Indiana Learning Standards for English Language Arts — Grade 2

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Recognize the role of the media in informing, persuading, entertaining, and transmitting culture.


Recognize that media can be sources for information, entertainment, persuasion, interpretation of events, and transmission of culture.


Standard begins in fifth grade.


Demonstrate an understanding of the five components of reading (print concepts, phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, and fluency and comprehension) to build foundational reading skills.


Students are expected to build upon and continue applying concepts learned previously.


Students are expected to build upon and continue applying concepts learned previously.


Students are expected to build upon and continue applying concepts learned previously.


Use knowledge of the six major syllable patterns (CVC, CVr, V, VV, VCe, Cle) to decode two-syllable words, independent of context.


Apply knowledge of short and long vowels (including vowel teams) when reading regularly spelled one syllable words.


Recognize and read common and irregularly spelled high-frequency words and abbreviations by sight (e.g., through, tough; Jan., Fri.).


Know and use common word families when reading unfamiliar words (e.g., -ale, -est, -ine, -ock).


Read multi-syllabic words composed of roots, prefixes, and suffixes; read contractions, possessives (e.g., kittens, sisters), and compound words.


Orally read grade-level appropriate or higher texts smoothly and accurately, with expression that connotes comprehension at the independent level.


Read and comprehend a variety of literature within a range of complexity appropriate for grades 2-3. By the end of grade 2, students interact with texts proficiently and independently at the low end of the range and with scaffolding as needed at the high end.


Ask and answer questions (e.g., who was the story about; why did an event happen; where did the story happen) to demonstrate understanding of main idea and key details in a text.


Recount the beginning, middle, and ending of stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine their central message, lesson, or moral.


Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and how characters affect the plot.


Make predictions about the content of text using prior knowledge of text features, explaining whether they were confirmed or not confirmed and why.


Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action.


Acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters and identify dialogue as words spoken by characters, usually enclosed in quotation marks.


Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.


Compare and contrast versions of the same stories from different authors, time periods, or cultures from around the world.


Read and comprehend a variety of nonfiction within a range of complexity appropriate for grades 2-3. By the end of grade 2, students interact with texts proficiently and independently at the low end of the range and with scaffolding as needed at the high end.


Ask and answer questions about the main idea and supporting facts and details in a text to confirm understanding.


Identify the main idea of a multiparagraph text and the topic of each paragraph.


Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, and steps in a process or procedure in a text.


Use various text features (e.g., table of contents, index, headings, captions) to locate key facts or information and explain how they contribute to and clarify a text.


Identify how a nonfiction text can be structured to compare and contrast, to describe a procedure, and to explain a cause and effect relationship.


Identify what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe in the text.


Describe how an author uses facts to support specific points in a text.


Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic.


Standard begins at sixth grade.


Use words, phrases, and strategies acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to literature and nonfiction texts to build and apply vocabulary.


Use context clues (e.g., words and sentence clues) and text features (e.g., table of contents, headings) to determine the meanings of unknown words.


Identify relationships among words, including common synonyms and antonyms, and simple multiple meaning words (e.g., change, duck).


Standard begins at sixth grade


Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root, and identify when a common affix is added to a known word.


Consult reference materials, both print and digital (e.g., dictionary), to determine or clarify the meanings of words and phrases.


Recognize that authors use words (e.g., regular beats, repeating lines, simile, alliteration, onomatopoeia, idioms) to provide rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.


Determine the meanings of words and phrases in a nonfiction text relevant to a second grade topic or subject area.


Standard begins at third grade.


Listen actively and adjust the use of spoken language (e.g., conventions, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes.


Participate in collaborative conversations about grade-appropriate topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.


Standard begins in third grade.


Listen to others, take ones turn in respectful ways, and speak one at a time about the topics and text under discussion.


Ask for clarification and further explanation as needed about the topics and texts under discussion.


Build on others talk in conversations by linking comments to the remarks of others.


Determine the purpose for listening (e.g., to obtain information, to enjoy humor) and paraphrase or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.


Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says to clarify comprehension, gather information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue.


Using appropriate language, recite poems and rhymes, and tell a story or recount an experience, in an organized manner, with appropriate facts and careful attention to sensory details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences and at an appropriate pace.


Create simple presentations that maintain a clear focus, using various media when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.


Give and follow multi-step directions.


Write routinely over brief time frames and for a variety of tasks, purposes, and audiences; apply reading standards to write in response to literature and nonfiction texts.


Form letters correctly and space words and sentences properly so that writing can be read easily by another person.


Students are expected to build upon and continue applying concepts learned previously.


Write a logically connected paragraph or paragraphs, that introduce an opinion, with a concluding statement or section and multiple reasons to explain why a certain course of action should be followed.


Write a paragraph or paragraphs on a topic that introduce a topic, provide facts and details about the topic, and provide a concluding statement.


Develop topics for friendly letters, stories, poems, and other narrative purposes that Include a beginning. Use temporal words to signal event order (e.g., first of all). Provide details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings. Provide an ending.


Apply the writing process to Generate a draft by developing, selecting and organizing ideas relevant to topic, purpose, and genre; revise writing, using appropriate reference materials, by adding details (e.g., organization, sentence structure, word choice); edit writing for format and conventions (e.g., spelling, capitalization, usage, punctuation); and provide feedback to other writers. Use available technology to publish legible documents.


With support, conduct short research on a topic. Find information on a topic of interest (e.g., cardinals). Identify various visual and text reference sources Organize, summarize, and present the information, choosing from a variety of formats


Demonstrate command of English grammar and usage, focusing on


Nouns/Pronouns Writing sentences that include common, proper, possessive, and collective nouns, irregular plural nouns, and personal and possessive pronouns.


Verbs Writing sentences that use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs. Understanding the functions of different types of verbs (e.g., action, linking) in sentences.


Adjectives/ Adverbs Writing sentences that use adjectives and adverbs.


Prepositions Standard begins at fourth grade.


Usage Writing correctly complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences.


Demonstrate command of capitalization, punctuation, and spelling, focusing on


Capitalization Capitalizing greetings, months and days of the week, titles and initials in names, and proper nouns, including holidays and geographic names.


Punctuation Correctly using a period, question mark, or exclamation mark at the end of a sentence. Using an apostrophe to form contractions and singular possessive nouns. Using commas in greetings and closings of letters, dates, and to separate items in a series.


Spelling Correctly spelling words with short and long vowel sounds, r-controlled vowels, and consonant blend patterns. Generalizing learned spelling patterns (e.g., word families) when writing words. Correctly spelling common irregularly-spelled grade-appropriate high frequency words.