New Jersey Student Learning Standards for Social Studies — Grade 2

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Explain how rules and laws created by community, state, and national governments protect the rights of people, help resolve conflicts, and promote the common good.


Describe how the actions of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and other civil rights leaders served as catalysts for social change and inspired social activism in subsequent generations.


Explain how the fundamental rights of the individual and the common good of the country depend upon all citizens exercising their civic responsibilities at the community, state, national, and global levels.


Explain the process of creating change at the local, state, or national level.


Describe the process by which immigrants become United States citizens.


Describe how the world is divided into many nations that have their own governments, languages, customs, and laws.


Explain how and why it is important that people from diverse cultures collaborate to find solutions to community, state, national, and global challenges.


Explore how national and international leaders, businesses, and global organizations promote human rights and provide aid to individuals and nations in need.


Explain how fundamental rights guaranteed by the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights (i.e., freedom of expression, freedom of religion, the right to vote, and the right to due process) contribute to the continuation and improvement of American democracy.


Determine how fairness, equality, and the common good have influenced new laws and policies over time at the local and national levels of United States government


Explain how the United States government is organized and how the United States Constitution defines and checks the power of government.


Distinguish the roles and responsibilities of the three branches of the national government.


Explain how national and state governments share power in the federal system of government.


Explain how the United States functions as a representative democracy, and describe the roles of elected representatives and how they interact with citizens at local, state, and national levels.


Compare and contrast how government functions at the community, county, state, and national levels, the services provided, and the impact of policy decisions made at each level.


Compare and contrast responses of individuals and groups, past and present, to violations of fundamental rights (e.g., fairness, civil rights, human rights).


Compare and contrast information that can be found on different types of maps and determine how the information may be useful.


Identify major cities in New Jersey, as well as in the United States, and the world, and explain how geographic and demographic tools (e.g., maps, globes, data visualizations) can be used to understand cultural differences.


Use physical and political maps to explain how the location and spatial relationship of places in New Jersey, the United States, and other areas, worldwide, have contributed to cultural diffusion and economic interdependence.


Explain how and when it is important to use digital geographic tools, political maps, and globes to measure distances and to determine time zones and locations using latitude and longitude.


Describe how landforms, climate and weather, and availability of resources have impacted where and how people live and work in different regions of New Jersey and the United States.


Describe how human interaction impacts the environment in New Jersey and the United States.


Compare and contrast characteristics of regions in the United States based on culture, economics, and physical environment to understand the concept of regionalism.


Explain why some locations in New Jersey and the United States are more suited for settlement than others.


Compare ways people choose to use and distribute natural resources.


Relate advances in science and technology to environmental concerns, and to actions taken to address them.


Apply opportunity cost (i.e., choices and tradeoffs) to evaluate individuals decisions, including ones made in their communities.


Explain the role of money, savings, debt, and investment in individuals lives.


Recognize the importance of setting long-term goals when making financial decisions within the community.


Evaluate the impact of ideas, inventions, and other contributions of prominent figures who lived New Jersey.


Examine the qualities of entrepreneurs in a capitalistic society


Compare different regions of New Jersey to determine the role that geography, natural resources, climate, transportation, technology, and/or the labor force play in economic opportunities.


Describe how the development of different transportation systems impacted the economies of New Jersey and the United States.


Explain how creativity and innovation resulted in scientific achievement and inventions in many cultures during different historical periods.


Determine the role of science and technology in the transition from an agricultural society to an industrial society, and then to the information age.


Explain how the development of communications systems has led to increased collaboration and the spread of ideas throughout the United States and the world.


Distinguish between needs and wants and explain how scarcity and choice influence decisions made by individuals, communities, and nations.


Explain why incentives vary between and among producers and consumers.


Describe how supply and demand influence price and output of products.


Explain the role of specialization in the production and exchange of goods and services.


Describe the role and relationship among households, businesses, laborers, and governments within the economic system.


Explain how the availability of private and public goods and services is influenced by the global market and government.


Illustrate how production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services are interrelated and are affected by the global market and events in the world community.


Compare and contrast how the availability of resources affects people across the world differently.


Determine the impact of European colonization on Native American populations, including the Lenni Lenape of New Jersey.


Describe how the influence of Native American groups, including the Lenni Lenape culture, is manifested in different regions of New Jersey.


Determine how local and state communities have changed over time, and explain the reasons for changes.


Explain how folklore and the actions of famous historical and fictional characters from New Jersey and other regions of the United States contributed to the American national heritage.


Describe how culture is expressed through and influenced by the behavior of people.


Trace how the American identity evolved over time.


Explain how various cultural groups have dealt with the conflict between maintaining traditional beliefs and practices and adopting new beliefs and practices.


Describe how stereotyping and prejudice can lead to conflict, using examples from the past and present.


Explain the role of historical symbols, monuments, and holidays and how they affect the American identity.


Explain how an individuals beliefs, values, and traditions may reflect more than one culture.


Explain how experiences and events may be interpreted differently by people with different cultural or individual perspectives.


Summarize reasons why various groups, voluntarily and involuntarily, immigrated to New Jersey and America, and describe the challenges they encountered.


Describe why it is important to understand the perspectives of other cultures in an interconnected world.


Evaluate the impact of voluntary and involuntary immigration on Americas growth as a nation, historically and today.


Explain how key events led to the creation of the United States and the state of New Jersey.


Relate key historical documents (i.e., the Mayflower Compact, the Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution, and the Bill of Rights) to present day government and citizenship.


Describe the civic leadership qualities and historical contributions of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Benjamin Franklin toward the development of the United States government.


Explain the role Governor William Livingston played in the development 12 of New Jersey government.


Determine the significance of New Jerseys role in the American Revolution.


Explain the impact of trans-Atlantic slavery on New Jersey, the nation, and individuals.


Determine what makes a good rule or law and apply this understanding to rules and laws in your school or community (e.g., bike helmet, recycling).


Examine the impact of a local issue by considering the perspectives of different groups, including community members and local officials.


Select a local issue and develop a group action plan to inform school and/or community members about the issue.


Communicate with students from various countries about common issues of public concern and possible solutions.


Plan and participate in an advocacy project to inform others about environmental issues at the local or state level and propose possible solutions. C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology


Develop and implement a group initiative that addresses an economic issue impacting children.


Identify actions that are unfair or discriminatory, such as bullying, and propose solutions to address such actions.