Michigan Social Studies Standards — Grade 7

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7- W3.1.3.

Compare and contrast the defining characteristics of a city-state, civilization, and empire.


Explain how the purposes served by government affect relationships between the individual, government, and society as a whole and the differences that occur in monarchies, theocracies, dictatorships, and representative governments.


Define the characteristics of a nation-state (a specific territory, clearly defined boundaries, citizens, and jurisdiction over people who reside there, laws, and government) and how Eastern Hemisphere nations interact.


Explain how governments address national issues and form policies, and how the policies may not be consistent with those of other countries (e.g., population pressures in China compared to Sweden; international immigration quotas, international aid, energy needs for natural gas and oil and military aid).


Explain the challenges to governments and the cooperation needed to address international issues (e.g., migration and human rights).


Explain why governments belong to different types of international and regional organizations (e.g., United Nations (UN), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), European Union (EU), and African Union (AU), G-8 countries (leading economic/political)).


Explain the role of incentives in different economic systems (acquiring money, profit, goods, wanting to avoid loss, position in society, job placement).


Describe the circular flow model (that businesses get money from households in exchange for goods and services and return that money to households by paying for the factors of production that households have to sell) and apply it to a public service (e.g., education, health care, military protection).


Explain how national governments make decisions that impact both that country and other countries that use its resources (e.g., sanctions and tariffs enacted by a national government to prevent imports, most favored trade agreements, the impact China is having on the global economy and the U.S. economy in particular).


Explain the importance of trade (imports and exports) on national economies in the Eastern Hemisphere (e.g., natural gas in North Africa, petroleum Africa, mineral resources in Asia).


Diagram or map the movement of a consumer product from where it is manufactured to where it is sold to demonstrate the flow of materials, labor, and capital (e.g., global supply chain for computers, athletic shoes, and clothing).


Determine the impact of trade on a region of the Eastern Hemisphere by graphing and analyzing the gross Domestic Product of the region for the past decade and comparing the data with trend data on the total value of imports and exports over the same period.


Explain how communications innovations have affected economic interactions and where and how people work (e.g., internet home offices, international work teams, international companies).


What should be produced? How will it be produced? How will it be distributed? Who will receive the benefits of production? (e.g., market economies in Africa, Europe; command economy in North Korea; and the transition to market economies in Vietnam and China).


Explain and use a variety of maps, globes, and web based geography technology to study the world, including global, interregional, regional, and local scales.


Draw an accurate sketch map from memory of the Eastern Hemisphere showing the major regions (Africa, Asia, Europe, Australia/Oceania, Antarctica).


Locate the major landforms, rivers and climate regions of the Eastern Hemisphere.


Explain why maps of the same place may vary as a result of the cultural or historical background of the cartographer.


Use observations from air photos, photographs (print and CD), films (VCR and DVD) as the basis for answering geographic questions about the human and physical characteristics of places and regions.


Draw the general population distribution of the Eastern Hemisphere on a map, analyze the patterns, and propose two generalizations about the location and density of the population.


Use information from modern technology such as Geographic Positioning System (GPS), Geographic Information System (GIS), and satellite remote sensing to locate information and process maps and data to analyze spatial patterns of the Eastern Hemisphere to answer geographic questions.


Apply the skills of geographic inquiry (asking geographic questions, acquiring geographic information, organizing geographic information, analyzing geographic information, and answering geographic questions) to analyze a problem or issue of importance to a region of the Eastern Hemisphere.


Use the fundamental themes of geography (location, place, human environment interaction, movement, region) to describe regions or places on earth.


Explain the locations and distributions of physical and human characteristics of Earth by using knowledge of spatial patterns.


Explain the different ways in which places are connected and how those connections demonstrate interdependence and accessibility.


Describe the landform features and the climate of the region (within the Western or Eastern Hemispheres) under study.


Use information from GIS, remote sensing and the World Wide Web to compare and contrast the surface features and vegetation of the continents of the Eastern Hemisphere.


Describe the human characteristics of the region under study (including languages, religion, economic system, governmental system, cultural traditions).


Explain that communities are affected positively or negatively by changes in technology (e.g., increased manufacturing resulting in rural to urban migration in China, increased farming of fish, hydroelectric power generation at Three Gorges, pollution resulting from increased manufacturing and automobiles).


Analyze how culture and experience influence people's perception of places and regions (e.g., that beaches are places where tourists travel, cities have historic buildings, northern places are cold, equatorial places are very warm).


Construct and analyze climate graphs for locations at different latitudes and elevations in the region to answer geographic questions and make predictions based on patterns (e.g., compare and contrast Norway and France; Nairobi and Kilimanjaro; Mumbai and New Delhi).


Explain how and why ecosystems differ as a consequence of differences in latitude, elevation, and human activities (e.g., effects of latitude on types of vegetation in Africa, proximity to bodies of water in Europe, and effects of annual river flooding in Southeast Asia and China).


Identify ecosystems of a continent and explain why some provide greater opportunities (fertile soil, precipitation) for humans to use than do other ecosystems and how that changes with technology (e.g., China's humid east and arid west and the effects of irrigation technology).


Identify and explain examples of cultural diffusion within the Eastern Hemisphere (e.g., the spread of sports, music, architecture, television, Internet, Bantu languages in Africa, Islam in Western Europe).


Compare roles of women in traditional African societies in the past with roles of women as modern micro-entrepreneurs in current economies.


List and describe the advantages and disadvantages of different technologies used to move people, products, and ideas throughout the world (e.g., opportunities for employment, entrepreneurial and educational opportunities using the Internet; the effects of technology on reducing the time necessary for communications and travel; the uses and effects of wireless technology in developing countries; and the spread of group and individual's ideas as voice and image messages on electronic networks such as the Internet).


the modifications that were necessary (e.g., Nile River irrigation, reclamation of land along the North Sea, planting trees in areas that have become desertified in Africa).


Describe patterns of settlement by using historical and modern maps (e.g., the location of the world's mega cities, other cities located near coasts and navigable rivers, regions under environmental stress such as the Sahel).


Identify and explain factors that contribute to conflict and cooperation between and among cultural groups (e.g., natural resources, power, culture, wealth).


Describe examples of cooperation and conflict within the European Union (e.g., European Parliament, Euro as currency in some countries but not others, open migration within the European Union, free trade, and cultural impacts such as a multi-lingual population).


Describe the environmental effects of human action on the atmosphere (air), biosphere (people, animals, and plants), lithosphere (soil), and hydrosphere (water) (e.g., desertification in the Sahel Region of North Africa, deforestation in the Congo Basin, air pollution in urban center, and chemical spills in European Rivers).


Describe how variations in technology affect human modifications of the landscape (e.g., clearing of agricultural land in Southeast Asia, fish factories in North Atlantic and Western Pacific Ocean, and damming rivers to meet needs for electricity).


Identify the ways in which human-induced changes in the physical environment in one place can cause changes in other places (e.g., cutting forests in one region may result in river basin flooding elsewhere as has happened historically in China; building dams floods land upstream and permits irrigation downstream as in Southern Africa, the Aswan Dam flooded the upper Nile Valley and permitted irrigation downstream).


Describe the effects that a change in the physical environment could have on human activities and the choices people would have to make in adjusting to the change (e.g., drought in Africa, pollution from volcanic eruptions in Indonesia, earthquakes in Turkey, and flooding in Bangladesh).


Contemporary Investigations - Conduct research on contemporary global topics and issues, compose persuasive essays, and develop a plan for action. (H1.4.3, G1.2.6, See P3 and P4) (H1.4.3, G1.2.6, See P3 and P4)


Conflict, Stability, and Change-Investigate the significance of conflict, stability, and change in governmental systems within the region.


Diversity and Nationalism-Investigate the tensions that may develop between cultural diversity and nationalism within a country and their consequences.


Urbanization-Investigate urbanization and its consequences for the world's population.


Oil and Society-Investigate the significance of how oil has changed nations as both consumers and producers of this natural resource.


Children in the World-Investigate issues affecting children such as health, labor, and war.


Regional Cooperation-Explain the significance of and barriers to regional cooperation.


Investigations Designed for Ancient World History Eras - Conduct research on global topics and issues, compose persuasive essays, and develop a plan for action. (H1.4.3, G1.2.6, See P3 and P4) (H1.4.3, G1.2.6, See P3 and P4)


WHG Era 1: Population Growth and Resources - Investigate how population growth affects resource availability.


WHG Era 1: Migration - Investigate the significance of migrations of peoples and the resulting benefits and challenges.


WHG Era 2: Sustainable Agriculture - Investigate the significance of sustainable agriculture and its role in helping societies produce enough food for people.


WHG Era 3: Development - Investigate economic effects on development in a region and its ecosystems and societies.


WHG Era 3: Religious Conflict - Investigate conflict that arises from varying religious beliefs.


Explain why and how historians use eras and periods as constructs to organize and explain human activities over time.


Compare and contrast several different calendar systems used in the past and present and their cultural significance (e.g., Sun Dial, Gregorian calendar - B.C./A.D.; contemporary secular - B.C.E./C.E.; Chinese, Hebrew, and Islamic/Hijri calendars).


Explain how historians use a variety of sources to explore the past (e.g., artifacts, primary and secondary sources including narratives, technology, historical maps, visual/mathematical quantitative data, radiocarbon dating, DNA analysis).


Read and comprehend a historical passage to identify basic factual knowledge and the literal meaning by indicating who was involved, what happened, where it happened, what events led to the development, and what consequences or outcomes followed.


Identify the point of view (perspective of the author) and context when reading and discussing primary and secondary sources.


Compare and evaluate competing historical perspectives about the past based on proof.


Describe how historians use methods of inquiry to identify cause effect relationships in history noting that many have multiple causes.


Identify the role of the individual in history and the significance of one person's ideas.


Describe and use cultural institutions to study an era and a region (political, economic, religion/belief, science/technology, written language, education, family).


Describe and use themes of history to study patterns of change and continuity.


Use historical perspectives to analyze global issues faced by humans long ago and today.


Clearly state an issue as a question or public policy, trace the origins of an issue, analyze and synthesize various perspectives, and generate and evaluate alternative resolutions. Deeply examine policy issues in group discussions and debates to make reasoned and informed decisions. Write persuasive/argumentative essays expressing and justifying decisions on public policy issues. Plan and conduct activities intended to advance views on matters of public policy, report the results, and evaluate effectiveness.


Identify public policy issues related to global topics and issues studied.


Clearly state the issue as a question of public policy orally or in written form.


Use inquiry methods to acquire content knowledge and appropriate data about the issue.


Identify the causes and consequences and analyze the impact, both positive and negative.


Share and discuss findings of research and issue analysis in group discussions and debates.


Compose a persuasive essay justifying the position with a reasoned argument.


Develop an action plan to address or inform others about the issue at the local to global scales.


Demonstrate knowledge of how, when, and where individuals would plan and conduct activities intended to advance views in matters of public policy, report the results, and evaluate effectiveness.


Engage in activities intended to contribute to solving a national or international problem studied.


Participate in projects to help or inform others (e.g., service learning projects).


Explain how and when human communities populated major regions of the Eastern Hemisphere (Africa, Australia, Europe, Asia) and adapted to a variety of environments.


Explain what archaeologists have learned about Paleolithic and Neolithic patterns of living in Africa, Western Europe, and Asia.


Explain the importance of the natural environment in the development of agricultural settlements in different locations (e.g., available water for irrigation, adequate precipitation, and suitable growth season).


Explain the impact of the Agricultural Revolution (stable food supply, surplus, population growth, trade, division of labor, development of settlements).


Compare and contrast the environmental, economic, and social institutions of two early civilizations from different world regions (e.g., Yangtse, Indus River Valley, Tigris/Euphrates, and Nile).


Describe the importance of the development of human language, oral and written, and its relationship to the development of culture


Standardization of physical (rock, bird) and abstract (love, fear) words


Pictographs to abstract writing (governmental administration, laws, codes, history and artistic expressions)


Use historical and modern maps and other sources to locate, describe, and analyze major river systems and discuss the ways these physical settings supported permanent settlements, and development of early civilizations (Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, Yangtze River, Nile River, Indus River).


Examine early civilizations to describe their common features (ways of governing, stable food supply, economic and social structures, use of resources and technology, division of labor and forms of communication).


Define the concept of cultural diffusion and how it resulted in the spread of ideas and technology from one region to another (e.g., plants, crops, plow, wheel, bronze metallurgy).


Describe pastoralism and explain how the climate and geography of Central Asia were linked to the rise of pastoral societies on the steppes.


Describe the characteristics that classical civilizations share (institutions, cultural styles, systems of thought that influenced neighboring peoples and have endured for several centuries).


Create a time line that illustrates the rise and fall of classical empires during the classical period.


Using historic and modern maps, locate three major empires of this era, describe their geographic characteristics including physical features and climates, and propose a generalization about the relationship between geographic characteristics and the development of early empires.


Assess the importance of Greek ideas about democracy and citizenship in the development of Western political thought and institutions.


Describe major achievements from Indian, Chinese, Mediterranean, African, and Southwest and Central Asian civilizations in the areas of art, architecture and culture; science, technology and mathematics; political life and ideas; philosophy and ethical beliefs; and military strategy.


Use historic and modern maps to locate and describe trade networks among empires in the classical era.


Use a case study to describe how trade integrated cultures and influenced the economy within empires (e.g., Assyrian and Persian trade networks or networks of Egypt and Nubia/Kush; or Phoenician and Greek networks).


Describe the role of state authority, military power, taxation systems, and institutions of coerced labor, including slavery, in building and maintaining empires (e.g., Han Empire, Mauryan Empire, Egypt, Greek city-states and the Roman Empire).


Describe the significance of legal codes, belief systems, written languages and communications in the development of large regional empires.


Identify and describe the beliefs of the five major world religions.


Locate the geographical center of major religions and map the spread through the 3rd century C.E./A.D.


Identify and describe the ways that religions unified people's perceptions of the world and contributed to cultural integration of large regions of Afro-Eurasia.