Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills - English — Grade 4


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110.15.b.1

Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to read aloud grade-level stories with fluency (rate, accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing) and comprehension.

110.15.b.10

Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the difference between a stated and an implied purpose for an expository text.

110.15.b.11

Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

110.15.b.11.A

summarize the main idea and supporting details in text in ways that maintain meaning;

110.15.b.11.B

distinguish fact from opinion in a text and explain how to verify what is a fact;

110.15.b.11.C

describe explicit and implicit relationships among ideas in texts organized by cause-and-effect, sequence, or comparison; and

110.15.b.11.D

use multiple text features (e.g., guide words, topic and concluding sentences) to gain an overview of the contents of text and to locate information.

110.15.b.12

Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to explain how an author uses language to present information to influence what the reader thinks or does.

110.15.b.13

Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

110.15.b.13.A

determine the sequence of activities needed to carry out a procedure (e.g., following a recipe); and

110.15.b.13.B

explain factual information presented graphically (e.g., charts, diagrams, graphs, illustrations).

110.15.b.14

Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

110.15.b.14.A

explain the positive and negative impacts of advertisement techniques used in various genres of media to impact consumer behavior;

110.15.b.14.B

explain how various design techniques used in media influence the message (e.g., pacing, close-ups, sound effects); and

110.15.b.14.C

compare various written conventions used for digital media (e.g. language in an informal e-mail vs. language in a web-based news article).

110.15.b.15

Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

110.15.b.15.A

plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience and generating ideas through a range of strategies (e.g., brainstorming, graphic organizers, logs, journals);

110.15.b.15.B

develop drafts by categorizing ideas and organizing them into paragraphs;

110.15.b.15.C

revise drafts for coherence, organization, use of simple and compound sentences, and audience;

110.15.b.15.D

edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling using a teacher-developed rubric; and

110.15.b.15.E

revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for a specific audience.

110.15.b.16

Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

110.15.b.16.A

write imaginative stories that build the plot to a climax and contain details about the characters and setting; and

110.15.b.16.B

write poems that convey sensory details using the conventions of poetry (e.g., rhyme, meter, patterns of verse).

110.15.b.17

Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write about important personal experiences.

110.15.b.18

Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

110.15.b.18.A

create brief compositions that:

110.15.b.18.A.1

establish a central idea in a topic sentence;

110.15.b.18.A.2

establish a central idea in a topic sentence;

110.15.b.18.A.3

contain a concluding statement;

110.15.b.18.B

write letters whose language is tailored to the audience and purpose (e.g., a thank you note to a friend) and that use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing); and

110.15.b.18.C

write responses to literary or expository texts and provide evidence from the text to demonstrate understanding.

110.15.b.19

Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive essays for appropriate audiences that establish a position and use supporting details.

110.15.b.2

Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

110.15.b.2.A

determine the meaning of grade-level academic English words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

110.15.b.2.B

use the context of the sentence (e.g., in-sentence example or definition) to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple meaning words;

110.15.b.2.C

complete analogies using knowledge of antonyms and synonyms (e.g., boy:girl as male:____ or girl:woman as boy:_____);

110.15.b.2.D

identify the meaning of common idioms; and

110.15.b.2.E

use a dictionary or glossary to determine the meanings, syllabication, and pronunciation of unknown words.

110.15.b.20

Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

110.15.b.20.A

use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

110.15.b.20.A.2

nouns (singular/plural, common/proper);

110.15.b.20.A.3

adjectives (e.g., descriptive, including purpose: sleeping bag, frying pan) and their comparative and superlative forms (e.g., fast, faster, fastest);

110.15.b.20.A.4

adverbs (e.g., frequency: usually, sometimes; intensity: almost, a lot);

110.15.b.20.A.5

prepositions and prepositional phrases to convey location, time, direction, or to provide details;

110.15.b.20.A.6

reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves);

110.15.b.20.A.7

correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor); and

110.15.b.20.A.8

use time-order transition words and transitions that indicate a conclusion;

110.15.b.20.B

use the complete subject and the complete predicate in a sentence; and

110.15.b.20.C

use complete simple and compound sentences with correct subject-verb agreement.

110.15.b.21

Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

110.15.b.21.A

write legibly by selecting cursive script or manuscript printing as appropriate;

110.15.b.21.B.1

historical events and documents;

110.15.b.21.B.2

titles of books, stories, and essays; and

110.15.b.21.B.3

languages, races, and nationalities; and

110.15.b.21.C

recognize and use punctuation marks including:

110.15.b.21.C.1

commas in compound sentences; and

110.15.b.22

Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:

110.15.b.22.A

spell words with more advanced orthographic patterns and rules:

110.15.b.22.A.1

plural rules (e.g., words ending in f as in leaf, leaves; adding -es);

110.15.b.22.A.2

irregular plurals (e.g., man/men, foot/feet, child/children);

110.15.b.22.A.3

double consonants in middle of words;

110.15.b.22.A.4

other ways to spell sh (e.g., -sion, -tion, -cian); and

110.15.b.22.A.5

silent letters (e.g., knee, wring);

110.15.b.22.B

spell base words and roots with affixes (e.g., -ion, -ment, -ly, dis-, pre-);

110.15.b.22.C

spell commonly used homophones (e.g., there, they're, their; two, too, to); and

110.15.b.22.D

use spelling patterns and rules and print and electronic resources to determine and check correct spellings.

110.15.b.23

Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

110.15.b.23.A

generate research topics from personal interests or by brainstorming with others, narrow to one topic, and formulate open-ended questions about the major research topic; and

110.15.b.23.B

generate a research plan for gathering relevant information (e.g., surveys, interviews, encyclopedias) about the major research question.

110.15.b.24

Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

110.15.b.24.A

follow the research plan to collect information from multiple sources of information both oral and written, including:

110.15.b.24.A.1

student-initiated surveys, on-site inspections, and interviews;

110.15.b.24.A.2

data from experts, reference texts, and online searches; and

110.15.b.24.A.3

visual sources of information (e.g., maps, timelines, graphs) where appropriate;

110.15.b.24.B

use skimming and scanning techniques to identify data by looking at text features (e.g., bold print, italics);

110.15.b.24.C

take simple notes and sort evidence into provided categories or an organizer;

110.15.b.24.D

identify the author, title, publisher, and publication year of sources; and

110.15.b.24.E

differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of citing valid and reliable sources.

110.15.b.25

Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to improve the focus of research as a result of consulting expert sources (e.g., reference librarians and local experts on the topic).

110.15.b.26

Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to draw conclusions through a brief written explanation and create a works-cited page from notes, including the author, title, publisher, and publication year for each source used.

110.15.b.27

Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

110.15.b.27.A

listen attentively to speakers, ask relevant questions, and make pertinent comments; and

110.15.b.27.B

follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action.

110.15.b.28

Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to express an opinion supported by accurate information, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, and enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

110.15.b.29

Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate in teacher- and student-led discussions by posing and answering questions with appropriate detail and by providing suggestions that build upon the ideas of others.

110.15.b.3

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

110.15.b.3.A

summarize and explain the lesson or message of a work of fiction as its theme; and

110.15.b.3.B

compare and contrast the adventures or exploits of characters (e.g., the trickster) in traditional and classical literature.

110.15.b.4

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how the structural elements of poetry (e.g., rhyme, meter, stanzas, line breaks) relate to form (e.g., lyrical poetry, free verse).

110.15.b.5

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to describe the structural elements particular to dramatic literature.

110.15.b.6

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

110.15.b.6.A

sequence and summarize the plot's main events and explain their influence on future events;

110.15.b.6.B

describe the interaction of characters including their relationships and the changes they undergo; and

110.15.b.6.C

identify whether the narrator or speaker of a story is first or third person.

110.15.b.7

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify similarities and differences between the events and characters' experiences in a fictional work and the actual events and experiences described in an author's biography or autobiography.

110.15.b.8

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the author's use of similes and metaphors to produce imagery.

110.15.b.9

Reading/Comprehension of Text/Independent Reading. Students read independently for sustained periods of time and produce evidence of their reading. Students are expected to read independently for a sustained period of time and paraphrase what the reading was about, maintaining meaning and logical order (e.g., generate a reading log or journal; participate in book talks).

4.1.A

Listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and make pertinent comments.

4.1.B

Follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action.

4.1.C

Express an opinion supported by accurate information, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

4.1.D

Work collaboratively with others to develop a plan of shared responsibilities.

4.10.A

Explain the author's purpose and message within a text.

4.10.B

Explain how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose.

4.10.C

Analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes.

4.10.D

Describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile and metaphor, and sound devices such as alliteration and assonance achieves specific purposes.

4.10.E

Identify and understand the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view.

4.10.F

Discuss how the author's use of language contributes to voice.

4.10.G

Identify and explain the use of anecdote.

4.11.A

Plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping.

4.11.B

Develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

4.11.B.i

Organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, and a conclusion.

4.11.B.ii

Developing an engaging idea with relevant details.

4.11.C

Revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity.

4.11.D

Edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

4.11.D.i

Complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments.

4.11.D.ii

Past tense of irregular verbs.

4.11.D.iii

Singular, plural, common, and proper nouns.

4.11.D.iv

Adjectives, including their comparative and superlative forms.

4.11.D.ix

Capitalization of historical periods, events, and documents; titles of books; stories and essays; and languages, races, and nationalities.

4.11.D.v

Adverbs that convey frequency and adverbs that convey degree.

4.11.D.vi

Prepositions and prepositional phrases.

4.11.D.vii

Pronouns, including reflexive.

4.11.D.viii

Coordinating conjunctions to form compound subjects, predicates, and sentences.

4.11.D.x

Punctuation marks, including apostrophes in possessives, commas in compound sentences, and quotation marks in dialogue.

4.11.D.xi

Correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words.

4.11.E

Publish written work for appropriate audiences.

4.12.A

Compose literary texts such as personal narratives and poetry using genre characteristics and craft.

4.12.B

Compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a clear central idea and genre characteristics and craft.

4.12.C

Compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft.

4.12.D

Compose correspondence that requests information.

4.13.A

Generate and clarify questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry.

4.13.B

Develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance.

4.13.C

Identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources.

4.13.D

Identify primary and secondary sources.

4.13.E

Demonstrate understanding of information gathered.

4.13.F

Recognize the difference between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials.

4.13.G

Develop a bibliography.

4.13.H

Use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

4.2.A

Demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

4.2.A.i

Decoding words with specific orthographic patterns and rules, including regular and irregular plurals.

4.2.A.ii

Decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables.

4.2.A.iii

Decoding words using advanced knowledge of syllable division patterns such as VV.

4.2.A.iv

Decoding words using knowledge of prefixes.

4.2.A.v

Decoding words using knowledge of suffixes, including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants.

4.2.A.vi

Identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list.

4.2.B

Demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

4.2.B.i

Spelling multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables.

4.2.B.iii

Spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns.

4.2.B.iv

Spelling words using advanced knowledge of syllable division patterns.

4.2.B.v

Spelling words using knowledge of prefixes.

4.2.B.vi

Spelling words using knowledge of suffixes, including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants.

4.2.C

Write legibly in cursive to complete assignments.

4.3.A

Use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, and pronunciation.

4.3.B

Use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words.

4.3.C

Determine the meaning of and use words with affixes such as mis-, sub-, -ment, and -ity/ty and roots such as auto, graph, and meter.

4.3.D

Identify, use, and explain the meaning of homophones such as reign/rain.

4.6.A

Establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts.

4.6.B

Generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information.

4.6.C

Make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures.

4.6.D

Create mental images to deepen understanding.

4.6.E

Make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society.

4.6.F

Make inferences and use evidence to support understanding.

4.6.G

Evaluate details read to determine key ideas.

4.6.H

Synthesize information to create new understanding.

4.6.I

Monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

4.7.A

Describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts.

4.7.B

Write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing and contrasting ideas across a variety of sources.

4.7.C

Use text evidence to support an appropriate response.

4.7.D

Retell, paraphrase, or summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order.

4.7.E

Interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating.

4.7.F

Respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

4.7.G

Discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

4.8.A

Infer basic themes supported by text evidence.

4.8.B

Explain the interactions of the characters and the changes they undergo.

4.8.C

Analyze plot elements, including the rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution.

4.8.D

Explain the influence of the setting, including historical and cultural settings, on the plot.

4.9.A

Demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, legends, myths, and tall tales.

4.9.B

Explain figurative language such as simile, metaphor, and personification that the poet uses to create images.

4.9.C

Explain structure in drama such as character tags, acts, scenes, and stage directions.

4.9.D

Recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

4.9.D.i

The central idea with supporting evidence.

4.9.D.ii

Features such as pronunciation guides and diagrams to support understanding.

4.9.D.iii

Organizational patterns such as compare and contrast.

4.9.E

Recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

4.9.E.i

Identifying the claim.

4.9.E.ii

Explaining how the author has used facts for an argument.

4.9.E.iii

Identifying the intended audience or reader.

4.9.F

Recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.