Michigan Social Studies Standards — Grade 4

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Identify questions political scientists ask in examining the United States (e.g., What does government do? What are the basic values and principles of American democracy? What is the relationship of the United States to other nations? What are the roles of the citizen in American democracy?).


Explain probable consequences of an absence of government and of rules and laws.


Describe the purposes of government as identified in the Preamble of the Constitution.


Explain how the principles of popular sovereignty, rule of law, checks and balances, separation of powers, and individual rights (e.g., freedom of religion, freedom of expression, freedom of press) serve to limit the powers of the federal government as reflected in the Constitution and Bill of Rights.


Identify situations in which specific rights guaranteed by the Constitution and Bill of Rights are involved (e.g., freedom of religion, freedom of expression, freedom of press).


Give examples of ways the Constitution limits the powers of the federal government (e.g., election of public officers, separation of powers, checks and balances, Bill of Rights).


Give examples of powers granted to the federal government (e.g., coining of money, declaring war) and those reserved for the states (e.g., driver's license, marriage license).


Describe the organizational structure of the federal government in the United States (legislative, executive, and judicial branches).


Describe how the powers of the federal government are separated among the branches.


Give examples of how the system of checks and balances limits the power of the federal government (e.g., presidential veto of legislation, courts declaring a law unconstitutional, congressional approval of judicial appointments).


Describe how the President, members of the Congress, and justices of the Supreme Court come to power (e.g., elections versus appointments).


Explain how the federal government uses taxing and spending to serve the purposes of government.


Explain responsibilities of citizenship (e.g., initiating changes in laws or policy, holding public office, respecting the law, being informed and attentive to public issues, paying taxes, registering to vote and voting knowledgeably, serving as a juror).


Describe the relationship between rights and responsibilities of citizenship.


Explain why rights have limits.


Describe ways citizens can work together to promote the values and principles of American democracy.


Identify questions economists ask in examining the United States (e.g., What is produced? How is it produced? How much is produced? Who gets what is produced? What role does the government play in the economy?).


Describe some characteristics of a market economy (e.g., private property rights, voluntary exchange, competition, consumer sovereignty, incentives, specialization).


Describe how positive (e.g., responding to a sale, saving money, earning money) and negative (e.g., library fines, overdue video rental fees) incentives influence behavior in a market economy.


Explain how price affects decisions about purchasing goods and services (substitute goods).


Explain how specialization and division of labor increase productivity (e.g., assembly line). (H)


Explain how competition among buyers results in higher prices and competition among sellers results in lower prices (e.g., supply, demand).


Demonstrate the circular flow model by engaging in a market simulation, which includes households and businesses and depicts the interactions among them.


Explain why public goods (e.g., libraries, roads, parks) are not privately owned. (H)


Explain how changes in the United States economy impacts levels of employment and unemployment (e.g., changing demand for natural resources, changes in technology, changes in competition). (H)


Describe how global competition affects the national economy (e.g., outsourcing of jobs, increased supply of goods, opening new markets, quality controls).


Identify questions geographers ask in examining the United States (e.g., Where it is? What is it like there? How is it connected to other places?).


Use cardinal and intermediate directions to describe the relative location of significant places in the United States.


Identify and describe the characteristics and purposes (e.g., measure distance, determine relative location, classify a region) of a variety of geographic tools and technologies (e.g., globe, map, satellite image).


Use geographic tools and technologies, stories, songs, and pictures to answer geographic questions about the United States.


Use maps to describe elevation, climate, and patterns of population density in the United States.


Describe ways in which the United States can be divided into different regions (e.g., political regions, economic regions, landform regions, vegetation regions).


Compare human and physical characteristics of a region to which Michigan belongs (e.g., Great Lakes, Midwest) with those of another region in the United States.


Use a case study or story about migration within or to the United States to identify push and pull factors (why they left, why they came) that influenced the migration. (H)


Describe the impact of immigration to the United States on the cultural development of different places or regions of the United States (e.g., forms of shelter, language, food). (H)


Assess the positive and negative effects of human activities on the physical environment of the United States.


Use historical inquiry questions to investigate the development of Michigan's major economic activities (agriculture, mining, manufacturing, lumbering, tourism, technology, and research) from statehood to present. (C, E)


How and why did it happen?


How does it relate to other events or issues in the past, in the present, or in the future?


What is its significance?


Use primary and secondary sources to explain how migration and immigration affected and continue to affect the growth of Michigan. (G)


Describe how the relationship between the location of natural resources and the location of industries (after 1837) affected and continues to affect the location and growth of Michigan cities. (G, E)


Draw upon stories, photos, artifacts, and other primary sources to compare the life of people in towns and cities in Michigan and in the Great Lakes region during a variety of time periods from 1837 to the present (e.g., 1837-1900, 1900-1950, 1950-2000). (G)


Use visual data and informational text or primary accounts to compare a major Michigan economic activity today with that same or a related activity in the past. (E)


Use a variety of primary and secondary sources to construct a historical narrative about the beginnings of the automobile industry and the labor movement in Michigan. (G, E)


Use case studies or stories to describe the ideas and actions of individuals involved in the Underground Railroad in Michigan and in the Great Lakes region. (see 8-U4.2.2; 8-U4.3.2; 8-U5.1.5; USHG 7.2.4) (G, C, E)


Describe past and current threats to Michigan's natural resources; describe how Michigan worked in the past and continues to work today to protect its natural resources. (G, C, E)


Create timelines (using decades after 1930) to sequence and describe important events in Michigan history; annotate with connections to the past and impact on the future.


Identify public issues in the United States that influence the daily lives of its citizens.


Use graphic data and other sources to analyze information about a public issue in the United States and evaluate alternative resolutions.


Give examples of how conflicts over core democratic values lead people to differ on resolutions to a public policy issue in the United States.


Compose a brief essay expressing a position on a public policy issue in the United States and justify the position with a reasoned argument.


Develop and implement an action plan and know how, when, and where to address or inform others about a public issue.


Participate in projects to help or inform others.