Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills - English — Grade 7


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110.19.b.1

Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to adjust fluency when reading aloud grade-level text based on the reading purpose and the nature of the text.

110.19.b.10

Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Expository Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

110.19.b.10.A

evaluate a summary of the original text for accuracy of the main ideas, supporting details, and overall meaning;

110.19.b.10.B

distinguish factual claims from commonplace assertions and opinions;

110.19.b.10.C

use different organizational patterns as guides for summarizing and forming an overview of different kinds of expository text; and

110.19.b.10.D

synthesize and make logical connections between ideas within a text and across two or three texts representing similar or different genres, and support those findings with textual evidence.

110.19.b.11

Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Persuasive Text. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis. Students are expected to:

110.19.b.11.A

analyze the structure of the central argument in contemporary policy speeches (e.g., argument by cause and effect, analogy, authority) and identify the different types of evidence used to support the argument; and

110.19.b.11.B

identify such rhetorical fallacies as ad hominem, exaggeration, stereotyping, or categorical claims in persuasive texts.

110.19.b.12

Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Procedural Texts. Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents. Students are expected to:

110.19.b.12.A

follow multi-dimensional instructions from text to complete a task, solve a problem, or perform procedures; and

110.19.b.12.B

explain the function of the graphical components of a text.

110.19.b.13

Reading/Media Literacy. Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:

110.19.b.13.A

interpret both explicit and implicit messages in various forms of media;

110.19.b.13.B

interpret how visual and sound techniques (e.g., special effects, camera angles, lighting, music) influence the message;

110.19.b.13.C

evaluate various ways media influences and informs audiences; and

110.19.b.13.D

assess the correct level of formality and tone for successful participation in various digital media.

110.19.b.14

Writing/Writing Process. Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text. Students are expected to:

110.19.b.14.A

plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;

110.19.b.14.B

develop drafts by choosing an appropriate organizational strategy (e.g., sequence of events, cause-effect, compare-contrast) and building on ideas to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing;

110.19.b.14.C

revise drafts to ensure precise word choice and vivid images; consistent point of view; use of simple, compound, and complex sentences; internal and external coherence; and the use of effective transitions after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;

110.19.b.14.D

edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and

110.19.b.14.E

revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.

110.19.b.15

Writing/Literary Texts. Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas. Students are expected to:

110.19.b.15.A

write an imaginative story that:

110.19.b.15.A.1

sustains reader interest;

110.19.b.15.A.2

includes well-paced action and an engaging story line;

110.19.b.15.A.3

creates a specific, believable setting through the use of sensory details;

110.19.b.15.A.4

develops interesting characters; and

110.19.b.15.A.5

uses a range of literary strategies and devices to enhance the style and tone; and

110.19.b.15.B.1

poetic techniques (e.g., rhyme scheme, meter);

110.19.b.15.B.2

figurative language (e.g., personification, idioms, hyperbole); and

110.19.b.15.B.3

graphic elements (e.g., word position).

110.19.b.16

Writing. Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write a personal narrative that has a clearly defined focus and communicates the importance of or reasons for actions and/or consequences.

110.19.b.17

Writing/Expository and Procedural Texts. Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes. Students are expected to:

110.19.b.17.A

write a multi-paragraph essay to convey information about a topic that:

110.19.b.17.A.1

presents effective introductions and concluding paragraphs;

110.19.b.17.A.2

contains a clearly stated purpose or controlling idea;

110.19.b.17.A.3

is logically organized with appropriate facts and details and includes no extraneous information or inconsistencies;

110.19.b.17.A.4

accurately synthesizes ideas from several sources; and

110.19.b.17.A.5

uses a variety of sentence structures, rhetorical devices, and transitions to link paragraphs;

110.19.b.17.B

write a letter that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly context;

110.19.b.17.C

write responses to literary or expository texts that demonstrate the writing skills for multi-paragraph essays and provide sustained evidence from the text using quotations when appropriate; and

110.19.b.17.D

produce a multimedia presentation involving text and graphics using available technology.

110.19.b.18

Writing/Persuasive Texts. Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write a persuasive essay to the appropriate audience that:

110.19.b.18.A

establishes a clear thesis or position;

110.19.b.18.B

considers and responds to the views of others and anticipates and answers reader concerns and counter-arguments; and

110.19.b.18.C

includes evidence that is logically organized to support the author's viewpoint and that differentiates between fact and opinion.

110.19.b.19

Oral and Written Conventions/Conventions. Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

110.19.b.19.A

identify, use, and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:

110.19.b.19.A.1

verbs (perfect and progressive tenses) and participles;

110.19.b.19.A.3

adverbial and adjectival phrases and clauses;

110.19.b.19.A.4

conjunctive adverbs (e.g., consequently, furthermore, indeed);

110.19.b.19.A.5

prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

110.19.b.19.A.6

relative pronouns (e.g., whose, that, which);

110.19.b.19.A.7

subordinating conjunctions (e.g., because, since); and

110.19.b.19.A.8

transitions for sentence to sentence or paragraph to paragraph coherence;

110.19.b.19.B

write complex sentences and differentiate between main versus subordinate clauses; and

110.19.b.19.C

use a variety of complete sentences (e.g., simple, compound, complex) that include properly placed modifiers, correctly identified antecedents, parallel structures, and consistent tenses.

110.19.b.2

Reading/Vocabulary Development. Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing. Students are expected to:

110.19.b.2.A

determine the meaning of grade-level academic English words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;

110.19.b.2.B

use context (within a sentence and in larger sections of text) to determine or clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or ambiguous words;

110.19.b.2.C

complete analogies that describe part to whole or whole to part;

110.19.b.2.D

identify the meaning of foreign words commonly used in written English with emphasis on Latin and Greek words (e.g., habeus corpus, e pluribus unum, bona fide, nemesis); and

110.19.b.2.E

use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine the meanings, syllabication, pronunciations, alternate word choices, and parts of speech of words.

110.19.b.20

Oral and Written Conventions/Handwriting, Capitalization, and Punctuation. Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions. Students are expected to:

110.19.b.20.A

use conventions of capitalization; and

110.19.b.20.B

recognize and use punctuation marks including:

110.19.b.20.B.1

commas after introductory words, phrases, and clauses; and

110.19.b.20.B.2

semicolons, colons, and hyphens.

110.19.b.21

Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to spell correctly, including using various resources to determine and check correct spellings.

110.19.b.22

Research/Research Plan. Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them. Students are expected to:

110.19.b.22.A

brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate a major research question to address the major research topic; and

110.19.b.22.B

apply steps for obtaining and evaluating information from a wide variety of sources and create a written plan after preliminary research in reference works and additional text searches.

110.19.b.23

Research/Gathering Sources. Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather. Students are expected to:

110.19.b.23.A

follow the research plan to gather information from a range of relevant print and electronic sources using advanced search strategies;

110.19.b.23.B

categorize information thematically in order to see the larger constructs inherent in the information;

110.19.b.23.C

record bibliographic information (e.g., author, title, page number) for all notes and sources according to a standard format; and

110.19.b.23.D

differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of citing valid and reliable sources.

110.19.b.24

Research/Synthesizing Information. Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information. Students are expected to:

110.19.b.24.A

narrow or broaden the major research question, if necessary, based on further research and investigation; and

110.19.b.24.B

utilize elements that demonstrate the reliability and validity of the sources used (e.g., publication date, coverage, language, point of view) and explain why one source is more useful than another.

110.19.b.25

Research/Organizing and Presenting Ideas. Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:

110.19.b.25.A

draws conclusions and summarizes or paraphrases the findings in a systematic way;

110.19.b.25.B

marshals evidence to explain the topic and gives relevant reasons for conclusions;

110.19.b.25.C

presents the findings in a meaningful format; and

110.19.b.25.D

follows accepted formats for integrating quotations and citations into the written text to maintain a flow of ideas.

110.19.b.26

Listening and Speaking/Listening. Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to:

110.19.b.26.A

listen to and interpret a speaker's purpose by explaining the content, evaluating the delivery of the presentation, and asking questions or making comments about the evidence that supports a speaker's claims;

110.19.b.26.B

follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems; and

110.19.b.26.C

draw conclusions about the speaker's message by considering verbal communication (e.g., word choice, tone) and nonverbal cues (e.g., posture, gestures, facial expressions).

110.19.b.27

Listening and Speaking/Speaking. Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to present a critique of a literary work, film, or dramatic production, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.

110.19.b.28

Listening and Speaking/Teamwork. Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate productively in discussions, plan agendas with clear goals and deadlines, set time limits for speakers, take notes, and vote on key issues.

110.19.b.3

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Theme and Genre. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

110.19.b.3.A

describe multiple themes in a work of fiction;

110.19.b.3.B

describe conventions in myths and epic tales (e.g., extended simile, the quest, the hero's tasks, circle stories); and

110.19.b.3.C

analyze how place and time influence the theme or message of a literary work.

110.19.b.4

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Poetry. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to analyze the importance of graphical elements (e.g., capital letters, line length, word position) on the meaning of a poem.

110.19.b.5

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Drama. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain a playwright's use of dialogue and stage directions.

110.19.b.6

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Fiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to:

110.19.b.6.A

explain the influence of the setting on plot development;

110.19.b.6.B

analyze the development of the plot through the internal and external responses of the characters, including their motivations and conflicts; and

110.19.b.6.C

analyze different forms of point of view, including first-person, third-person omniscient, and third-person limited.

110.19.b.7

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Literary Nonfiction. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to describe the structural and substantive differences between an autobiography or a diary and a fictional adaptation of it.

110.19.b.8

Reading/Comprehension of Literary Text/Sensory Language. Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to determine the figurative meaning of phrases and analyze how an author's use of language creates imagery, appeals to the senses, and suggests mood.

110.19.b.9

Reading/Comprehension of Informational Text/Culture and History. Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the difference between the theme of a literary work and the author's purpose in an expository text.

110.25.b.1

The student uses a variety of word recognition strategies. The student is expected to:

110.25.b.1.A

apply knowledge of letter-sound correspondences, language structure, and context to recognize words; and

110.25.b.1.B

use dictionaries, glossaries, and other sources to confirm pronunciations and meanings of unfamiliar words.

110.25.b.2

The student acquires vocabulary through reading and systematic word study. The student is expected to:

110.25.b.2.A

expand vocabulary by reading, viewing, listening, and discussing;

110.25.b.2.B

determine word meaning by using context;

110.25.b.2.C

use spelling, prefixes and suffixes, roots, and word origins to understand meanings;

110.25.b.2.D

use reference aids such as a glossary, dictionary, thesaurus, and available technology to determine meanings and pronunciations; and

110.25.b.2.E

identify analogies, homonyms, synonyms/antonyms, and connotation/denotation.

110.25.b.3

The student reads with fluency and understanding in increasingly demanding texts. The student is expected to:

110.25.b.3.A

read silently for a variety of purposes with comprehension for sustained periods of time;

110.25.b.3.B

adjust reading rate based on purposes for reading; and

110.25.b.3.C

read orally at a rate that enables comprehension.

110.25.b.4

The student comprehends selections using a variety of strategies. The student is expected to:

110.25.b.4.A

use prior knowledge and experience to comprehend;

110.25.b.4.B

determine purpose for reading;

110.25.b.4.C

self-monitor reading and adjust when confusion occurs by rereading, using resources, and questioning;

110.25.b.4.D

summarize texts by identifying main ideas and relevant details;

110.25.b.4.E

make inferences such as drawing conclusions and making generalizations or predictions, supporting them with prior experiences and textual evidence;

110.25.b.4.F

analyze and use both narrative and expository text structures: sequence, description, problem/solution, compare/contrast, and cause/effect;

110.25.b.4.G

make connections and find patterns, similarities, and differences across texts;

110.25.b.4.H

construct visual images based on text descriptions;

110.25.b.4.I

determine important ideas from texts and oral presentations;

110.25.b.4.J

manage text by using practices such as previewing, highlighting, making marginal notes, notetaking, outlining, and journaling; and

110.25.b.4.K

use questioning to enhance comprehension before, during, and after reading.

110.25.b.5

The student reads texts to find information on self-selected and assigned topics. The student is expected to:

110.25.b.5.A

generate relevant, interesting, and researchable questions;

110.25.b.5.B

locate appropriate print and non-print information using text and technical resources;

110.25.b.5.C

organize and record new information in systematic ways to develop notes, charts, and graphic organizers;

110.25.b.5.D

communicate information gained from reading;

110.25.b.5.E

use compiled information and knowledge to raise additional unanswered questions; and

110.25.b.5.F

use text organizers such as overviews, headings, and graphic features to locate and categorize information.

110.25.b.6

The student reads for different purposes in varied sources, both narrative and expository. The student is expected to:

110.25.b.6.A

read to enjoy, to complete a task, to gather information, to be informed, to solve problems, to answer questions, to analyze, to interpret, and to evaluate;

110.25.b.6.B

read sources such as literature, diaries, journals, textbooks, maps, newspapers, letters, speeches, memoranda, electronic texts, and technical documents; and

110.25.b.6.C

understand and interpret visual representations.

110.25.b.7

The student formulates and supports responses to various types of texts. The student is expected to:

110.25.b.7.A

respond actively to texts in both aesthetic and critical ways;

110.25.b.7.B

respond to text through discussion, journal writing, performance, and visual representation; and

110.25.b.7.C

support responses by using prior knowledge and experience and/or citing textual evidence which may consist of a direct quotation, paraphrase, or specific synopsis.

110.25.b.8

The student reads critically to evaluate texts in order to determine the credibility of sources. The student is expected to:

110.25.b.8.A

evaluate the credibility of informational sources and their relevance for assigned and self-selected topics;

110.25.b.8.B

evaluate how a writer's motivation, stance, or position may affect text credibility, structure, or tone;

110.25.b.8.C

analyze aspects of text, such as patterns of organization and choice of language, for persuasive effect;

110.25.b.8.D

recognize modes of reasoning, such as induction and deduction; and

110.25.b.8.E

recognize logical and illogical arguments in text.

110.25.b.9

The student reads to increase knowledge of own culture, the culture of others, and the common elements of cultures. The student is expected to:

110.25.b.9.A

compare text events with personal and other readers' experiences; and

110.25.b.9.B

recognize and discuss literary themes and connections that cross cultures.

110.26.b.1

Understanding the communication process. The student demonstrates a knowledge of communication. The student is expected to:

110.26.b.1.A

recognize and explain the importance of communication in social, academic, civic, and professional roles;

110.26.b.1.B

identify the related components of the communication process;

110.26.b.1.C

identify standards of making communication choices considering appropriateness for self, listener, occasion, and task;

110.26.b.1.D

identify characteristics of oral language and analyze standards for using oral language appropriately;

110.26.b.1.E

identify the importance of using appropriate nonverbal communication;

110.26.b.1.F

identify and explain the components of listening process;

110.26.b.1.G

identify the kinds of listening and analyze skills related to each type;

110.26.b.1.H

analyze how perception of self and others affects communication;

110.26.b.1.I

analyze and develop techniques and strategies for building self-confidence and reducing communication apprehension;

110.26.b.1.J

identify and explain factors that influence communication decisions such as knowledge, attitudes, and culture; and

110.26.b.1.K

explain the importance of assuming responsibility for communication decisions.

110.26.b.2

Expressing and responding. The student develops skills for expressing and responding appropriately in a variety of situations. The student is expected to:

110.26.b.2.A

use appropriate verbal and nonverbal communication skills in interpersonal situations;

110.26.b.2.B

use reflective empathic listening skills to respond appropriately in interpersonal situations;

110.26.b.2.C

explain the importance of using tact, courtesy, and assertiveness appropriately in interpersonal situations;

110.26.b.2.D

identify kinds of groups and analyze basic principles of group dynamics;

110.26.b.2.E

use appropriate communication skills in groups to make plans or accomplish goals;

110.26.b.2.F

use appropriate strategies for agreeing or disagreeing in interpersonal and group situations; and

110.26.b.2.G

prepare and present an oral statement on a topic of interest or concern.

110.26.b.3

Participating in social traditions. The student develops an understanding of social traditions. The student is expected to:

110.26.b.3.A

identify the importance of social traditions and ceremonies in various contexts and cultures;

110.26.b.3.B

communicate appropriately in a variety of interpersonal social traditions, including making and acknowledging introductions and giving and accepting praise and criticism;

110.26.b.3.C

employ parliamentary procedure in a group meeting;

110.26.b.3.D

use effective techniques to prepare, organize, and present a speech for a special occasion; and

110.26.b.3.E

use appreciative and critical-listening skills to analyze, evaluate, and respond appropriately to class, public, or media.

110.26.b.4

Informing. The student expresses and responds appropriately to informative messages. The student is expected to:

110.26.b.4.A

research ideas and topics to acquire accurate information from a variety of primary, secondary, and technological sources;

110.26.b.4.B

use appropriate communication skills to request, provide, and respond to information in interpersonal conversations;

110.26.b.4.C

use appropriate verbal, nonverbal, and listening skills in interviews;

110.26.b.4.D

use appropriate information and effective critical-thinking skills in group decision-making and problem-solving processes;

110.26.b.4.E

plan and present an informative group discussion for an audience;

110.26.b.4.F

plan, research, organize, prepare, and present an informative speech;

110.26.b.4.G

rehearse speeches to gain command of ideas and information, reduce communication apprehension, develop confidence, and practice presentation skills;

110.26.b.4.H

use notes, manuscripts, rostrum, and visual and auditory aids appropriately in speeches;

110.26.b.4.I

use effective verbal and nonverbal communication in presenting informative speeches;

110.26.b.4.J

apply critical-listening skills to analyze, evaluate, and respond appropriately to informative group discussions and speeches; and

110.26.b.4.K

develop and use communication skills needed for academic achievement such as participating appropriately in class discussions, using active and critical-listening skills, and taking accurate notes.

110.26.b.5

Persuading. The student expresses and responds appropriately to persuasive messages. The student is expected to:

110.26.b.5.A

recognize and develop skills for analyzing persuasive strategies such as propaganda devices and emotional appeals;

110.26.b.5.B

respond appropriately to persuasive messages in situations such as accepting or rejecting peer pressure and making or responding to requests;

110.26.b.5.C

plan, research, organize, prepare, and present a persuasive speech;

110.26.b.5.D

demonstrate persuasive skills in informal or formal argumentation, discussions, or debates; and

110.26.b.5.E

develop and use critical listening skills to analyze, evaluate, and respond appropriately to class, public, or media presentations.

110.26.b.6

Creating and imagining. The student uses imagination and creativity to prepare and perform various types of literature. The student is expected to:

110.26.b.6.A

use imagination to plan, organize, and tell stories;

110.26.b.6.B

use appropriate verbal and nonverbal skills to share stories;

110.26.b.6.C

select, analyze, adapt, interpret, and rehearse a variety of literary selections;

110.26.b.6.D

use effective group decision-making skills in group performances;

110.26.b.6.E

use appropriate verbal and nonverbal skills in individual or group interpretations of literature; and

110.26.b.6.F

use appreciative and critical-listening skills to respond appropriately to class, public, or media performances.