Arkansas English Language Arts Standards — Grade 2


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L.2.1

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage as appropriate for Grade 2 when writing or speaking.

L.2.1.A

This standard begins in Grade. Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, prepositions, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences.

L.2.1.B

Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish) and collective nouns (e.g., group).

L.2.1.C

Form and use regular and irregular verbs.

L.2.1.D

Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).

L.2.1.E

Use adjectives and adverbs and choose between them depending on what is modified. Use determiners, noun markers, to add specificity (e.g., a, an, the, many, few, each, every, this, that, these, those).

L.2.1.F

Use conjunctions to form compound subjects and predicates.

L.2.1.G

Use prepositions correctly

L.2.1.H

Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie. The little boy watched the movie in the afternoon. In the afternoon, the little boy watched the movie.).

L.2.1.I

This standard begins in Grade 4. Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.

L.2.1.J

This standard is taught in Kindergarten and should be reinforced as needed. Understand and use question words (interrogatives) e.g., who, what, when, where, why, how).

L.2.1.K

Print all upper- and lowercase letters accurately. By the end of grade two, produce some cursive upper- and lowercase letters.

L.2.2

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling as appropriate for Grade 2 when writing.

L.2.2.A

Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names.

L.2.2.B

Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.

L.2.2.C

Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.

L.2.2.D

Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage, badge, boy, boil). Reference spelling patterns chart to clarify types of spelling patterns. Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries as needed to check and correct spellings.

L.2.3

Use knowledge of language and its conventions as appropriate for Grade 2 when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

L.2.3.A

This standard begins in Grade 3. Choose words and phrases for effect.

L.2.3.B

This standard begins in Grade 3. Recognize and observe differences between the conventions of spoken and written standard English.

L.2.4

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on Grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.

L.2.4.A

Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

L.2.4.B

Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known prefix is added to a known word (e.g., happy/unhappy, tell/retell).

L.2.4.C

Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., addition, additional).

L.2.4.D

Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly; bookshelf, notebook, bookmark).

L.2.5

Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.

L.2.5.A

Sort words into categories based on multiple attributes (e.g. A large apple can be categorized by its color, size, and as a fruit.) to gain a sense of the concept that items can be categorized by more than one characteristic.

L.2.5.B

Distinguish shades of meaning among closely related verbs (e.g., toss, throw, hurl) and closely related adjectives (e.g., thin, slender, skinny, scrawny).

L.2.5.C

Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe foods that are spicy or juicy).

L.2.5.D

This standard is taught in Grade 1 and should be reinforced as needed. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner (e.g., look, peek, glance, stare, glare, scowl) and adjectives differing in intensity (e.g., large, gigantic) by defining or choosing them or by acting out the meanings.

L.2.6

Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., When other kids are happy that makes me happy).

RF.2.1

This standard is taught in Grade 1 and should be reinforced as needed. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.

RF.2.1.A

Recognize the distinguishing features of a paragraph including that multiple sentences may be used to form a paragraph and the author may indent or skip a line to signal a new paragraph.

RF.2.1.B

This standard is taught in kindergarten and should be reinforced as needed. Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters and that print carries meaning.

RF.2.1.C

This standard is taught in Kindergarten and should be reinforced as needed. Understand that words are separated by spaces in print.

RF.2.1.D

This standard is taught in Kindergarten and should be reinforced as needed. Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet.

RF.2.2

This standard is taught in Grade 1 and should be reinforced as needed.Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).

RF.2.2.A

Distinguish vowels (long, short, variant) in spoken single-syllable words.

RF.2.2.B

Delete phonemes in the initial, medial, and final positions of spoken words including blends.

RF.2.2.C

This standard is taught in Grade 1 and should be reinforced as needed. Isolate and produce initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in spoken one-syllable words.

RF.2.2.D

This standard is taught in Grade 1 and should be reinforced as needed. Segment spoken one-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds (phonemes).

RF.2.2.E

This standard is taught in Grade 1 and should be reinforced as needed. Delete a syllable from a word (e.g., say remember, now say it without the re).

RF.2.2.F

This standard is taught in Grade 1 and should be reinforced as needed. Add or substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in simple, spoken words to make new words.

RF.2.2.G

This standard is taught in Grade 1, and should be reinforced as needed. Delete individual initial, and final, sounds (phonemes) in simple, spoken words (e.g., say nice without the /n/, say lamp without the /p/).

RF.2.3

Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

RF.2.3.A

Identify words with inconsistent but common letter-sound correspondences (e.g., doll/roll, though/cough/rough, love/rove, have/save, some/dome, near/bear, soot/loot, were/here, shall/tall, own/town, hour/tour, want/plant).

RF.2.3.B

Know the letter/sound correspondences, including distinguishing long and short vowel sounds. diphthongs (e.g., oi, oy, ou, ow) r-controlled vowels (e.g., er, ir, ur, ar, or) additional common vowel teams (e.g., ei, ie, igh) regularly-spelled one-syllable words

RF.2.3.C

Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly-spelled words

RF.2.3.D

Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes.

RF.2.3.E

Decode words that follow the six syllable types. closed syllable open syllable, vowel-consonant-e, vowel teams, r-controlled, consonant-le

RF.2.3.F

Decode regularly-spelled two-syllable words with long vowels.

RF.2.4

Read grade-level text with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

RF.2.4.A

Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.

RF.2.4.B

Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.

RF.2.4.C

Use context in grade-level text to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary

RI.2.1

Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.

RI.2.10

By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the Grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

RI.2.2

Identify the main topic of a multi-paragraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text.

RI.2.3

Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text.

RI.2.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a Grade 2 topic or subject area.

RI.2.5

Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.

RI.2.6

Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe.

RI.2.7

Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text.

RI.2.8

Describe how an author uses reasons to support particular points in a text.

RI.2.9

Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic.

RL.2.1

Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text

RL.2.10

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories and poetry, in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

RL.2.2

Recount stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine their central message, lesson, or moral

RL.2.3

Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges.

RL.2.4

Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.

RL.2.5

Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action

RL.2.6

Acknowledge differences in the perspectives of characters, including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud.

RL.2.7

Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot

RL.2.8

RL.2.8 is not applicable to literature based on anchor standard CCRA.R.8. Analyze and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence

RL.2.9

Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story (e.g., Cinderella stories) by different authors or from different cultures.

SL.2.1

Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about Grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.

SL.2.1.A

Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).

SL.2.1.B

Build on others' talk in conversations by linking their comments to the remarks of others.

SL.2.1.C

Ask for clarification and further explanation as needed about the topics and texts under discussion

SL.2.1.D

This standard begins in Grade 3. Explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion

SL.2.2

Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read aloud, information presented orally, or through other media.

SL.2.3

Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue.

SL.2.4

Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences.

SL.2.5

Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings.

SL.2.6

Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification

W.2.1

Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.

W.2.1.A

This standard begins in Grade 3. Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons.

W.2.1.B

This standard begins in Grade 3. Provide reasons that support the opinion

W.2.1.C

This standard begins in Grade 3. Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons.

W.2.1.D

This standard begins in Grade 3. Provide a concluding statement or section.

W.2.1.E

This standard begins in Grade 6. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from an argument presented

W.2.10

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

W.2.2

Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section.

W.2.2.A

This standard begins in Grade 3. Introduce a topic and group related information; include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension.

W.2.2.B

This standard begins in Grade 3. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details

W.2.2.C

Use linking words and phrases (e.g., also, another, and, more, but) to connect ideas within categories of information.

W.2.2.D

This standard begins in Grade 3. Provide a concluding statement or section.

W.2.2.E

This standard begins in Grade 6. Establish and maintain a formal style

W.2.2.F

This standard begins in Grade 4. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented

W.2.3

Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure.

W.2.3.A

This standard begins in Grade 3. Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally

W.2.3.B

This standard begins in Grade 3. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situations begins in Grade 3.

W.2.3.C

This standard begins in Grade 3. Use temporal words and phrases to signal event order.

W.2.3.D

This standard begins in Grade 4. Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.

W.2.3.E

This standard begins at Grade 3. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

W.2.4

This standard begins at Grade 3. With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose.

W.2.5

With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing.

W.2.6

With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish some writing, including in collaboration with peers.

W.2.7

Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a variety of print and/or digital sources on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations).

W.2.8

Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

W.2.9

This standard begins in Grade 4. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research

W.2.9.A

This standard begins in Grade 4. Apply Grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e.g., 'Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., a character's thoughts, words, or actions].').

W.2.9.B

This standard begins in Grade 4. Apply Grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., 'Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.').