Pennsylvania Science and Technology and Engineering Education — Grade 12


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3.1.12 B5

PATTERNS Relate the monomer structure of biomacromolecules to their functional roles.

3.1.12 B6

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.1.12.A1

Relate changes in the environment to various organisms ability to compensate using homeostatic mechanisms.

3.1.12.A2

Evaluate how organisms must derive energy from their environment or their food in order to survive.

3.1.12.A4

Explain how the cell cycle is regulated.

3.1.12.A5

Analyze how structure is related to function at all levels of biological organization from molecules to organisms.

3.1.12.A6

Analyze how cells in different tissues/organs are specialized to perform specific functions.

3.1.12.A7

Evaluate metabolic activities using experimental knowledge of enzymes. Describe the potential impact of stem cell research on the biochemistry and physiology of life.

3.1.12.A8

Change and Constancy Describe and interpret dynamic changes in stable systems.

3.1.12.A9

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.1.12.B1

Explain gene inheritance and expression at the molecular level.

3.1.12.B2

Evaluate the process of sexual reproduction in influencing genetic variability in a population.

3.1.12.B3

Analyze gene expression at the molecular level. Explain the impact of environmental factors on gene expression.

3.1.12.B4

Evaluate the societal impact of genetic engineering techniques and applications.

3.1.12.C1

Analyze how natural selection leads to speciation.

3.1.12.C2

Analyze how genotypic and phenotypic variation can result in adaptations that influence an organisms success in an environment.

3.1.12.C3

Constancy and Change Analyze the evidence to support various theories of evolution (gradualism, punctuated equilibrium). Evaluate survival of the fittest in terms of species that have remained unchanged over long periods of time.

3.1.12.C4

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.1.B.A1

Describe the common characteristics of life. Compare and contrast the cellular structures and degrees of complexity of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Explain that some structures in eukaryotic cells developed from early prokaryotic cells (e.g., mitochondria, chloroplasts)

3.1.B.A2

Identify the initial reactants, final products, and general purposes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Explain the important role of ATP in cell metabolism. Describe the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration in photosynthetic organisms. Explain why many biological macromolecules such as ATP and lipids contain high energy bonds. Explain the importance of enzymes as catalysts in cell reactions. Identify how factors such as pH and temperature may affect enzyme function

3.1.B.A3

Explain how all organisms begin their life cycles as a single cell and that in multicellular organisms, successive generations of embryonic cells form by cell division.

3.1.B.A4

Summarize the stages of the cell cycle. Examine how interactions among the different molecules in the cell cause the distinct stages of the cell cycle which can also be influenced by other signaling molecules. Explain the role of mitosis in the formation of new cells and its importance in maintaining chromosome number during asexual reproduction. Compare and contrast a virus and a cell. Relate the stages of viral cycles to the cell cycle.

3.1.B.A5

Relate the structure of cell organelles to their function (energy capture and release, transport, waste removal, protein synthesis, movement, etc). Explain the role of water in cell metabolism. Explain how the cell membrane functions as a regulatory structure and protective barrier for the cell. Describe transport mechanisms across the plasma membrane.

3.1.B.A6

Explain how cells differentiate in multicellular organisms.

3.1.B.A7

Analyze the importance of carbon to the structure of biological macromolecules. Compare and contrast the functions and structures of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. Explain the consequences of extreme changes in pH and temperature on cell proteins.

3.1.B.A8

Change and Constancy Recognize that systems within cells and multicellular organisms interact to maintain homeostasis. Patterns Demonstrate the repeating patterns that occur in biological polymers. SystemsDescribe how the unique properties of water support life.

3.1.B.A9

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.1.B.B1

Explain that the information passed from parents to offspring is transmitted by means of genes which are coded in DNA molecules. Explain the basic process of DNA replication. Describe the basic processes of transcription and translation. Explain how crossing over, jumping genes, and deletion and duplication of genes results in genetic variation. Explain how mutations can alter genetic information and the possible consequences on resultant cells.

3.1.B.B2

Describe how the process of meiosis results in the formation of haploid gametes and analyze the importance of meiosis in sexual reproduction. Compare and contrast the function of mitosis and meiosis. Illustrate that the sorting and recombining of genes in sexual reproduction results in a great variety of possible gene combinations in offspring.

3.1.B.B3

Describe the basic structure of DNA, including the role of hydrogen bonding. Explain how the process of DNA replication results in the transmission and conservation of the genetic code. Describe how transcription and translation result in gene expression. Differentiate among the end products of replication, transcription, and translation. Cite evidence to support that the genetic code is universal.

3.1.B.B4

Explain how genetic technologies have impacted the fields of medicine, forensics, and agriculture.

3.1.B.B5

Patterns Describe how Mendels laws of segregation and independent assortment can be observed through patterns of inheritance. Distinguish among observed inheritance patterns caused by several types of genetic traits (dominant, recessive, codominant, sex-linked, polygenic, incomplete dominance, multiple alleles) Constancy and Change Explain how the processes of replication, transcription, and translation are similar in all organisms. Explain how gene actions, patterns of heredity, and reproduction of cells and organisms account for the continuity of life.Scale Demonstrate how inherited characteristics can be observed at the molecular, cellular, and organism levels.

3.1.B.B6.

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.1.B.C1

Describe species as reproductively distinct groups of organisms. Analyze the role that geographic isolation can play in speciation. Explain how evolution through natural selection can result in changes in biodiversity through the increase or decrease of genetic diversity within a population. Describe how the degree of kinship between species can be inferred from the similarity in their DNA sequences.

3.1.B.C2

Describe the theory suggesting that life on Earth arose as a single, primitive prokaryote about 4 billion years ago and that for the next 2 billion years, a huge diversity of singlecelled organisms evolved. Analyze how increasingly complex, multicellular organisms evolved once cells with nuclei developed. Describe how mutations in sex cells may be passed on to successive generations and that the resulting phenotype may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offsprings success in its environment. Describe the relationship between environmental changes and changes in the gene pool of a population.

3.1.B.C3

Constancy and ChangeCompare and contrast various theories of evolution. Interpret data from fossil records, anatomy and physiology, and DNA studies relevant to the theory of evolution. Patterns Discuss the implications of a universal genetic code for evolution.

3.1.B.C4

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.1.C.A1

Explain the chemistry of metabolism.

3.1.C.A2

Describe how changes in energy affect the rate of chemical reactions.

3.1.C.A4

Relate mitosis and meiosis at the molecular level.

3.1.C.A7

Illustrate the formation of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

3.1.C.A9

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.1.C.B3

Describe the structure of the DNA and RNA molecules.

3.1.C.B5

Patterns Use models to demonstrate patterns in biomacromolecules.

3.1.C.B6

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.1.C.C2

Use molecular models to demonstrate gene mutation and recombination at the molecular level.

3.1.C.C4

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.1.P.A9.

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.1.P.B6

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.1.P.C4

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.2.12.A1

Compare and contrast colligative properties of mixtures. Compare and contrast the unique properties of water to other liquids.

3.2.12.A2

Distinguish among the isotopic forms of elements. Explain the probabilistic nature of radioactive decay based on subatomic rearrangement in the atomic nucleus. Explain how light is absorbed or emitted by electron orbital transitions.

3.2.12.A3

Explain how matter is transformed into energy in nuclear reactions according to the equation E=mc2

3.2.12.A4

Apply oxidation/reduction principles to electrochemical reactions. Describe the interactions between acids and bases.

3.2.12.A5

Models/Patterns Use VSEPR theory to predict the molecular geometry of simple molecules. Constancy adn Change Predict the shift in equilibrium when a system is subjected to a stress.

3.2.12.A6

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.2.12.B1

Analyze the principles of rotational motion to solve problems relating to angular momentum and torque.

3.2.12.B2

Explain how energy flowing through an open system can be lost. Demonstrate how the law of conservation of momentum and conservation of energy provide alternate approaches to predict and describe the motion of objects.

3.2.12.B3

Describe the relationship between the average kinetic molecular energy, temperature, and phase changes.

3.2.12.B4

Describe conceptually the attractive and repulsive forces between objects relative to their charges and the distance between them.

3.2.12.B5

Research how principles of wave transmissions are used in a wide range of technologies. Research technologies that incorporate principles of wave transmission.

3.2.12.B6

Constancy/Change Compare and contrast motions of objects using forces and conservation laws.

3.2.12.B7

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.2.B.A6

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.2.B.B7.

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.2.C.A1

Differentiate between physical properties and chemical properties. Differentiate between pure substances and mixtures; differentiate between heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures. Explain the relationship of an elements position on the periodic table to its atomic number, ionization energy, electro-negativity, atomic size, and classification of elements. Use electro-negativity to explain the difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds.

3.2.C.A2

Compare the electron configurations for the first twenty elements of the periodic table. Relate the position of an element on the periodic table to its electron configuration and compare its reactivity to the reactivity of other elements in the table. Explain how atoms combine to form compounds through both ionic and covalent bonding. Predict chemical formulas based on the number of valence electrons. Draw Lewis dot structures for simple molecules and ionic compounds. Predict the chemical formulas for simple ionic and molecular compounds.Use the mole concept to determine number of particles and molar mass for elements and compounds. Determine percent compositions, empirical formulas, and molecular formulas.

3.2.C.A3

Describe the three normal states of matter in terms of energy, particle motion, and phase transitions. Identify the three main types of radioactive decay and compare their properties. Describe the process of radioactive decay by using nuclear equations and explain the concept of halflife for an isotope. Compare and contrast nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.

3.2.C.A4

Predict how combinations of substances can result in physical and/or chemical changes. Interpret and apply the laws of conservation of mass, constant composition (definite proportions), and multiple proportions. Balance chemical equations by applying the laws of conservation of mass. Classify chemical reactions as synthesis (combination), decomposition, single displacement (replacement), double displacement, and combustion. Use stoichiometry to predict quantitative relationships in a chemical reaction.

3.2.C.A5

Models Recognize discoveries from Dalton (atomic theory), Thomson (the electron), Rutherford (the nucleus), and Bohr (planetary model of atom), and understand how each discovery leads to modern theory. Describe Rutherfords gold foil experiment that led to the discovery of the nuclear atom. Identify the major components (protons, neutrons, and electrons) of the nuclear atom and explain how they interact.

3.2.C.A6

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.2.C.B2

Explore the natural tendency for systems to move in a direction of disorder or randomness (entropy).

3.2.C.B3

Describe the law of conservation of energy. Explain the difference between an endothermic process and an exothermic process.

3.2.C.B7.

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.2.P.A6.

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.2.P.B1

Differentiate among translational motion, simple harmonic motion, and rotational motion in terms of position, velocity, and acceleration. Use force and mass to explain translational motion or simple harmonic motion of objects. Relate torque and rotational inertia to explain rotational motion.

3.2.P.B2

Explain the translation and simple harmonic motion of objects using conservation of energy and conservation of momentum. Describe the rotational motion of objects using the conservation of energy and conservation of angular momentum. Explain how gravitational, electrical, and magnetic forces and torques give rise to rotational motion.

3.2.P.B3

Analyze the factors that influence convection, conduction, and radiation between objects or regions that are at different temperatures.

3.2.P.B4

Explain how stationary and moving particles result in electricity and magnetism. Develop qualitative and quantitative understanding of current, voltage, resistance, and the connections among them. Explain how electrical induction is applied in technology.

3.2.P.B5

Explain how waves transfer energy without transferring matter. Explain how waves carry information from remote sources that can be detected and interpreted. Describe the causes of wave frequency, speed, and wave length.

3.2.P.B6

Pattern Scale Models Constancy/Change Use Newtons laws of motion and gravitation to describe and predict the motion of objects ranging from atoms to the galaxies.

3.2.P.B7

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.3.12.A1

Explain how parts are related to other parts in weather systems, solar systems, and earth systems, including how the output from one part can become an input to another part. Analyze the processes that cause the movement of material in the Earths systems. Classify Earths internal and external sources of energy such as radioactive decay, gravity, and solar energy.

3.3.12.A2

Analyze the availability, location, and extraction of Earths resources. Evaluate the impact of using renewable and nonrenewable energy resources on the Earths system.

3.3.12.A3

Describe the absolute and relative dating methods used to measure geologic time, such as index fossils, radioactive dating, law of superposition, and crosscutting relationships.

3.3.12.A4

Classify Earths internal and external sources of energy such as radioactive decay, gravity, and solar energy. Relate the transfer of energy through radiation, conduction, and convection to global atmospheric processes.

3.3.12.A5

Explain how the ocean dominates the Earths carbon cycle.

3.3.12.A6

Explain how the unequal heating of the Earths surface leads to atmospheric global circulation changes, climate, local short term changes, and weather. Relate the transfer of energy through radiation, conduction, and convection to global atmospheric processes.

3.3.12.A7

Models Interpret and analyze a combination of ground-based observations, satellite data, and computer models to demonstrate Earth systems and their interconnections. Costancy/Change Infer how human activities may impact the natural course of Earths cycles. Patterns Summarize the use of data in understanding seismic events, meteorology, and geologic time.

3.3.12.A8

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8).

3.3.12.B1

Describe the life cycle of stars based on their mass. Analyze the influence of gravity on the formation and life cycles of galaxies, including our own Milky Way galaxy; stars; planetary systems; and residual material left from the creation of the solar system. Relate the nuclear processes involved in energy production in stars and supernovas to their life cycles.

3.3.12.B2

Models and Scale Apply mathematical models and computer simulations to study evidence collected relating to the extent and composition of the universe. Patterns and Constancy and Change Analyze the evidence supporting theories of the origin of the universe to predict its future

3.3.12.B3

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.3.B.A8

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8).

3.3.B.B3

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.3.C.A8

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8).

3.3.C.B3

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.3.P.A8

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8).

3.3.P.B3

See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators. (As indicated on page 8)

3.4.12.A1

Compare and contrast the rate of technological development over time.

3.4.12.A2

Describe how management is the process of planning, organizing, and controlling work.

3.4.12.A3

Demonstrate how technological progress promotes the advancement of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM).

3.4.12.B1

Analyze ethical, social, economic, and cultural considerations as related to the development, selection, and use of technologies.

3.4.12.B2

Illustrate how, with the aid of technology, various aspects of the environment can be monitored to provide information for decision making

3.4.12.C2

Apply the concept that engineering design is influenced by personal characteristics, such as creativity, resourcefulness, and the ability to visualize and think abstractly.

3.4.12.C3

Apply the concept that many technological problems require a multi-disciplinary approach.

3.4.12.D2

Verify that engineering design is influenced by personal characteristics, such as creativity, resourcefulness, and the ability to visualize and think abstractly.

3.4.12.E1

Compare and contrast the emerging technologies of telemedicine, nanotechnology, prosthetics, and biochemistry as they relate to improving human health.

3.4.12.E2

Compare and contrast the technologies of biotechnology, conservation, bio-fuels, and ecosystems as they relate to managing Earths resources effectively.

3.4.12.E3

Compare and contrast energy and power systems as they relate to pollution, renewable and non-renewable resources, and conservation.

3.4.12.E4

Synthesize the effects of information and communication systems and subsystems as an integral part of the development of the Information Age.

3.4.12.E5

Explain how the design of intelligent and non-intelligent transportation systems depends on many processes and innovative techniques.

3.4.12.E6

Compare and contrast the importance of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) as it pertains to the manufactured world.

3.4.12.E7

Analyze the technologies of prefabrication and new structural materials and processes as they pertain to constructing the modern world.