Arkansas English Language Arts Standards — Grade 9


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L.9-10.1

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking as appropriate for Grades 9-10.

L.9-10.1.A

Use parallel structure.

L.9-10.1.B

Use various types of phrases and clauses to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.

L.9-10.1.C

Form and use verbs in the conditional and subjunctive mood.

L.9-10.1.D

Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.

L.9-10.1.E

This standard is taught in Grade 5 and should be reinforced as needed. Use the relative adverbs where, when, and why.

L.9-10.1.F

Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers.

L.9-10.1.G

This standard is taught in Grade 4 and should be reinforced as needed. Form and use prepositional phrases.

L.9-10.1.H

This standard is taught in Grade 7 and should be reinforced as needed. Produce a variety of compound complex sentences using dependent clauses, subordinating conjunctions, and coordinating conjunctions.

L.9-10.1.I

This standard is taught in Grade 4 and should be reinforced as needed. Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions

L.9-10.1.J

This standard is taught in Kindergarten and should be reinforced as needed. Understand and use question words (interrogatives) e.g., who, what, when, where, why, how).

L.9-10.1.K

This standard is taught in Grade 3 and should be reinforced as needed. Form all upper- and lowercase letters to write words legibly in cursive.

L.9-10.2

Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling as appropriate for Grades 9-10 when writing.

L.9-10.2.A

This standard is taught in Grade 4 and should be reinforced as needed. Use correct capitalization

L.9-10.2.B

Use a colon appropriately to introduce a list, quotation, or clarification.

L.9-10.2.C

Use a semicolon to link two or more closely related independent clauses, using a conjunctive adverb when applicable

L.9-10.3

Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.

L.9-10.3.A

Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual appropriate for the discipline and writing type.

L.9-10.3.B

Use verbs in the conditional and subjunctive mood to achieve particular effects.

L.9-10.4

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on Grades 9-10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

L.9-10.4.A

Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

L.9-10.4.B

Identify and correctly use patterns of word forms that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy).

L.9-10.4.C

Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology.

L.9-10.4.D

Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

L.9-10.5

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings, as appropriate for the grade level.

L.9-10.5.A

Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.

L.9-10.5.B

Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations

L.9-10.5.C

This standard is taught in Grade 6 and should be reinforced as needed. Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., bullheaded, willful, firm, persistent, resolute).

L.9-10.5.D

This standard is taught in Grade 1 and should be reinforced as needed. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner (e.g., look, peek, glance, stare, glare, scowl) and adjectives differing in intensity (e.g., large, gigantic) by defining or choosing them or by acting out the meanings.

L.9-10.6

Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression

RI.9-10.1

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as implicitly.

RI.9-10.10

By the end of Grade 9, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the Grades 9-10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. By the end of Grade 10, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the Grades 9-10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

RI.9-10.2

Examine a grade-appropriate informational text. Provide an objective summary of the text. Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details

RI.9-10.3

Analyze how the author structures an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.

RI.9-10.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).

RI.9-10.5

Analyze in detail how an author's ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).

RI.9-10.6

Determine an author's point of view, perspective, and/or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view, perspective, or purpose.

RI.9-10.7

Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person's life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.

RI.9-10.8

Analyze and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.

RI.9-10.9

Analyze documents of historical and literary significance, including U.S. documents when appropriate, noting how they address related themes and concepts.

RL.9-10.1

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as implicitly.

RL.9-10.10

By the end of Grade 9, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the Grades 9-10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. By the end of Grade 10, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the Grades 9-10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

RL.9-10.2

Examine a grade-appropriate literary text. Provide an objective summary. Determine a theme of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details.

RL.9-10.3

Analyze how complex characters develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme.

RL.9-10.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone).

RL.9-10.5

Analyze how an author's choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots, nonlinear plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise.

RL.9-10.6

Analyze a particular point of view, perspective, or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature, including works from outside the United States.

RL.9-10.7

Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Auden's 'Muse des Beaux Arts' and Breughel's Landscape with the Fall of Icarus).

RL.9-10.8

RL.9.8 is not applicable to literature based on anchor standard CCRA.R.8. Analyze and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.

RL.9-10.9

Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare).

SL.9-10.1

Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative conversations (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on Grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

SL.9-10.1.A

Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.

SL.9-10.1.B

Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed.

SL.9-10.1.C

Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.

SL.9-10.1.D

Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.

SL.9-10.2

Integrate multiple sources of information that is gained by means other than reading (e.g., texts read aloud; oral presentations of charts, graphs, or diagrams; speeches), evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.

SL.9-10.3

Evaluate a speaker's perspective, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.

SL.9-10.4

Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.

SL.9-10.5

Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, auditory, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

SL.9-10.6

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate

W.9-10.1

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

W.9-10.1.A

Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

W.9-10.1.B

Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying relevant evidence and commentary for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level and concerns

W.9-10.1.C

Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, reasons and evidence, and claim(s) and counterclaims; include commentary for support

W.9-10.1.D

Establish and maintain an appropriate format, formal style, and objective tone within the norms and conventions of the discipline.

W.9-10.1.E

Provide an appropriate concluding statement or section that supports the argument presented.

W.9-10.10

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

W.9-10.2

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

W.9-10.2.A

Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include appropriate text features (e.g., captions, headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and/or multimedia.

W.9-10.2.B

Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, commentary, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic.

W.9-10.2.C

Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.

W.9-10.2.D

Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.

W.9-10.2.E

Establish and maintain an appropriate format, formal style, and objective tone within the norms and conventions of the discipline.

W.9-10.2.F

Provide an appropriate concluding statement or section that supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

W.9-10.3

Write narratives to develop real and/or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

W.9-10.3.A

Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or more points of view/perspectives, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.

W.9-10.3.B

Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.

W.9-10.3.C

Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another, creating coherence.

W.9-10.3.D

Use precise words, phrases, and details, as well as sensory language, to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.

W.9-10.3.E

Provide a purposeful ending that reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.

W.9-10.4

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

W.9-10.5

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, and/or trying a new approach, addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.

W.9-10.6

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology's capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.

W.9-10.7

Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

W.9-10.8

Gather relevant information from multiple credible print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively. Assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question. Integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism. Follow a standard format for citation.

W.9-10.9

Draw evidence from literary and/or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, research, and synthesis.

W.9-10.9.A

Apply Grades 9-10 Reading standards to literature (e.g., 'Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare].').

W.9-10.9.B

Apply Grades 9-10 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., 'Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.').