New Hampshire Curriculum Framework Social Studies — Grade 8


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SS:CV:8

The Nature and Purpose of Government Students will demonstrate an understanding of the nature of governments, and the fundamental ideals of government of the United States.

SS:CV:8:1.1

Explain why limiting the powers of government is essential for the protection of individual rights. (Themes: B: Civic Ideals, Practices, and Engagement, E: Cultural Development, Interaction, and Change, H: Individualism, Equality and Authority)

SS:CV:8:1.2

Analyze the major arguments for and against representative government as distinguished from direct democracy, and discuss how, in a representative democracy, minority rights are protected. (Themes: B: Civic Ideals, Practices, and Engagement, E: Cultural Development, Interaction, and Change, H: Individualism, Equality and Authority)

SS:CV:8:2.1

Define the organization and responsibilities of federal government that are set forth in the New Hampshire Constitution, the United States Constitution and their amendments, e.g., Separation of Powers, Division of Powers, or the Bill of Rights. (Themes: B: Civic Ideals, Practices, and Engagement)

SS:CV:8:2.2:

Compare and contrast the structure and major responsibilities and services of government at the local, state, and federal levels as set forth in the New Hampshire Constitution and the United States Constitution, e.g., taxation, transportation, or education. (Themes: B: Civic Ideals, Practices, and Engagement)

SS:CV:8:2.3:

Describe ways in which particular events and documents contributed to the evolution of American government, e.g., states' rights, universal suffrage, or civil rights. (Themes: E: Cultural Development, Interaction, and Change, H: Individualism, Equality and Authority)

SS:CV:8:2.4

Explain the legislative and political processes by which a bill becomes a law or government policy is established at the local, state, and federal levels, e.g., citizen petitions or conference committees. (Themes: B: Civic Ideals, Practices, and Engagement, H: Individualism, Equality and Authority)

SS:CV:8:3.1

Illustrate the importance of countries working together to resolve problems, e.g., the United Nations, NATO, or the European Union. (Themes: A: Conflict and Cooperation)

SS:CV:8:3.2

Analyze environmental, economic, and technological developments and their impact on society. (Themes: C: People, Places and Environment, D: Material Wants and Needs, G: Science, Technology, and Society)

SS:CV:8:4.1

Describe and analyze ways Americans can effectively participate in civic and political life at the local, state, and federal levels, e.g., problem solving, public engagement, or voting. (Themes: A: Conflict and Cooperation, B: Civic Ideals, Practices, and Engagement, J: Human Expression and Communication)

SS:EC:8

Economics and the Individual Students will learn about their role in a free market, how decisions that they make affect the economy, and how changes in the economy can affect them.

SS:EC:8:1.1

Identify how events in the business cycle impact individuals' lives, e.g., recession or depression. (Themes: D: Material Wants and Needs, H: Individualism, Equality and Authority)

SS:EC:8:2.1

Identify and explain the determinants of supply and demand, e.g., income, tastes, or technology. (Themes: D: Material Wants and Needs, G: Science, Technology, and Society, H: Individualism, Equality and Authority

SS:EC:8:2.2

Explain the elements of entrepreneurship, e.g., idea development, risk taking, or management skills. (Themes: D: Material Wants and Needs, E: Cultural Development, Interaction, and Change, H: Individualism, Equality and Authority)

SS:EC:8:3.1

Identify and explain the different phases of the business cycle, e.g., recession or depression. (Themes: D: Material Wants and Needs, E: Cultural Development, Interaction, and Change)

SS:EC:8:3.2

Understand how the stock market works, the buying and selling of stocks, and how it affects the economy. (Themes: D: Material Wants and Needs, E: Cultural Development, Interaction, and Change)

SS:EC:8:4.1

Explain how interest rates affect individual decisions, e.g., saving, borrowing, or lending money. (Themes: D: Material Wants and Needs, H: Individualism, Equality and Authority)

SS:EC:8:4.2

Identify the different ways in which income can be redistributed, e.g., taxes, welfare, or government loans. (Themes: C: People, Places and Environment, D: Material Wants and Needs

SS:EC:8:5.1

Distinguish among the different methods of allocating resources, e.g., traditional, free market, or command economies. (Themes: D: Material Wants and Needs, F: Global Transformation, G: Science, Technology, and Society)

SS:EC:8:5.2

Identify and explain the impact on trade of government policies, e.g., tariffs, quotas, or embargoes. (Themes: A: Conflict and Cooperation, F: Global Transformation)

SS:EC:8:5.3

Recognize the role of economics in international diplomacy and war, e.g., the United States Civil War, foreign aid, or conflict over natural resources. (Themes: A: Conflict and Cooperation, C: People, Places and Environment, F: Global Transformation)

SS:EC:8:5.4

Examine the effects of changing economies on international trade, e.g., modernization, specialization, or interdependence. (Themes: A: Conflict and Cooperation, D: Material Wants and Needs, F: Global Transformation)

SS:EC:8:6.1

Compare the advantages and disadvantages of different payment methods. (Themes: D: Material Wants and Needs)

SS:EC:8:6.2

Describe the rights and responsibilities of buyers and sellers in a free market economy. (Themes: D: Material Wants and Needs)

SS:EC:8:6.3

Demonstrate the use of the different types of accounts available from financial institutions, e.g., checking or savings accounts. (Themes: D: Material Wants and Needs)

SS:EC:8:6.4

Students will identify sources of earned and unearned income, e.g., wages or investments. (Themes: D: Material Wants and Needs)

SS:EC:8:6.5

Define and compare saving and investing. (Themes: D: Material Wants and Needs)

SS:EC:8:6.6

Evaluate sources of investment information, and describe how to buy and sell investments. (Themes: D: Material Wants and Needs)

SS:EC:8:6.7

Discuss the importance of taking responsibility for personal financial decisions. (Themes: D: Material Wants and Needs)

SS:EC:8:6.8

Design a plan for earning, spending, saving, and investing. (Themes: D: Material Wants and Needs)

SS:GE:8

The World in Spatial Terms Students will demonstrate the ability to use maps, mental maps, globes, and other graphic tools and technologies to acquire, process, report, and analyze geographic information.

SS:GE:8:1.1

Compare relative advantages and disadvantages of using maps, globes, aerial and other photographs, satellite-produced images, and models to solve geographic problems, e.g., the Mercator projections versus Robinson projections. (Themes: C: People, Places and Environment)

SS:GE:8:2.1

Identify the types of regions, e.g., formal, functional, or vernacular regions of which the local community is a part. (Themes: C: People, Places and Environment)

SS:GE:8:2.2

Illustrate the connections among regions, e.g., world trade or regional alliances. (Themes: E: Cultural Development, Interaction, and Change, F: Global Transformation)

SS:GE:8:2.3

Describe how culture, technology, and experience affect perception of places and regions, e.g., images created by mass media or travel. (Themes: E: Cultural Development, Interaction, and Change, F: Global Transformation, G: Science, Technology, and Society)

SS:GE:8:3.1

Recognize how physical processes influence the formation and distribution of resources, e.g., the potential for hydroelectric power or coal deposits. (Themes: C: People, Places and Environment, G: Science, Technology, and Society)

SS:GE:8:4.1

Describe ways in which physical and human regional systems are interconnected, e.g., canal systems or 'hub-and-spoke' airline operations. (Themes: C: People, Places and Environment, G: Science, Technology, and Society)

SS:GE:8:4.2

Explain how cooperation and conflict among people contribute to political divisions of Earth's surface, e.g., trade agreements, military pacts, or boundary disputes. (Themes: A: Conflict and Cooperation, H: Individualism, Equality and Authority, I: Patterns of Social and Political Interaction)

SS:HI:8

Political Foundations and Development Students will demonstrate an understanding of the major ideas, issues and events pertaining to the history of governance in our state and nation.

SS:HI:8:1.1

Examine how suffrage expanded to various groups of citizens, e.g., women African Americans. (Themes: B: Civic Ideals, Practices, and Engagement, H: Individualism, Equality and Authority, I: Patterns of Social and Political Interaction) Students will demonstrate an understanding of the major ideas, issues and events pertaining to the history of governance in our state and nation.

SS:HI:8:1.2

Describe the role New Hampshire voters have played in our nation's presidential primaries and elections. (Themes: B: Civic Ideals, Practices, and Engagement, I: Patterns of Social and Political Interaction)

SS:HI:8:1.3

Examine how religion has influenced the political life of the nation, e.g., the Know Nothing Party, the temperance movement, or the First Great Awakening. (Themes: A: Conflict and Cooperation, E: Cultural Development, Interaction, and Change, J: Human Expression and Communication)

SS:HI:8:1.4

Analyze the tension between states' rights and national authority, e.g., the nullification crisis of 1832 or school integration of the 1960s. (Themes: A: Conflict and Cooperation, H: Individualism, Equality and Authority)

SS:HI:8:2.1

Explain major attempts to force European powers to recognize and respect the sovereignty of the United States as a new nation, e.g., the Jay Treaty or the War of 1812. (Themes: A: Conflict and Cooperation, E: Cultural Development, Interaction, and Change)

SS:HI:8:2.2

Explain major United States efforts to remove European influence from the Western Hemisphere, e.g., the Monroe Doctrine or the Cuban Missile Crisis. (Themes: A: Conflict and Cooperation, E: Cultural Development, Interaction, and Change)

SS:HI:8:2.3

Compare and contrast the rationales for entering into war with other nations, e.g., the American Revolution or the Korean Conflict. (Themes: A: Conflict and Cooperation, E: Cultural Development, Interaction, and Change, F: Global Transformation)

SS:HI:8:2.4

Analyze the extent to which democratic ideals, economic motives and empire building have influenced United States foreign policy in events and policies, e.g., the Louisiana Purchase or the Marshall Plan. (Themes: B: Civic Ideals, Practices, and Engagement, D: Material Wants and Needs, E: Cultural Development, Interaction, and Change)

SS:HI:8:2.5

Investigate the impact of foreign policy on domestic affairs as illustrated in historical events, e.g., the XYZ Affair or the Vietnam War. (Themes: A: Conflict and Cooperation, E: Cultural Development, Interaction, and Change)

SS:HI:8:3.1

Explain how art, music and literature often reflect and/or influence major ideas, values and conflicts of particular time periods, e.g., manifest destiny, protest movements, or freedom of expression. (Themes: E: Cultural Development, Interaction, and Change, J: Human Expression and Communication)

SS:HI:8:4.1

Explore how economic interactions have occurred on an increasingly global scale, e.g., the Triangular Trade or multinational corporations. (Themes: D: Material Wants and Needs, F: Global Transformation)

SS:HI:8:4.2

Examine the causes of conflict between management and labor, e.g., the Pullman Strike or the Air Traffic Controllers Strike of 1981. (Themes: A: Conflict and Cooperation, D: Material Wants and Needs, H: Individualism, Equality and Authority)

SS:HI:8:5.1

Analyze how societal changes have influenced the family, e.g., child labor or elderly care. (Themes: E: Cultural Development, Interaction, and Change, I: Patterns of Social and Political Interaction)

SS:WH:8

Political Foundations and Developments Students will demonstrate an understanding of major events, ideas and issues pertaining to the history of governance.

SS:WH:8:1.1

Explore how leaders have attempted to achieve political legitimacy using methods and rationales, e.g., the Divine Right of Kings, military power, or popular elections. (Themes: E: Cultural Development, Interaction, and Change, H: Individualism, Equality and Authority)

SS:WH:8:1.2

Analyze the influence of religious groups on political systems, e.g., Confucianism in China, Catholicism in Europe, or Wahabism in the Middle East. (Themes: E: Cultural Development, Interaction, and Change, I: Patterns of Social and Political Interaction, J: Human Expression and Communication)

SS:WH:8:1.3

Explore the use and abuse of power that results in mass murder and genocide, e.g., Carthage by Rome, the conquest of Aztecs, or the Holocaust. (Themes: A: Conflict and Cooperation, F: Global Transformation, I: Patterns of Social and Political Interaction)

SS:WH:8:2.1

Analyze the demographic impact of diseases and their treatment, e.g., the bubonic plague, smallpox in the Western Hemisphere, or AIDS. (Themes: F: Global Transformation)

SS:WH:8:3.1

Demonstrate an understanding of how art, music and literature often influence or reflect major ideas, values and conflicts of a particular time. (Themes: E: Cultural Development, Interaction, and Change, J: Human Expression and Communication)

SS:WH:8:3.2

Analyze how architecture has symbolized the values of various societies, e.g., Greco-Roman, Tudor English, or Scandinavian. (Themes: E: Cultural Development, Interaction, and Change, J: Human Expression and Communication)