Alabama Learning Standards for English Language and Arts — Grade 12


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L.11-12.1

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.a. Apply rules of subject-verb agreement when the subject has compound parts joined by or with the second element as singular or plural. (Alabama) b. Apply rules of subject-verb agreement with the subjunctive mood. (Alabama)

L.11-12.1a

Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time, and is sometimes contested.

L.11-12.1b

Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of English Usage, Garner's Modern American Usage) as needed.

L.11-12.2

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. Use commas correctly with non-essential appositives. (Alabama)

L.11-12.2a

Observe hyphenation conventions.

L.11-12.3

Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.

L.11-12.3a

Vary syntax for effect, consulting references (e.g., Tufte's Artful Sentences: Syntax as Style) for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading.

L.11-12.4

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on Grade 9 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

L.11-12.4a

Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

L.11-12.4b

Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical; advocate, advocacy).

L.11-12.4c

Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology.

L.11-12.4d

Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

L.11-12.5

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

L.11-12.5a

Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.

L.11-12.5b

Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.

L.11-12.6

Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

RI.11-12.1

Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

RI.11-12.10

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the Grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

RI.11-12.2

Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

RI.11-12.3

Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the text.

RI.11-12.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings.

RI.11-12.5

Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging.

RI.11-12.6

Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the text.

RI.11-12.7

Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem.

RI.11-12.8

Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced.

RL.11-12.1

Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

RL.11-12.10

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the Grades 12 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

RL.11-12.2

Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text.

RL.11-12.3

Analyze the impact of the author's choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, how the characters are introduced and developed).

RL.11-12.4

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.

RL.11-12.5

Analyze how an author's choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact.

RL.11-12.6

Analyze a case in which grasping point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement).

RL.11-12.7

Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare.)

RL.11-12.9

Demonstrate knowledge of foundational works of European literature with a concentration in British literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics.

SL.11-12.1

Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on Grade 9 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

SL.11-12.1a

Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.

SL.11-12.1b

Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed.

SL.11-12.1c

Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.

SL.11-12.1d

Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.

SL.11-12.2

Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally), evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.

SL.11-12.3

Evaluate a speaker's point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.

SL.11-12.4

Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.

SL.11-12.5

Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

SL.11-12.6

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See Grade 9 Language standards 36 and 38 for specific expectations.)

W.11-12.1

Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

W.11-12.10

Write routinely over extended time frames, including time for research, reflection, and revision, and shorter time frames such as a single sitting or a day or two for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

W.11-12.1a

Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), establish the significance of the claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

W.11-12.1b

Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience's knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.

W.11-12.1c

Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence.

W.11-12.1d

Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

W.11-12.1e

Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

W.11-12.2

Write informative or explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

W.11-12.2a

Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison or contrast, and cause and effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

W.11-12.2b

Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.

W.11-12.2c

Use appropriate transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.

W.11-12.2d

Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.

W.11-12.2e

Establish and maintain a formal style.

W.11-12.2f

Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.

W.11-12.3

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

W.11-12.3a

Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator, characters, or both; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.

W.11-12.3b

Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.

W.11-12.3c

Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.

W.11-12.3d

Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.

W.11-12.3e

Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.

W.11-12.4

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 20-22 above.)

W.11-12.5

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of the first three standards in the Language strand in Grades K-9.)

W.11-12.6

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and link to and cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and citing sources.

W.11-12.7

Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation.

W.11-12.8

Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

W.11-12.9

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

W.11-12.9a

Apply Grade 12 Reading standards to literature (e.g., 'Demonstrate knowledge of foundational works of European literature with a concentration in British literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics').

W.11-12.9b

Apply Grade 12 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., 'Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal United States texts, including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning [e.g., in United States Supreme Court Case majority opinions and dissents] and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy [e.g., The Federalist, presidential addresses]').