the emergence of communism, and civil war


Indian independence struggle


The Americas - Analyze the political, economic and social transformations that occurred in this era, including


Economic imperialism (e.g., dollar diplomacy)


Foreign military intervention and political revolutions in Central and South America


Nationalization of foreign investments


Middle East - Analyze the political, economic, and social transformations that occurred in this era, including


The decline of the Ottoman Empire


Changes in the Arab world including the growth of Arab nationalism, rise of Arab nation-states, and the increasing complexity (e.g., political, geographic, economic, and religious) of Arab peoples


The role of the Mandate system


The discovery of petroleum resources


Differences in the civic, ideological and political values, and the economic and governmental institutions of the U.S. and U.S.S.R.


Diplomatic decisions made at the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences (1945)


Actions by both countries in the last years of and years following World War II (e.g., the use of the atomic bomb, the Marshall Plan, the Truman Doctrine, North American Treaty Alliance (NATO), and Warsaw Pact)


The development of a U.S. national security establishment, composed of the Department of Defense, the Department of State, and the intelligence community


The armed struggle with Communism, including the Korean conflict


Direct conflicts within specific world regions including Germany and Cuba


U.S. involvement in Vietnam, and the foreign and domestic consequences of the war (e.g., relationship/conflicts with U.S.S.R. and China, U.S. military policy and practices, responses of citizens and mass media)


Indirect (or proxy) confrontations within specific world regions (e.g., Chile, Angola, Iran, Guatemala)


End of the Cold War - Evaluate the factors that led to the end of the cold war including detente, policies of the U.S. and U.S.S.R. and their leaders (President Reagan and Premier Gorbachev), the political breakup of the Soviet Union, and the Warsaw Pact.


Mapping the 20th Century - Using post-WWI, post-WWII, height of Cold War, and current world political maps, explain the changing configuration of political boundaries in the world caused by the World Wars, the Cold War, and the growth of nationalist sovereign states (including Israel, Jordan, Palestine).

8.2. S

Assess and compare the regional struggles for and against independence, decolonization, and democracy across the world.


Demographic Changes - Use population data to produce and analyze maps that show the major changes in population distribution, spatial patterns and density, including the Baby Boom, new immigration, suburbanization, reverse migration of African Americans to the South, and the flow of population to the ''Sunbelt.''


Describing issues challenging Americans such as domestic anticommunism (McCarthyism), labor, poverty, health care, infrastructure, immigration, and the environment


Evaluating policy decisions and legislative actions to meet these challenges (e.g., G.I. Bill of Rights (1944), Taft-Hartley Act (1947), Twenty-Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1951), Federal Highways Act (1956), National Defense Act (1957), E.P.A. (1970)


Comparing Domestic Policies - Focusing on causes, programs, and impacts, compare and contrast Roosevelt's New Deal initiatives, Johnson's Great Society programs, and Reagan's market-based domestic policies.


Domestic Conflicts and Tensions - Using core democratic values, analyze and evaluate the competing perspectives and controversies among Americans generated by U.S. Supreme Court decisions (e.g., Roe v Wade, Gideon, Miranda, Tinker, Hazelwood), the Vietnam War (anti-war and counter-cultural movements), environmental movement, women's rights movement, and the constitutional crisis generated by the Watergate scandal.


Civil Rights Movement - Analyze the key events, ideals, documents, and organizations in the struggle for civil rights by African Americans including


The impact of WWII and the Cold War (e.g., racial and gender integration of the military)


Supreme Court decisions and governmental actions (e.g., Brown v. Board (1954), Civil Rights Act (1957), Little Rock schools desegregation, Civil Rights Act (1964), Voting Rights Act (1965))


Protest movements, organizations, and civil actions (e.g., integration of baseball, Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-1956), March on Washington (1963), freedom rides, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Nation of Islam, Black Panthers)


Resistance to Civil Rights


Ideals of the Civil Rights Movement - Compare and contrast the ideas in Martin Luther King's March on Washington speech to the ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence, the Seneca Falls Resolution, and the Gettysburg Address.


Women's Rights - Analyze the causes and course of the women's rights movement in the 1960s and 1970s (including role of population shifts, birth control, increasing number of women in the work force, National Organization for Women (NOW), and the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)).


Civil Rights Expanded - Evaluate the major accomplishments and setbacks in civil rights and liberties for American minorities over the 20th century including American Indians, Latinos/as, new immigrants, people with disabilities, and gays and lesbians.


Tensions and Reactions to Poverty and Civil Rights - Analyze the causes and consequences of the civil unrest that occurred in American cities by comparing the civil unrest in Detroit with at least one other American city (e.g., Los Angeles, Cleveland, Chicago, Atlanta, Newark).


Economic Changes - Using the changing nature of the American automobile industry as a case study, evaluate the changes in the American economy created by new markets, natural resources, technologies, corporate structures, international competition, new sources and methods of production, energy issues, and mass communication.


Transformation of American Politics - Analyze the transformation of American politics in the late 20th and early 21st centuries including


Growth of the conservative movement in national politics, including the role of Ronald Reagan


Role of evangelical religion in national politics


Intensification of partisanship


Partisan conflict over the role of government in American life


Role of regional differences in national politics


U.S. in the Post-Cold War World - Explain the role of the United States as a super-power in the post-Cold War world, including advantages, disadvantages, and new challenges (e.g., military missions in Lebanon, Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia, Kosovo, and the Gulf War).


9/11 and Responses to Terrorism - Analyze how the attacks on 9/11 and the response to terrorism have altered American domestic and international policies (including e.g., the Office of Homeland Security, Patriot Act, wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, role of the United States in the United Nations, NATO).


Compose a persuasive essay on a public policy issue, and justify the position with a reasoned argument based upon historical antecedents and precedents, and core democratic values or constitutional principles


Role of the United States in the world


National economic policy


Population change (including birth rate, death rate, life expectancy, growth rate, doubling time, aging population, changes in science and technology)


Distributions of population (including relative changes in urban-rural population, gender, age, patterns of migrations, and population density)


Relationship of the population changes to global interactions, and their impact on three regions of the world


Change in spatial distribution and use of natural resources


The differences in ways societies have been using and distributing natural resources


Social, political, economic, and environmental consequences of the development, distribution, and use of natural resources


Major changes in networks for the production, distribution, and consumption of natural resources including growth of multinational corporations, and governmental and non-governmental organizations (e.g., OPEC, NAFTA, EU, NATO, World Trade Organization, Red Cross, Red Crescent)


The impact of humans on the global environment


Economic interdependence of the world's countries and world trade patterns


The exchanges of scientific, technological, and medical innovations


Cultural diffusion and the different ways cultures/societies respond to ''new'' cultural ideas and patterns


Comparative economic advantages and disadvantages of regions, regarding cost of labor, natural resources, location, and tradition


Distribution of wealth and resources and efforts to narrow the inequitable distribution of resources


Tensions resulting from ethnic, territorial, religious, and/or nationalist differences (e.g., Israel/Palestine, Kashmir, Ukraine, Northern Ireland, al Qaeda, Shining Path)


Causes of and responses to ethnic cleansing/genocide/mass extermination (e.g., Darfur, Rwanda, Cambodia, Bosnia)


Local and global attempts at peacekeeping, security, democratization, and administering international justice and human rights


The type of warfare used in these conflicts, including terrorism, private militias, and new technologies


Identify the core ideals of American society as reflected in the documents below and analyze the ways that American society moved toward and/or away from its core ideals


Declaration of Independence


The U.S. Constitution (including the Preamble)


The Gettysburg Address


13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments


Using the American Revolution, the creation and adoption of the Constitution, and the Civil War as touchstones, develop an argument/narrative about the changing character of American political society and the roles of key individuals across cultures in prompting/supporting the change by discussing


The birth of republican government, including the rule of law, inalienable rights, equality, and limited government


The development of governmental roles in American life


And competing views of the responsibilities of governments (federal, state, and local)


Changes in suffrage qualifications


The development of political parties


America's political and economic role in the world


Describe the major trends and transformations in American life prior to 1877 including


Changing political boundaries of the United States


Regional economic differences and similarities, including goods produced and the nature of the labor force


Changes in the size, location, and composition of the population


Patterns of immigration and migration


Development of cities


Changes in commerce, transportation, and communication


Major changes in Foreign Affairs marked by such events as the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War, and foreign relations during the Civil War


TWO ancient river civilizations, such as those that formed around the Nile, Indus, Tigris-Euphrates, or Yangtze


Classical China or India (Han China or Gupta empires)


Classical Mediterranean (Greece and Rome)


Spatial representations of that growth


Interactions with culturally diverse peoples


Responses to the challenges offered by contact with different faiths


Ways they influenced people's perceptions of the world.