California English Language Arts Content Standards — Grade 9


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9.LS.1

Students formulate adroit judgments about oral communication. They deliver focused and coherent presentations of their own that convey clear and distinct perspectives and solid reasoning. They use gestures, tone, and vocabulary tailored to the audience and purpose.

9.LS.1.1

Formulate judgments about the ideas under discussion and support those judgments with convincing evidence.

9.LS.1.10

Analyze historically significant speeches (e.g., Abraham Lincolns Gettysburg Address, Martin Luther King, Jr.s I Have a Dream) to find the rhetorical devices and features that make them memorable.

9.LS.1.11

Assess how language and delivery affect the mood and tone of the oral communication and make an impact on the audience.

9.LS.1.12

Evaluate the clarity, quality, effectiveness, and general coherence of a speakers important points, arguments, evidence, organization of ideas, delivery, diction, and syntax.

9.LS.1.13

Analyze the types of arguments used by the speaker, including argument by causation, analogy, authority, emotion, and logic.

9.LS.1.14

Identify the aesthetic effects of a media presentation and evaluate the techniques used to create them (e.g., compare Shakespeares Henry V with Kenneth Branaghs 1990 film version).

9.LS.1.2

Compare and contrast the ways in which media genres (e.g., televised news, news magazines, documentaries, online information) cover the same event.

9.LS.1.3

Choose logical patterns of organization (e.g., chronological, topical, cause and effect) to inform and to persuade, by soliciting agreement or action, or to unite audiences behind a common belief or cause.

9.LS.1.4

Choose appropriate techniques for developing the introduction and conclusion (e.g., by using literary quotations, anecdotes, references to authoritative sources).

9.LS.1.5

Recognize and use elements of classical speech forms (e.g., introduction, first and second transitions, body, conclusion) in formulating rational arguments and applying the art of persuasion and debate.

9.LS.1.6

Present and advance a clear thesis statement and choose appropriate types of proof (e.g., statistics, testimony, specific instances) that meet standard tests for evidence, including credibility, validity, and relevance.

9.LS.1.7

Use props, visual aids, graphs, and electronic media to enhance the appeal and accuracy of presentations.

9.LS.1.8

Produce concise notes for extemporaneous delivery.

9.LS.1.9

Analyze the occasion and the interests of the audience and choose effective verbal and nonverbal techniques (e.g., voice, gestures, eye contact) for presentations.

9.LS.2

Students deliver polished formal and extemporaneous presentations that combine the traditional rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description. Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0.

9.LS.2.1

Deliver narrative presentations:

9.LS.2.1a

Narrate a sequence of events and communicate their significance to the audience.

9.LS.2.1b

Locate scenes and incidents in specific places.

9.LS.2.1c

Describe with concrete sensory details the sights, sounds, and smells of a scene and the specific actions, movements, gestures, and feelings of characters.

9.LS.2.1d

Pace the presentation of actions to accommodate time or mood changes.

9.LS.2.2

Deliver expository presentations:

9.LS.2.2a

Marshal evidence in support of a thesis and related claims, including information on all relevant perspectives.

9.LS.2.2b

Convey information and ideas from primary and secondary sources accurately and coherently.

9.LS.2.2c

Make distinctions between the relative value and significance of specific data, facts, and ideas.

9.LS.2.2d

Include visual aids by employing appropriate technology to organize and display information on charts, maps, and graphs.

9.LS.2.2e

Anticipate and address the listeners potential misunderstandings, biases, and expectations.

9.LS.2.2f

Use technical terms and notations accurately.

9.LS.2.3

Apply appropriate interviewing techniques:

9.LS.2.3a

Prepare and ask relevant questions.

9.LS.2.3b

Make notes of responses.

9.LS.2.3c

Use language that conveys maturity, sensitivity, and respect.

9.LS.2.3d

Respond correctly and effectively to questions.

9.LS.2.3e

Demonstrate knowledge of the subject or organization.

9.LS.2.3f

Compile and report responses.

9.LS.2.3g

Evaluate the effectiveness of the interview.

9.LS.2.4

Deliver oral responses to literature:

9.LS.2.4a

Advance a judgment demonstrating a comprehensive grasp of the significant ideas of works or passages (i.e., make and support warranted assertions about the text).

9.LS.2.4b

Support important ideas and viewpoints through accurate and detailed references to the text or to other works.

9.LS.2.4c

Demonstrate awareness of the authors use of stylistic devices and an appreciation of the effects created.

9.LS.2.4d

Identify and assess the impact of perceived ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text.

9.LS.2.5

Deliver persuasive arguments (including evaluation and analysis of problems and solutions and causes and effects):

9.LS.2.5a

Structure ideas and arguments in a coherent, logical fashion.

9.LS.2.5b

Use rhetorical devices to support assertions (e.g., by appeal to logic through reasoning; by appeal to emotion or ethical belief; by use of personal anecdote, case study, or analogy).

9.LS.2.5c

Clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations, expressions of commonly accepted beliefs, and logical reasoning.

9.LS.2.5d

Anticipate and address the listeners concerns and counterarguments.

9.LS.2.6

Deliver descriptive presentations:

9.LS.2.6a

Establish clearly the speakers point of view on the subject of the presentation.

9.LS.2.6b

Establish clearly the speakers relationship with that subject (e.g., dispassionate observation, personal involvement).

9.LS.2.6c

Use effective, factual descriptions of appearance, concrete images, shifting perspectives and vantage points, and sensory details.

9.R.1

Students apply their knowledge of word origins to determine the meaning of new words encountered in reading materials and use those words accurately

9.R.1.1

Identify and use the literal and figurative meanings of words and understand word derivations.

9.R.1.2

Distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words and interpret the connotative power of words.

9.R.1.3

Identify Greek, Roman, and Norse mythology and use the knowledge to understand the origin and meaning of new words (e.g., the word narcissistic drawn from the myth of Narcissus and Echo).

9.R.2

Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They analyze the organizational patterns, arguments, and positions advanced. The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students. In addition, by grade twelve, students read two million words annually on their own, including a wide variety of classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, and online information. In grades nine and ten, students make substantial progress toward this goal.

9.R.2.1

Analyze the structure and format of functional workplace documents, including the graphics and headers, and explain how authors use the features to achieve their purposes.

9.R.2.2

Prepare a bibliography of reference materials for a report using a variety of consumer, workplace, and public documents.

9.R.2.3

Generate relevant questions about readings on issues that can be researched.

9.R.2.4

Synthesize the content from several sources or works by a single author dealing with a single issue; paraphrase the ideas and connect them to other sources and related topics to demonstrate comprehension.

9.R.2.5

Extend ideas presented in primary or secondary sources through original analysis, evaluation, and elaboration.

9.R.2.6

Demonstrate use of sophisticated learning tools by following technical directions (e.g., those found with graphic calculators and specialized software programs and in access guides to World Wide Web sites on the Internet).

9.R.2.7

Critique the logic of functional documents by examining the sequence of information and procedures in anticipation of possible reader misunderstandings.

9.R.2.8

Evaluate the credibility of an authors argument or defense of a claim by critiquing the relationship between generalizations and evidence, the comprehensiveness of evidence, and the way in which the authors intent affects the structure and tone of the text (e.g., in professional journals, editorials, political speeches, primary source material).

9.R.3

Students read and respond to historically or culturally significant works of literature that reflect and enhance their studies of history and social science. They conduct indepth analyses of recurrent patterns and themes. The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.

9.R.3.1

Articulate the relationship between the expressed purposes and the characteristics of different forms of dramatic literature (e.g., comedy, tragedy, drama, dramatic monologue).

9.R.3.10

Identify and describe the function of dialogue, scene designs, soliloquies, asides, and character foils in dramatic literature.

9.R.3.11

Evaluate the aesthetic qualities of style, including the impact of diction and figurative language on tone, mood, and theme, using the terminology of literary criticism. (Aesthetic approach)

9.R.3.12

Analyze the way in which a work of literature is related to the themes and issues of its historical period. (Historical approach)

9.R.3.2

Compare and contrast the presentation of a similar theme or topic across genres to explain how the selection of genre shapes the theme or topic.

9.R.3.3

Analyze interactions between main and subordinate characters in a literary text (e.g., internal and external conflicts, motivations, relationships, influences) and explain the way those interactions affect the plot.

9.R.3.4

Determine characters traits by what the characters say about themselves in narration, dialogue, dramatic monologue, and soliloquy.

9.R.3.5

Compare works that express a universal theme and provide evidence to support the ideas expressed in each work.

9.R.3.6

Analyze and trace an authors development of time and sequence, including the use of complex literary devices (e.g., foreshadowing, flashbacks).

9.R.3.7

Recognize and understand the significance of various literary devices, including figurative language, imagery, allegory, and symbolism, and explain their appeal.

9.R.3.8

Interpret and evaluate the impact of ambiguities, subtleties, contradictions, ironies, and incongruities in a text.

9.R.3.9

Explain how voice, persona, and the choice of a narrator affect characterization and the tone, plot, and credibility of a text.

9.W.1

Students write coherent and focused essays that convey a well-defined perspective and tightly reasoned argument. The writing demonstrates students awareness of the audience and purpose. Students progress through the stages of the writing process as needed.

9.W.1.1

Establish a controlling impression or coherent thesis that conveys a clear and distinctive perspective on the subject and maintain a consistent tone and focus throughout the piece of writing.

9.W.1.2

Use precise language, action verbs, sensory details, appropriate modifiers, and the active rather than the passive voice.

9.W.1.3

Use clear research questions and suitable research methods (e.g., library, electronic media, personal interview) to elicit and present evidence from primary and secondary sources.

9.W.1.4

Develop the main ideas within the body of the composition through supporting evidence (e.g., scenarios, commonly held beliefs, hypotheses, definitions).

9.W.1.5

Synthesize information from multiple sources and identify complexities and discrepancies in the information and the different perspectives found in each medium (e.g., almanacs, microfiche, news sources, in-depth field studies, speeches, journals, technical documents).

9.W.1.6

Integrate quotations and citations into a written text while maintaining the flow of ideas.

9.W.1.7

Use appropriate conventions for documentation in the text, notes, and bibliographies by adhering to those in style manuals (e.g., Modern Language Association Handbook, The Chicago Manual of Style).

9.W.1.8

Design and publish documents by using advanced publishing software and graphic programs.

9.W.1.9

Revise writing to improve the logic and coherence of the organization and controlling perspective, the precision of word choice, and the tone by taking into consideration the audience, purpose, and formality of the context.

9.W.2

Students combine the rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description to produce texts of at least 1,500 words each. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.

9.W.2.1

Write biographical or autobiographical narratives or short stories:

9.W.2.1a

Relate a sequence of events and communicate the significance of the events to the audience.

9.W.2.1b

Locate scenes and incidents in specific places.

9.W.2.1c

Describe with concrete sensory details the sights, sounds, and smells of a scene and the specific actions, movements, gestures, and feelings of the characters; use interior monologue to depict the characters feelings.

9.W.2.1d

Pace the presentation of actions to accommodate changes in time and mood.

9.W.2.1e

Make effective use of descriptions of appearance, images, shifting perspectives, and sensory details.

9.W.2.2

Write responses to literature:

9.W.2.2a

Demonstrate a comprehensive grasp of the significant ideas of literary works.

9.W.2.2b

Support important ideas and viewpoints through accurate and detailed references to the text or to other works.

9.W.2.2c

Demonstrate awareness of the authors use of stylistic devices and an appreciation of the effects created.

9.W.2.2d

Identify and assess the impact of perceived ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text.

9.W.2.3

Write expository compositions, including analytical essays and research reports:

9.W.2.3a

Marshal evidence in support of a thesis and related claims, including information on all relevant perspectives.

9.W.2.3b

Convey information and ideas from primary and secondary sources accurately and coherently.

9.W.2.3c

Make distinctions between the relative value and significance of specific data, facts, and ideas.

9.W.2.3d

Include visual aids by employing appropriate technology to organize and record information on charts, maps, and graphs.

9.W.2.3e

Anticipate and address readers potential misunderstandings, biases, and expectations.

9.W.2.3f

Use technical terms and notations accurately.

9.W.2.4

Write persuasive compositions:

9.W.2.4a

Structure ideas and arguments in a sustained and logical fashion.

9.W.2.4b

Use specific rhetorical devices to support assertions (e.g., appeal to logic through reasoning; appeal to emotion or ethical belief; relate a personal anecdote, case study, or analogy).

9.W.2.4c

Clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including facts, expert opinions, quotations, and expressions of commonly accepted beliefs and logical reasoning.

9.W.2.4d

Address readers concerns, counterclaims, biases, and expectations.

9.W.2.5

Write business letters:

9.W.2.5a

Provide clear and purposeful information and address the intended audience appropriately.

9.W.2.5b

Use appropriate vocabulary, tone, and style to take into account the nature of the relationship with, and the knowledge and interests of, the recipients.

9.W.2.5c

Highlight central ideas or images.

9.W.2.5d

Follow a conventional style with page formats, fonts, and spacing that contribute to the documents readability and impact.

9.W.2.6

Write technical documents (e.g., a manual on rules of behavior for conflict resolution, procedures for conducting a meeting, minutes of a meeting):

9.W.2.6a

Report information and convey ideas logically and correctly.

9.W.2.6b

Offer detailed and accurate specifications.

9.W.2.6c

Include scenarios, definitions, and examples to aid comprehension (e.g., troubleshooting guide).

9.W.2.6d

Anticipate readers problems, mistakes, and misunderstandings.

9.WO.1

Students write and speak with a command of standard English conventions.

9.WO.1.1

Identify and correctly use clauses (e.g., main and subordinate), phrases (e.g., gerund, infinitive, and participial), and mechanics of punctuation (e.g., semicolons, colons, ellipses, hyphens).

9.WO.1.2

Understand sentence construction (e.g., parallel structure, subordination, proper placement of modifiers) and proper English usage (e.g., consistency of verb tenses).

9.WO.1.3

Demonstrate an understanding of proper English usage and control of grammar, paragraph and sentence structure, diction, and syntax.

9.WO.1.4

Produce legible work that shows accurate spelling and correct use of the conventions of punctuation and capitalization.

9.WO.1.5

Reflect appropriate manuscript requirements, including title page presentation, pagination, spacing and margins, and integration of source and support material (e.g., in-text citation, use of direct quotations, paraphrasing) with appropriate citations.