Pennsylvania Science and Technology and Engineering Education — Grade 10


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3.1.10 B5

Patterns Use models to demonstrate patterns in biomacromolecules. Compare and contrast Mendelian and nonMedalian patterns of inheritance.

3.1.10 B6

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.1.10.A1

Explain the characteristics of life common to all organisms.

3.1.10.A2

Explain cell processes in terms of chemical reactions and energy changes.

3.1.10.A3

Compare and contrast the life cycles of different organisms.

3.1.10.A4

Describe the cell cycle and the process and significance of mitosis.

3.1.10.A5

Relate life processes to sub-cellular and cellular structures to their functions.

3.1.10.A6

Identify the advantages of multi-cellularity in organisms.

3.1.10.A7

Describe the relationship between the structure of organic molecules and the function they serve in living organisms. Explain how cells store and use information to guide their functions.

3.1.10.A8

Investigate the spatial relationships of organisms anatomical features using specimens, models, or computer programs.

3.1.10.A9

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.1.10.B1

Describe how genetic information is inherited and expressed.

3.1.10.B2

Explain the process of meiosis resulting in the formation of gametes. Compare and contrast the function of mitosis and meiosis.

3.1.10.B3

Describe the basic structure of DNA and its function in genetic inheritance. Describe the role of DNA in protein synthesis as it relates to gene expression.

3.1.10.B4

Explain how genetic technologies have impacted the fields of medicine, forensics, and agriculture.

3.1.10.C1

Explain the mechanisms of biological evolution.

3.1.10.C2

Explain the role of mutations and gene recombination in changing a population of organisms.

3.1.10.C3

Constancy and Change Interpret data from fossil records, anatomy and physiology, and DNA studies relevant to the theory of evolution.

3.1.10.C4

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.1.B.A1

Describe the common characteristics of life. Compare and contrast the cellular structures and degrees of complexity of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Explain that some structures in eukaryotic cells developed from early prokaryotic cells (e.g., mitochondria, chloroplasts)

3.1.B.A2

Identify the initial reactants, final products, and general purposes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Explain the important role of ATP in cell metabolism. Describe the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration in photosynthetic organisms. Explain why many biological macromolecules such as ATP and lipids contain high energy bonds. Explain the importance of enzymes as catalysts in cell reactions. Identify how factors such as pH and temperature may affect enzyme function

3.1.B.A3

Explain how all organisms begin their life cycles as a single cell and that in multicellular organisms, successive generations of embryonic cells form by cell division.

3.1.B.A4

Summarize the stages of the cell cycle. Examine how interactions among the different molecules in the cell cause the distinct stages of the cell cycle which can also be influenced by other signaling molecules. Explain the role of mitosis in the formation of new cells and its importance in maintaining chromosome number during asexual reproduction. Compare and contrast a virus and a cell. Relate the stages of viral cycles to the cell cycle.

3.1.B.A5

Relate the structure of cell organelles to their function (energy capture and release, transport, waste removal, protein synthesis, movement, etc). Explain the role of water in cell metabolism. Explain how the cell membrane functions as a regulatory structure and protective barrier for the cell. Describe transport mechanisms across the plasma membrane.

3.1.B.A6

Explain how cells differentiate in multicellular organisms.

3.1.B.A7

Analyze the importance of carbon to the structure of biological macromolecules. Compare and contrast the functions and structures of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. Explain the consequences of extreme changes in pH and temperature on cell proteins.

3.1.B.A8

Change and Constancy Recognize that systems within cells and multicellular organisms interact to maintain homeostasis. Patterns Demonstrate the repeating patterns that occur in biological polymers. SystemsDescribe how the unique properties of water support life.

3.1.B.A9

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.1.B.B1

Explain that the information passed from parents to offspring is transmitted by means of genes which are coded in DNA molecules. Explain the basic process of DNA replication. Describe the basic processes of transcription and translation. Explain how crossing over, jumping genes, and deletion and duplication of genes results in genetic variation. Explain how mutations can alter genetic information and the possible consequences on resultant cells.

3.1.B.B2

Describe how the process of meiosis results in the formation of haploid gametes and analyze the importance of meiosis in sexual reproduction. Compare and contrast the function of mitosis and meiosis. Illustrate that the sorting and recombining of genes in sexual reproduction results in a great variety of possible gene combinations in offspring.

3.1.B.B3

Describe the basic structure of DNA, including the role of hydrogen bonding. Explain how the process of DNA replication results in the transmission and conservation of the genetic code. Describe how transcription and translation result in gene expression. Differentiate among the end products of replication, transcription, and translation. Cite evidence to support that the genetic code is universal.

3.1.B.B4

Explain how genetic technologies have impacted the fields of medicine, forensics, and agriculture.

3.1.B.B5

Patterns Describe how Mendels laws of segregation and independent assortment can be observed through patterns of inheritance. Distinguish among observed inheritance patterns caused by several types of genetic traits (dominant, recessive, codominant, sex-linked, polygenic, incomplete dominance, multiple alleles) Constancy and Change Explain how the processes of replication, transcription, and translation are similar in all organisms. Explain how gene actions, patterns of heredity, and reproduction of cells and organisms account for the continuity of life.Scale Demonstrate how inherited characteristics can be observed at the molecular, cellular, and organism levels.

3.1.B.B6.

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.1.B.C1

Describe species as reproductively distinct groups of organisms. Analyze the role that geographic isolation can play in speciation. Explain how evolution through natural selection can result in changes in biodiversity through the increase or decrease of genetic diversity within a population. Describe how the degree of kinship between species can be inferred from the similarity in their DNA sequences.

3.1.B.C2

Describe the theory suggesting that life on Earth arose as a single, primitive prokaryote about 4 billion years ago and that for the next 2 billion years, a huge diversity of singlecelled organisms evolved. Analyze how increasingly complex, multicellular organisms evolved once cells with nuclei developed. Describe how mutations in sex cells may be passed on to successive generations and that the resulting phenotype may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offsprings success in its environment. Describe the relationship between environmental changes and changes in the gene pool of a population.

3.1.B.C3

Constancy and ChangeCompare and contrast various theories of evolution. Interpret data from fossil records, anatomy and physiology, and DNA studies relevant to the theory of evolution. Patterns Discuss the implications of a universal genetic code for evolution.

3.1.B.C4

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.1.C.A1

Explain the chemistry of metabolism.

3.1.C.A2

Describe how changes in energy affect the rate of chemical reactions.

3.1.C.A4

Relate mitosis and meiosis at the molecular level.

3.1.C.A7

Illustrate the formation of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

3.1.C.A9

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.1.C.B3

Describe the structure of the DNA and RNA molecules.

3.1.C.B5

Patterns Use models to demonstrate patterns in biomacromolecules.

3.1.C.B6

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.1.C.C2

Use molecular models to demonstrate gene mutation and recombination at the molecular level.

3.1.C.C4

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.1.P.A9.

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.1.P.B6

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.1.P.C4

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.2.10.A1

Predict properties of elements using trends of the periodic table. Identify properties of matter that depend on sample size. Explain the unique properties of water (polarity, high boiling point, forms hydrogen bonds, high specific heat) that support life on Earth.

3.2.10.A2

Compare and contrast different bond types that result in the formation of molecules and compounds. Explain why compounds are composed of integer ratios of elements.

3.2.10.A3

Describe phases of matter according to the kinetic molecular theory.

3.2.10.A4

Describe chemical reactions in terms of atomic rearrangement and/or electron transfer. Predict the amounts of products and reactants in a chemical reaction using mole relationships. Explain the difference between endothermic and exothermic reactions. Identify the factors that affect the rates of reactions.

3.2.10.A5

Models Describe the historical development of models of the atom and how they contributed to modern atomic theory. Scale Apply the mole concept to determine number of particles and molar mass for elements and compounds.

3.2.10.A6

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.2.10.B1

Analyze the relationships among the net forces acting on a body, the mass of the body, and the resulting acceleration using Newtons Second Law of Motion. Apply Newtons Law of Universal Gravitation to the forces between two objects. Use Newtons Third Law to explain forces as interactions between bodies. Describe how interactions between objects conserve momentum

3.2.10.B2

Explain how the overall energy flowing through a system remains constant. Describe the workenergy theorem. Explain the relationships between work and power.

3.2.10.B3

Explain how heat energy will move from a higher temperature to a lower temperature until equilibrium is reached. Analyze the processes of convection, conduction, and radiation between objects or regions that are at different temperatures.

3.2.10.B4

Describe quantitatively the relationships between voltage, current, and resistance to electrical energy and power. Describe the relationship between electricity and magnetism as two aspects of a single electromagnetic force.

3.2.10.B5

Understand that waves transfer energy without transferring matter. Compare and contrast the wave nature of light and sound. Describe the components of the electromagnetic spectrum. Describe the difference between sound and light waves.

3.2.10.B6

Patterns Scale Models Constancy/ Change Explain how the behavior of matter and energy follow predictable patterns that are defined by laws.

3.2.10.B7

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.2.B.A6

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.2.B.B7.

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.2.C.A1

Differentiate between physical properties and chemical properties. Differentiate between pure substances and mixtures; differentiate between heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures. Explain the relationship of an elements position on the periodic table to its atomic number, ionization energy, electro-negativity, atomic size, and classification of elements. Use electro-negativity to explain the difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds.

3.2.C.A2

Compare the electron configurations for the first twenty elements of the periodic table. Relate the position of an element on the periodic table to its electron configuration and compare its reactivity to the reactivity of other elements in the table. Explain how atoms combine to form compounds through both ionic and covalent bonding. Predict chemical formulas based on the number of valence electrons. Draw Lewis dot structures for simple molecules and ionic compounds. Predict the chemical formulas for simple ionic and molecular compounds.Use the mole concept to determine number of particles and molar mass for elements and compounds. Determine percent compositions, empirical formulas, and molecular formulas.

3.2.C.A3

Describe the three normal states of matter in terms of energy, particle motion, and phase transitions. Identify the three main types of radioactive decay and compare their properties. Describe the process of radioactive decay by using nuclear equations and explain the concept of halflife for an isotope. Compare and contrast nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.

3.2.C.A4

Predict how combinations of substances can result in physical and/or chemical changes. Interpret and apply the laws of conservation of mass, constant composition (definite proportions), and multiple proportions. Balance chemical equations by applying the laws of conservation of mass. Classify chemical reactions as synthesis (combination), decomposition, single displacement (replacement), double displacement, and combustion. Use stoichiometry to predict quantitative relationships in a chemical reaction.

3.2.C.A5

Models Recognize discoveries from Dalton (atomic theory), Thomson (the electron), Rutherford (the nucleus), and Bohr (planetary model of atom), and understand how each discovery leads to modern theory. Describe Rutherfords gold foil experiment that led to the discovery of the nuclear atom. Identify the major components (protons, neutrons, and electrons) of the nuclear atom and explain how they interact.

3.2.C.A6

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.2.C.B2

Explore the natural tendency for systems to move in a direction of disorder or randomness (entropy).

3.2.C.B3

Describe the law of conservation of energy. Explain the difference between an endothermic process and an exothermic process.

3.2.C.B7.

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.2.P.A6.

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.2.P.B1

Differentiate among translational motion, simple harmonic motion, and rotational motion in terms of position, velocity, and acceleration. Use force and mass to explain translational motion or simple harmonic motion of objects. Relate torque and rotational inertia to explain rotational motion.

3.2.P.B2

Explain the translation and simple harmonic motion of objects using conservation of energy and conservation of momentum. Describe the rotational motion of objects using the conservation of energy and conservation of angular momentum. Explain how gravitational, electrical, and magnetic forces and torques give rise to rotational motion.

3.2.P.B3

Analyze the factors that influence convection, conduction, and radiation between objects or regions that are at different temperatures.

3.2.P.B4

Explain how stationary and moving particles result in electricity and magnetism. Develop qualitative and quantitative understanding of current, voltage, resistance, and the connections among them. Explain how electrical induction is applied in technology.

3.2.P.B5

Explain how waves transfer energy without transferring matter. Explain how waves carry information from remote sources that can be detected and interpreted. Describe the causes of wave frequency, speed, and wave length.

3.2.P.B6

Pattern Scale Models Constancy/Change Use Newtons laws of motion and gravitation to describe and predict the motion of objects ranging from atoms to the galaxies.

3.2.P.B7

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.3.10.A1

Relate plate tectonics to both slow and rapid changes in the earths surface. Describe the rock cycle and the processes that are responsible for the formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Relate geochemical cycles to the conservation of matter. Explain how the Earth is composed of a number of dynamic, interacting systems exchanging energy or matter.

3.3.10.A2

Analyze the effects on the environment and the carbon cycle of using both renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy.

3.3.10.A3

Explain how the evolution of Earth has been driven by interactions between the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere.

3.3.10.A4

Relate geochemical cycles to conservation of matter. Explain how the Earths systems and its various cycles are driven by energy.

3.3.10.A5

Explain how there is only one ocean. Explain the processes of the hydrologic cycle. Explain the dynamics of oceanic currents and their relationship to global circulation within the marine environment.

3.3.10.A6

Interpret meteorological data to describe and/or predict weather. Explain the phenomena that cause global atmospheric processes such as storms, currents, and wind patterns.

3.3.10.A7

Scale/Models Interpret and create models of the Earths physical features in various mapping representations. Constancy and Change Relate constancy and change to the hydrologic and geochemical cycles. Scale Apply an appropriate scale to illustrate major events throughout geologic time.Constancy/Change Describe factors that contribute to global climate change.

3.3.10.A8

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8).

3.3.10.B1

Explain how gravity is responsible for planetary orbits. Explain what caused the sun, Earth, and most of the other planets to form between 4 and 5 billion years ago. Provide evidence to suggest the Big Bang Theory. Describe the basic nuclear processes involved in energy production in a star.

3.3.10.B2

Scale and Measurement Explain how scientists obtain information about the universe by using technology to detect electromagnetic radiation that is emitted, reflected, or absorbed by stars and other objects. Constancy and Change Describe changes in the universe over billions of years. Scale and Measurement Explain the scale used to measure the sizes of stars and galaxies and the distances between them.

3.3.10.B3

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.3.B.A8

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8).

3.3.B.B3

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.3.C.A8

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8).

3.3.C.B3

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.3.P.A8

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8).

3.3.P.B3

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.4.10.A1

Illustrate how the development of technologies is often driven by profit and an economic market.

3.4.10.A2

Interpret how systems thinking applies logic and creativity with appropriate comprises in complex real-life problems.

3.4.10.A3

Examine how technology transfer occurs when a new user applies an existing innovation developed for one purpose in a different function.

3.4.10.B1

Compare and contrast how the use of technology involves weighing the trade-offs between the positive and negative effects.

3.4.10.B2

Demonstrate how humans devise technologies to reduce the negative consequences of other technologies.

3.4.10.B3

Compare and contrast how a number of different factors, such as advertising, the strength of the economy, the goals of a company and the latest fads, contribute to shaping the design of and demand for various technologies.

3.4.10.B4

Recognize that technological development has been evolutionary, the result of a series of refinements to a basic invention.

3.4.10.C1

Apply the components of the technological design process.

3.4.10.C2

Analyze a prototype and/or create a working model to test a design concept by making actual observations and necessary adjustments.

3.4.10.C3

Illustrate the concept that not all problems are technological and not every problem can be solved using technology

3.4.10.D1

Refine a design by using prototypes and modeling to ensure quality, efficiency, and productivity of a final product.

3.4.10.D2

Diagnose a malfunctioning system and use tools, materials, and knowledge to repair it.

3.4.10.D3

Synthesize data, analyze trends, and draw conclusions regarding the effect of technology on the individual, society, and the environment.

3.4.10.E1

Assess how medical technologies over time have impacted prevention and rehabilitation, vaccines and pharmaceuticals, medical and surgical procedures, and genetic engineering.

3.4.10.E2

Compare and contrast how the engineering design and management of agricultural systems require knowledge of artificial ecosystems and the effects of technological development on flora and fauna.

3.4.10.E3

Compare and contrast the major forms of energy: thermal, radiant, electrical, mechanical, chemical, nuclear and others.

3.4.10.E4

Evaluate the purpose and effectiveness of information and communication systems.

3.4.10.E5

Analyze the development of transportation services and methods and their impact on society.

3.4.10.E6

Illustrate how manufacturing systems may be classified into types such as customized production, batch production, and continuous production.

3.4.10.E7

Evaluate structure design as related to function, considering such factors as style, convenience, safety, and efficiency.