Massachusetts History and Social Science Curriculum Framework (2003) — Grade 8

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Explain the political and economic factors that contributed to the American Revolution. (H, C) A. the impact on the colonies of the French and Indian War, including how the war led to an overhaul of British imperial policy from 1763 to 1775 B. how freedom from European feudalism and aristocracy and the widespread ownership of property fostered individualism and contributed to the Revolution


On a map of North America, identify the first 13 states to ratify the Constitution. (H, G)


Describe the purpose and functions of government. (H, C)


Explain and provide examples of different forms of government, including democracy, monarchy, oligarchy, theocracy, and autocracy. (H, C)


Explain why the United States government is classified as a democratic government. (H, C)


Explain the characteristics of American democracy, including the concepts of popular sovereignty and constitutional government, which includes representative institutions, federalism, separation of powers, shared powers, checks and balances, and individual rights. (H, C)


Explain the varying roles and responsibilities of federal, state, and local governments in the United States. (H, C)


Describe the evolution of the role of the federal government, including public services, taxation, economic policy, foreign policy, and common defense. (H, C) )


Explain the major components of Massachusetts state government, including the roles and functions of the governor, state legislature, and other constitutional officers. (H, C)


Explain the major components of local government in Massachusetts, including the roles and functions of school committees, town meetings, boards of selectmen, mayors, and city councils. (H, C)


Explain the rights and the responsibilities of citizenship and describe how a democracy provides opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process through elections, political parties, and interest groups. (H, C)


Explain the historical and intellectual influences on the American Revolution and the formation and framework of the American government. (H, C) A. the legacy of ancient Greece and Rome B. the political theories of such European philosophers as Locke and Montesquieu Seminal Primary Documents to Read: Mayflower Compact (1620) Seminal Primary Documents to Consider: Massachusetts Body of Liberties (1641) and John Lockes Treatises of Civil Government (1690)


Explain the evolution and function of political parties, including their role in federal, state, and local elections. (H, C)


Describe how decisions are made in a democracy, including the role of legislatures, courts, executives, and the public. (H, C)


Summarize the major policies and political developments that took place during the presidencies of George Washington (17891797), John Adams (17971801), and Thomas Jefferson (18011809). (H, C) A. the origins of the Federalist and Democratic-Republican parties in the 1790s B. the conflicting ideas of Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton C. the Alien and Sedition Acts D. the Louisiana Purchase Seminal Primary Documents to Consider: Washingtons Farewell Address (1796) and Jeffersons First Inaugural Address (1801)


Analyze the rising levels of political participation and the expansion of suffrage in antebellum America. (C, H) Seminal Primary Documents to Consider: Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, Volume I (1835) and Volume II (1839)


Describe the election of 1828, the importance of Jacksonian democracy, and Jacksons actions as President. (H) A. the spoils system B. Jacksons veto of the National Bank C. Jacksons policy of Indian Removal


Trace the influence and ideas of Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall and the importance of the doctrine of judicial review as manifested in Marbury v. Madison (1803). (H, C)


Describe the causes, course, and consequences of Americas westward expansion and its growing diplomatic assertiveness. Use a map of North America to trace Americas expansion to the Civil War, including the location of the Santa Fe and Oregon trails. (H, E, G) A. the War of 1812 B. the purchase of Florida in 1819 C. the 1823 Monroe Doctrine D. the Cherokees Trail of Tears E. the annexation of Texas in 1845 F. the concept of Manifest Destiny and its relationship to westward expansion G. the acquisition of the Oregon Territory in 1846 H. the territorial acquisitions resulting from the Mexican War I. the search for gold in California J. the Gadsden Purchase of 1854


Explain the importance of the Transportation Revolution of the 19th century (the building of canals, roads, bridges, turnpikes, steamboats, and railroads), including the stimulus it provided to the growth of a market economy. (H, E)


Explain the emergence and impact of the textile industry in New England and industrial growth generally throughout antebellum America. (H, E) A. the technological improvements and inventions that contributed to industrial growth B. the causes and impact of the wave of immigration from Northern Europe to America in the 1840s and 1850s C. the rise of a business class of merchants and manufacturers D. the roles of women in New England textile factories


Describe the rapid growth of slavery in the South after 1800 and analyze slave life and resistance on plantations and farms across the South, as well as the impact of the cotton gin on the economics of slavery and Southern agriculture. (H) Seminal Primary Documents to Read: Frederick Douglasss Independence Day speech at Rochester, New York (1852)


Explain the influence and ideas of the Declaration of Independence and the political philosophy of Thomas Jefferson. (H, C) Seminal Primary Documents to Read: the Declaration of Independence (1776) Seminal Primary Documents to Consider: the Suffolk Resolves (1774) and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1786)


Summarize the growth of the American education system and Horace Manns campaign for free compulsory public education. (H)


Describe the formation of the abolitionist movement, the roles of various abolitionists, and the response of southerners and northerners to abolitionism. (H) A. Frederick Douglass B. William Lloyd Garrison C. Sojourner Truth D. Harriet Tubman E. Theodore Weld


Describe important religious trends that shaped antebellum America. (H) A. the increase in the number of Protestant denominations B. the Second Great Awakening C. the influence of these trends on the reaction of Protestants to the growth of Catholic immigration


Analyze the goals and effect of the antebellum womens suffrage movement. (H) A. the 1848 Seneca Falls convention B. Susan B. Anthony C. Margaret Fuller D. Lucretia Mott E. Elizabeth Cady Stanton Seminal Primary Documents to Read: the Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions (1848)


Analyze the emergence of the Transcendentalist movement through the writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson and American literature, including the contributions of Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson. (H)


Describe how the different economies and cultures of the North and South contributed to the growing importance of sectional politics in the early 19th century. (H)


Summarize the critical developments leading to the Civil War. (H) A. the Missouri Compromise (1820) B. the South Carolina Nullification Crisis (18321833) C. the Wilmot Proviso (1846) D. the Compromise of 1850 E. the publication of Harriet Beecher Stowes Uncle Toms Cabin (18511852) F. the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) G. the Dred Scott Supreme Court case (1857) H. the Lincoln-Douglas debates (1858) I. John Browns raid on Harpers Ferry (1859) J. the election of Abraham Lincoln (1860)


On a map of North America, identify Union and Confederate States at the outbreak of the war. (H, G)


Analyze Abraham Lincolns presidency, the Emancipation Proclamation (1863), his views on slavery, and the political obstacles he encountered. (H, C) Seminal Primary Documents to Read: Lincolns Gettysburg Address (1863) and Lincolns second inaugural address (1865) Seminal Primary Documents to Consider: Lincolns House Divided speech (1858)


Analyze the roles and policies of various Civil War leaders and describe the important Civil War battles and events. (H) Leaders A. Jefferson Davis B. Ulysses S. Grant C. Robert E. Lee Battles A. the Massachusetts 54th Regiment and the Battle at Fort Wagner B. Antietam C. Vicksburg D. Gettysburg


Analyze how Americans resisted British policies before 1775 and analyze the reasons for the American victory and the British defeat during the Revolutionary war. (H)


Provide examples of the various effects of the Civil War. (H, E) A. physical and economic destruction B. the increased role of the federal government C. the greatest loss of life on a per capita basis of any U.S. war before or since


Explain the policies and consequences of Reconstruction. (H, C) A. Presidential and Congressional Reconstruction B. the impeachment of President Johnson C. the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments D. the opposition of Southern whites to Reconstruction E. the accomplishments and failures of Radical Reconstruction F. the presidential election of 1876 and the end of Reconstruction G. the rise of Jim Crow laws H. the Supreme Court case, Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)


Explain the role of Massachusetts in the Revolution, including important events that took place in Massachusetts and important leaders from Massachusetts. (H) A. the Boston Massacre B. the Boston Tea Party C. the Battles of Lexington and Concord and Bunker Hill D. Sam Adams, John Adams, and John Hancock Seminal Primary Documents to Consider: the Massachusetts Constitution (1780)


Explain the reasons for the adoption of the Articles of Confederation in 1781, including why its drafters created a weak central government; analyze the shortcomings of the national government under the Articles; and describe the crucial events (e.g., Shayss Rebellion) leading to the Constitutional Convention. (H, C) Seminal Primary Documents to Read: the Northwest Ordinance (1787)


Explain the roles of various founders at the Constitutional Convention. Describe the major debates that occurred at the Convention and the Great Compromise that was reached. (H, C) Major Debates A. the distribution of political power B. the rights of individuals C. the rights of states D. slavery Founders A. Benjamin Franklin B. Alexander Hamilton C. James Madison D. George Washington Seminal Primary Documents to Read: the U.S. Constitution


Describe the debate over the ratification of the Constitution between Federalists and Anti-Federalists and explain the key ideas contained in the Federalist Papers on federalism, factions, checks and balances, and the importance of an independent judiciary. (H, C) Seminal Primary Documents to Read: Federalist Paper number 10 Seminal Primary Documents to Consider: Federalist Papers numbers 1, 9, 39, 51, and 78


Explain the reasons for the passage of the Bill of Rights. (H, C) A. the influence of the British concept of limited government B. the particular ways in which the Bill of Rights protects basic freedoms, restricts government power, and ensures rights to persons accused of crimes Seminal Primary Documents to Read: the Bill of Rights (1791) Seminal Primary Documents to Consider: Magna Carta (1215) and the English Bill of Rights (1689)


Explain the various causes of the Industrial Revolution. (H, E) A. the economic impetus provided by the Civil War B. important technological and scientific advances C. the role of business leaders, entrepreneurs, and inventors such as Alexander Graham Bell, Andrew Carnegie, Thomas Edison, J.P. Morgan, John D. Rockefeller, and Cornelius Vanderbilt


Describe how the battle between traditionalism and modernity manifested itself in the major historical trends and events after World War I and throughout the 1920s. (H) A. the Boston police strike in 1919 B. the Red Scare and Sacco and Vanzetti C. racial and ethnic tensions D. the Scopes Trial and the debate over Darwins On the Origins of Species E. Prohibition


Describe the various causes and consequences of the global depression of the 1930s, and analyze how Americans responded to the Great Depression. (H, E) A. restrictive monetary policies B. unemployment C. support for political and economic reform D. the influence of the ideas of John Maynard Keynes, and the critique of centralized economic planning and management by Ludwig von Mises, Friedrich von Hayek, and Milton Friedman


Analyze the important polices, institutions, and personalities of the New Deal era. (H) People A. President Herbert Hoover B. President Franklin D. Roosevelt C. Eleanor Roosevelt D. Huey Long E. Charles Coughlin Policies A. the establishment of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation B. the Securities and Exchange Commission C. the Tennessee Valley Authority D. the Social Security Act E. the National Labor Relations Act F. the Works Progress Administration G. the Fair Labor Standards Act Institutions A. the American Federation of Labor B. the Congress of Industrial Organizations C. the American Communist Party


Explain how the Great Depression and the New Deal affected American society. (H) A. the increased importance of the federal government in establishing economic and social policies B. the emergence of a New Deal coalition consisting of African Americans, blue-collar workers, poor farmers, Jews, and Catholics


Explain the strength of American isolationism after World War I and analyze its impact on U.S. foreign policy. (H)


Analyze how German aggression in Europe and Japanese aggression in Asia contributed to the start of World War II and summarize the major battles and events of the war. On a map of the world, locate the Allied powers (Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States) and Axis powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan). (H, G) A. Fascism in Germany and Italy B. German rearmament and militarization of the Rhineland C. Germanys seizure of Austria and Czechoslovakia and Germanys invasion of Poland D. Japans invasion of China and the Rape of Nanking E. Pearl Harbor, Midway, D-Day, Okinawa, the Battle of the Bulge, Iwo Jima, and the Yalta and Potsdam conferences Seminal Primary Documents to Read: President Franklin Roosevelt, Four Freedoms, speech (1941) Seminal Primary Documents to Consider: Justice Robert M. Jacksons opinion for the Supreme Court in West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette (1943) and Learned Hands The Spirit of Liberty (1944)


Explain the reasons for the dropping of atom bombs on Japan and their short and long-term effects. (H)


Explain important domestic events that took place during the war. (H, E) A. how war-inspired economic growth ended the Great Depression B. A. Philip Randolph and the efforts to eliminate employment discrimination C. the entry of large numbers of women into the workforce D. the internment of West Coast Japanese-Americans in the U.S. and Canada


Analyze the factors that contributed to the Cold War and describe the policy of containment as Americas response to Soviet expansionist policies. (H) A. the differences between the Soviet and American political and economic systems B. Soviet aggression in Eastern Europe C. the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, and NATO Seminal Primary Documents to Read: The Truman Doctrine (1947), and George Kennan, The Sources of Soviet Conduct (1947)


Analyze the sources and, with a map of the world, locate the areas of Cold War conflict between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. (H, G) A. the Korean War B. Germany C. China D. the Middle East E. the arms race F. Latin America G. Africa H. the Vietnam War


Explain the important consequences of the Industrial Revolution. (H, E) A. the growth of big business B. environmental impact C. the expansion of cities


Explain the causes, course, and consequences of the Vietnam War and summarize the diplomatic and military policies of Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon. (H)


Analyze how the failure of communist economic policies as well as U.S.-sponsored resistance to Soviet military and diplomatic initiatives contributed to ending the Cold War. (H, E) Seminal Primary Documents to Read: President John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address (1961) Seminal Primary Documents to Consider: President Ronald Reagan, Speech at Moscow State University (1988)


Analyze the causes and consequences of important domestic Cold War trends. (H, E) A. economic growth and declining poverty B. the baby boom C. the growth of suburbs and home-ownership D. the increase in education levels E. the development of mass media and consumerism


Analyze the following domestic policies of Presidents Truman and Eisenhower. (H) A. Trumans Fair Deal B. the Taft-Hartley Act (1947) C. Eisenhowers response to the Soviets launching of Sputnik D. Eisenhowers civil rights record


Analyze the roots of domestic anticommunism as well as the origins and consequences of McCarthyism. (H) People A. Whittaker Chambers B. Alger Hiss C. J. Edgar Hoover D. Senator Joseph McCarthy E. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Institutions A. the American Communist Party (including its close relationship to the Soviet Union) B. the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) C. the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC)


Analyze the origins, goals, and key events of the Civil Rights movement. (H) People A. Robert Kennedy B. Martin Luther King, Jr. C. Thurgood Marshall D. Rosa Parks E. Malcolm X Institution the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Events A. Brown v. Board of Education (1954) B. the 19551956 Montgomery Bus Boycott C. the 19571958 Little Rock School Crisis D. the sit-ins and freedom rides of the early 1960s E. the 1963 civil rights protest in Birmingham F. the 1963 March on Washington G. the 1965 civil rights protest in Selma H. the 1968 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. Seminal Primary Documents to Read: Reverend Martin Luther Kings, I Have A Dream speech and his Letter from Birmingham City Jail (1963), President Lyndon Johnson, speech to Congress on voting rights (March 15, 1965)


Describe the accomplishments of the civil rights movement. (H, E) A. the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the 1965 Voting Rights Act B. the growth of the African American middle class, increased political power, and declining rates of African American poverty


Analyze the causes and course of the womens rights movement in the 1960s and 1970s. (H) A. Betty Friedan and Gloria Steinem B. the birth control pill C. the increasing number of working women D. the formation of the National Organization of Women in 1967 E. the debate over the Equal Rights Amendment F. the 1973 Supreme Court case, Roe v. Wade


Analyze the important domestic policies and events that took place during the presidencies of Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon. (H) A. the space exploration program B. the assassination of President Kennedy C. Johnsons Great Society programs D. Nixons appeal to the silent majority E. the anti-war and counter-cultural movements F. the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1970 G. the Watergate scandal (including the Supreme Court case, U.S. v. Nixon)


Analyze the presidency of Ronald Reagan. (H, E) A. tax rate cuts B. anticommunist foreign and defense policies C. Supreme Court appointments D. the revitalization of the conservative movement during Reagans tenure as President E. the replacement of striking air traffic controllers with non-union personnel


Describe the causes of the immigration of Southern and Eastern Europeans, Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese to America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and describe the major roles of these immigrants in the industrialization of America. (H) Seminal Primary Documents to Read: Emma Lazarus, The New Colossus (1883) Seminal Primary Documents to Consider: Younghill Kang, East Goes West (1937)


Describe some of the major economic and social trends of the late 20th century. (H, E) A. the computer and technological revolution of the 1980s and 1990s B. scientific and medical discoveries C. major immigration and demographic changes such as the rise in Asian and Hispanic immigration (both legal and illegal) D. the weakening of the nuclear family and the rise in divorce rates


Analyze the important domestic policies and events of the Clinton presidency. (H, E) A. the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1993 B. President Clintons welfare reform legislation and expansion of the earned income tax credit C. the first balanced budget in more than 25 years D. the election in 1994 of the first Republican majority in both the House and Senate in 40 years E. tax credits for higher education F. the causes and consequences of the impeachment of President Clinton in 1998


Explain the importance of the 2000 presidential election. (H, C) A. the Supreme Court case, Bush v. Gore B. the growing influence of the Republican Party in the South and the consolidation of the Democratic Partys hold on the coasts


Analyze the course and consequences of Americas recent diplomatic initiatives. (H, C) A. the invasion of Panama and the Persian Gulf War B. American intervention in Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Kosovo C. the attempts to negotiate a settlement to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict D. Americas response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in New York City and on the Pentagon in Washington, D.C.


Analyze the causes of the continuing westward expansion of the American people after the Civil War and the impact of this migration on the Indians. (H)


Explain the formation and goals of unions as well as the rise of radical political parties during the Industrial era. (H, E) A. the Knights of Labor B. the American Federation of Labor headed by Samuel Gompers C. the Populist Party D. the Socialist Party headed by Eugene Debs


Analyze the causes and course of Americas growing role in world affairs from the Civil War to World War I. (H, E) A. the influence of the ideas associated with Social Darwinism B. the purchase of Alaska from Russia C. Americas growing influence in Hawaii leading to annexation D. the Spanish-American War E. U.S. expansion into Asia under the Open Door policy F. President Roosevelts Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine G. Americas role in the building of the Panama Canal H. President Tafts Dollar Diplomacy I. President Wilsons intervention in Mexico J. American entry into World War I


Explain the course and significance of President Wilsons wartime diplomacy, including his Fourteen Points, the League of Nations, and the failure of the Versailles treaty. (H) Seminal Primary Documents to Read: President Woodrow Wilson, Peace Without Victory, speech (1917)


Analyze the origins of Progressivism and important Progressive leaders, and summarize the major accomplishments of Progressivism. (H, E) People A. Jane Addams B. William Jennings Bryan C. John Dewey D. Robert La Follette E. President Theodore Roosevelt F. Upton Sinclair G. President William H. Taft H. Ida Tarbell I. President Woodrow Wilson Policies A. bans against child labor B. the initiative referendum and its recall C. the Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890) D. the Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) E. the Meat Packing Act (1906) F. the Federal Reserve Act (1913) G. the Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914) H. the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920 Seminal Primary Documents to Read: President Theodore Roosevelt, The New Nationalism, speech (1910).


Analyze the post-Civil War struggles of African Americans and women to gain basic civil rights. (H) A. Carrie Chapman Catt B. W.E.B. Du Bois C. Marcus Garvey D. the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) E. Alice Paul F. Booker T. Washington


On a map of the Middle East, Europe, Africa, and Asia, identify where Islam began and trace the course of its expansion to 1500 AD. (H)


Describe significant aspects of Islamic belief. (H) A. the life and teachings of Muhammad B. the significance of the Quran as the primary source of Islamic belief C. Islams historical relationship to Judaism and Christianity D. the relationship between government and religion in Muslim societies


Analyze the causes, and course, and effects of Islamic expansion through North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, and Central Asia. (H, G) A. the strength of the Islamic worlds economy and culture B. the training of Muslim soldiers and the use of advanced military techniques C. the disorganization and internal divisions of Islams enemies D. the resistance and/or assimilation of Christianized peoples in the Mediterranean


Describe the central political, economic, and religious developments in major periods of Islamic history. (H, E) A. the sources of disagreement between Sunnis and Shiites B. the growing influence of Turkish Islam after 1000 C. the importance of the trade routes connecting the Far East and Europe and the role of the Mongols in increasing trade along these routes, including the silk routes to China D. the relationship of trade to the growth of Central Asian and Middle Eastern cities E. the sources and uses of slaves in Islamic societies as well as the extent of the Islamic slave trade across Africa from 700 AD on.


Analyze the influence and achievements of Islamic civilization during its Golden Age. (H) A. the preservation and expansion of Greek thought B. Islamic science, philosophy, and mathematics C. Islamic architecture


Describe the rise of the Ottoman Empire in the 14th and 15th centuries, including the capture of Constantinople in 1453. (H)


Describe the decline of Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula and the subsequent rise of Spanish and Portuguese kingdoms after the Reconquest in 1492. (H)


Explain why European nations sent explorers westward and how overseas expansion led to the growth of commerce and the development of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. (H, E)


Identify the three major pre-Columbian civilizations that existed in Central and South America (Maya, Aztec, and Inca) and their locations. Describe their political structures, religious practices, economies, art and architecture, and use of slaves. (H, G, E)


Identify the major economic, political, and social effects of the European colonial period in South America. (H, E)


Describe the indigenous religious practices observed by early Africans before contact with Islam and Christianity. (H)


Explain how extended family/kinship and tribal relationships have shaped indigenous African cultures, and their effects on the political and economic development of African countries. (H, E)


Describe the different ways in which Islam and Christianity influenced indigenous African cultures. (H)


Identify the locations and time periods of the empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhay. (H, G)


Describe important political and economic aspects of the African empires. (H, E) A. the economies of these empires (gold, salt, and slaves as commodities for trade by African kings) B. leaders such as Sundiata and Mansa Musa C. Timbuktu as a center of trade and learning


Describe the development and effects of the trans-African slave trade to the Middle East from the 8th century on, and the trans-Atlantic slave trade to the Western Hemisphere from the 16th century on. (H, E, G)


Describe important economic, political, and religious developments in Indian history to 1800. (H) A. the origins of Indian civilization in the Indus Valley B. the evolution and central principles of Hinduism C. the development of the caste system D. the influence of Islam and the rise and fall of the Moghul empire E. artistic and intellectual achievements, including the development of a decimal system


Describe the growth of British influence in India and the emergence of the British Raj. (H)


Summarize the major reasons for the continuity of Chinese civilization through the 19th century. (H) A. the role of kinship and Confucianism in maintaining order and hierarchy B. the political order established by the various dynasties that ruled China C. the role of civil servants/scholars in maintaining a stable political and economic order


Describe the growth of commerce and towns in China and the importance of agriculture to the development of the Chinese economy to 1800, including the limited role of slavery. (H)


Summarize the major economic, political, and religious developments in Japanese history to 1800. (H) A. the evolution of Shinto and Japanese Buddhism B. the development of feudalism C. the rise of the Shoguns and the role of the samurai


Describe Japans cultural and economic relationship to China and Korea. (H, G)


Describe the influence and consequences of Japanese isolationism to 1800. (H, G)


Explain how Korea has been both a battleground and a cultural bridge between China and Japan. (H, G)


Describe the origins and development of the Renaissance, including the influence and accomplishments of Machiavelli, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Shakespeare, and Johannes Gutenberg. (H)


Describe origins and effects of the Protestant Reformation. (H) A. the reasons for the growing discontent with the Catholic Church, including the main ideas of Martin Luther and John Calvin B. the spread of Protestantism across Europe, including the reasons and consequences of Englands break with the Catholic Church C. the weakening of a uniform Christian faith D. the consolidation of royal power


Explain the purposes and policies of the Catholic Counter-Reformation, including the influence and ideas of Ignatius Loyola. (H)


Explain the role of religion in the wars among European nations in the 15th and 16th centuries. (H)


Summarize how the Scientific Revolution and the scientific method led to new theories of the universe and describe the accomplishments of leading figures of the Scientific Revolution, including Bacon, Copernicus, Descartes, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton. (H)


Describe the concept of Enlightenment in European history and describe the accomplishments of major Enlightenment thinkers, including Diderot, Kant, Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Voltaire. (H)


Explain how the Enlightenment contributed to the growth of democratic principles of government, a stress on reason and progress, and the replacement of a theocentric interpretation of the universe with a secular interpretation. (H)


Describe the expansion of the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries into North Africa, Eastern Europe, and throughout the Middle East. (H, E)


Describe the expansion of Islam into India from the 13th through the 17th century, the role of the Mongols, the rise and fall of the Moghul Empire, and the relationship between Muslims and Hindus. (H, E)


Account for the declining strength of the Ottoman Empire beginning in the 17th century, including the failed siege of Vienna in 1683 and the rapid pace of modernization in European economic, political, religious, scientific, and intellectual life resulting from the ideas embedded in the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment, and the Industrial Revolution. (H, E)


Describe the rise and achievements of the Byzantine Empire. (H) A. the influence of Constantine, including the establishment of Christianity as an officially sanctioned religion. B. the importance of Justinian and the Code of Justinian C. the preservation of Greek and Roman traditions D. the construction of the Church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia).


Describe the major economic, social, and political developments that took place in medieval Europe. (H, E) A. the growing influence of Christianity and the Catholic Church B. the differing orders of medieval society, the development of feudalism, and the development of private property as a distinguishing feature of western civilization C. the initial emergence of a modern economy, including the growth of banking, technological and agricultural improvements, commerce, towns, and a merchant class D. the economic and social effects of the spread of the Black Death or Bubonic Plague E. the growth and development of the English and French nations


Describe developments in medieval English legal and constitutional history and their importance in the rise of modern democratic institutions and procedures, including the Magna Carta, parliament, and habeas corpus. (H, C)


Describe the religious and political origins of conflicts between Islam and Christianity, including the Muslim wars against Christianity before the European Crusades and the causes, course, and consequences of the European European Crusades against Islam in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. (H)


Describe the growing consolidation of political power in Europe from 1500 to 1800 as manifested in the rise of nation states ruled by monarchs. (H, C, E) A. the rise of the French monarchy, including the policies and influence of Louis XIV B. the Thirty Years War and the Peace of Westphalia C. the growing power of Russian tsars, including the attempts at Westernization by Peter the Great, the growth of serfdom, and Russias rise as an important force in Eastern Europe and Asia D. the rise of Prussia E. Poland and Sweden


Summarize the causes, course, and consequences of the unification of Italy and Germany. (H) A. Germanys replacement of France as the dominant power in continental Europe B. the role of Cavour and Bismarck in the unification of Italy and Germany


Describe the causes of 19th century European imperialism. (H, E) A. the desire for economic gain and resources B. the missionary impulse and the search for strategic advantage and national pride


Identify major developments in Indian history in the 19th and early 20th centuries. (H, E) A. the economic and political relationship between India and Britain B. the building of roads, canals, railroads, and universities C. the rise of Indian nationalism and the influence and ideas of Gandhi


Identify major developments in Chinese history in the 19th and early 20th centuries. (H, E) A. Chinas explosive population growth between 1750 and 1850 B. Decline of the Manchu dynasty beginning in the late 18th century C. Growing Western influence D. The Opium War E. The Taiping rebellion from 1850 to 1864 F. The Boxer Rebellion G. Sun Yat-Sen and the 1911 nationalist revolution


Identify major developments in Japanese history in the 19th and early 20th centuries. (H, E) A. the Meiji Restoration B. the abolition of feudalism C. the borrowing and adaptation of western technology and industrial growth D. Japans growing role in international affairs


Identify major developments of African history in the 19th and early 20th centuries. (H, E) A. Africas interaction with imperialism B. agricultural changes improvements and new patterns of employment C. the origins of African nationalism


Identify the major developments of Latin American history to the early 20th century. (H, E) A. the wars for independence, including the influence and ideas of Simon Bolivar, Jose de San Martin, and the American and French Revolutions B. economic and social stratification C. the role of the church D. the importance of trade E. the growing influence of the United States as demonstrated by the Spanish American War and the building of the Panama Canal F. the Mexican Revolution


Describe the relative importance of economic and imperial competition, Balkan nationalism, German militarism and aggression, and the power vacuum in Europe due to the declining power of the Russian, Austrian, and Ottoman Empires in causing World War I. (H, E)


Summarize the major events and consequences of World War I. (H, E) A. physical and economic destruction B. the League of Nations and attempts at disarmament C. the collapse of the Romanov dynasty and the subsequent Bolshevik Revolution and Civil War in Russia D. post-war economic and political instability in Germany E. the Armenian genocide in Turkey F. the unprecedented loss of life from prolonged trench warfare


Identify the major developments in the Middle East and Central Asia before World War II. (H, E) A. the end of the Ottoman Empire B. the Balfour Declaration of 1917 C. the expulsion of the Greeks from Asia Minor D. the establishment of a secular Turkish state under Mustafa Kemal Ataturk E. the establishment of the Kingdom of Transjordan in the eastern part of the Palestine Mandate by the British F. the growing importance of Middle Eastern oil fields to world politics and the world economy


Explain why England was the main exception to the growth of absolutism in royal power in Europe. (H, C) A. the causes and essential events of the English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution of 1688 B. the effect of the Glorious Revolution on the development of constitutional government and liberty in England, including the importance of the English Bill of Rights and how it limited the power of the monarch to act without the consent of Parliament


Describe the various causes and consequences of the global depression of the 1930s, and analyze how governments responded to the Great Depression. (H, E) A. restrictive monetary policies B. unemployment and inflation C. political instability D. the influence of the ideas of John Maynard Keynes, Ludwig von Mises, Friedrich von Hayek, and Milton Friedman


Describe the rise and goals of totalitarianism in Italy, Germany, and the Soviet Union, and analyze the policies and ideas of Mussolini, Hitler, Lenin, and Stalin. (H)


Summarize the consequences of Soviet communism to 1945. (H, E) A. the establishment of a one-party dictatorship under Lenin B. the suffering in the Soviet Union caused by Stalins policies of collectivization of agriculture and breakneck industrialization C. the destruction of individual rights and the use of mass terror against the population, the use of terror against internal enemies, and the destruction of individual rights D. the Soviet Unions emergence as an industrial power


Describe the German, Italian, and Japanese drives for empire in the 1930s. (H) A. Italys invasion of Ethiopia in 1935 B. the Japanese invasion of China and the Rape of Nanking C. Germanys militarization of the Rhineland, annexation of Austria, and aggression against Czechoslovakia, the Stalin-Hitler Pact of 1939, and the German attack on Poland


Summarize the key battles and events of World War II. (H) A. The German conquest of continental Europe G. Stalingrad B. The Battle of Britain H. D-Day C. Pearl Harbor I. Battle of the Bulge D. The Bataan Death March J. Iwo Jima E. El Alamein K. Okinawa F. Midway


Identify the goals, leadership, and post-war plans of the allied leaders. (H) A. Winston Churchill B. Franklin D. Roosevelt C. Joseph Stalin


Describe the background, course, and consequences of the Holocaust, including its roots in the long tradition of Christian anti-Semitism, 19th century ideas about race and nation, and Nazi dehumanization of the Jews. (H)


Explain the reasons for the dropping of atom bombs on Japan and its short and long-term effects. (H)


Explain the consequences of World War II. (H, E) A. physical and economic destruction B. the enormous loss of life, including millions of civilians through the bombing of population centers and the slaughter of political opponents and ethnic minorities C. support in Europe for political reform and decolonization D. the emergence of the U.S. and the Soviet Union as the worlds two superpowers


Describe reasons for the establishment of the United Nations in 1945 and summarize the main ideas of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (H)


Summarize the important causes and events of the French Revolution. (H, C, E) Causes: A. the effect of Enlightenment political thought B. the influence of the American Revolution C. economic troubles and the rising influence of the middle class D. government corruption and incompetence Events: A. the role of the Estates General and the National Assembly B. the storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789 C. the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen D. the execution of Louis XVI in 1793 E. the Terror F. the rise and fall of Napoleon G. the Congress of Vienna


Summarize the factors that contributed to the Cold War, including Soviet expansion in Eastern Europe and the differences between democracy and communism. (H, C)


Describe the policy of containment, including the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, and NATO, as Americas response to Soviet expansionist policies. (H)


Describe the development of the arms race and the key events of the Cold War era. (H) A. the Korean War B. the emergence of the Peoples Republic of China as a major power C. the 1956 uprising in Hungary D. Soviet-U.S. competition in the Middle East E. conflicts involving Cuba and Berlin F. the Vietnam War G. the Prague Spring H. arms control agreements (including the ABM and SALT treaties) and dtente under Nixon I. the Soviet war in Afghanistan


Describe the Chinese Civil War, the rise of Mao Tse-tung, and the triumph of the Communist Revolution in China in 1949. (H)


Identify the political and economic upheavals in China after the Chinese Revolution. (H, E) A. Communist Party attempts to eliminate internal opposition B. the Great Leap Forward and its consequences (famine) C. the Cultural Revolution and its consequences (the terror of the Red Guards and the expansion of labor camps) D. the 1989 Tiananmen Square demonstration E. Chinas economic modernization and its growing involvement in world trade


Describe the global surge in economic productivity during the Cold War and describe its consequences. (H, E) A. the rise in living standards B. the economic recovery and development of Germany and Japan


Explain the various factors that contributed to post-World War II economic and population growth. (H, E) A. the long post-war peace between democratic nations B. the policies of international economic organizations C. scientific, technological, and medical advances


Describe how the work of scientists in the 20th century influenced historical events, changed the lives of the general populace, and led to further scientific research. (H) A. Albert Einstein and the Theory of Relativity B. Enrico Fermi, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Edward Teller, and nuclear energy C. Wernher von Braun and space exploration D. Jonas Salk and the polio vaccine E. James Watson, Francis Crick, the discovery of DNA, and the Human Genome Project


Describe the development and goals of nationalist movements in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East, including the ideas and importance of nationalist leaders. (H) A. Fidel Castro (Cuba) D. Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt) B. Patrice Lumumba (Congo) E. Jawaharlal Nehru (India) C. Ho Chi Minh (Vietnam) F. Juan Peron (Argentina)


Explain the background for the establishment of the modern state of Israel in 1948, and the subsequent military and political conflicts between Israel and the Arab world. (H) A. the growth of Zionism, and 19th and early 20th century immigration by Eastern European Jews to Palestine B. anti-Semitism and the Holocaust C. the UN vote in 1947 to partition the western part of the Palestine Mandate into two independent countries D. the rejection of surrounding Arab countries of the UN decision and the invasion of Israel by Arab countries E. the 1967 and 1973 wars between Israel and neighboring Arab states F. the attempts to secure peace between Palestinians and Israelis


Summarize the major effects of the French Revolution. (H) A. its contribution to modern nationalism and its relationship to totalitarianism B. the abolition of theocratic absolutism in France C. the abolition of remaining feudal restrictions and obligations D. its support for ideas of popular sovereignty, religious tolerance, and legal equality


Identify the causes for the decline and collapse of the Soviet Union and the communist regimes of Eastern Europe. (H, E) A. the weaknesses of the Soviet command economy B. the burdens of Soviet military commitments C. the anticommunist policies of President Reagan D. the resistance to communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe


Explain the role of various leaders in transforming the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. (H, C) A. Mikhail Gorbachev D. Aleksander Solzhenitsyn B. Vaclav Havel E. Lech Walesa C. Andrei Sakharov


Analyze the consequences of the Soviet Unions breakup. (H, E) A. the development of market economies B. political and social instability C. the danger of the spread of nuclear technology and other technologies of mass destruction to rogue states and terrorist organizations


Identify the sources of ethnic and religious conflicts in the following nations and regions. (H) A. Northern Ireland D. Sri Lanka B. the Balkans E. Kashmir C. Sudan and Rwanda


Explain the reasons for the fall of apartheid in South Africa, including the influence and ideas of Nelson Mandela. (H)


Explain the social and economic effects of the spread of AIDS in Asian and African countries. (H)


Explain how the computer revolution contributed to economic growth and advances in science, medicine, and communication. (H)


Explain the rise and funding of Islamic fundamentalism in the last half of the 20th century and identify the major events and forces in the Middle East over the last several decades. (H, E) A. the weakness and fragility of the oil-rich Persian Gulf states, including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and others B. the Iranian Revolution of 1978 1979 C. Defeat of the Soviet Union by the Mujahideen in Afghanistan D. the origins of the Persian Gulf War and the post-war actions of Saddam Hussein E. the financial support of radical and terrorist organizations by the Saudis F. the increase in terrorist attacks against Israel and the United States


Describe Americas response to and the wider consequences of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. (H)


Identify the causes of the Industrial Revolution. (H, E) A. the rise in agricultural productivity B. transportation improvements such as canals and railroads C. the influence of the ideas of Adam Smith D. new sources of energy such as coal and technological innovations such as the steam engine


Summarize the social and economic impact of the Industrial Revolution. (H, E) A. the vast increases in productivity and wealth B. population and urban growth C. the growth of a middle class D. problems caused by urbanization and harsh working conditions


Describe the rise of unions and socialism, including the ideas and influence of Robert Owen and Karl Marx. (H, E)


Describe the rise and significance of antislavery sentiment in Britain, including the abolition of the slave trade by the British Parliament in 1807, the abolition of slavery within the British Empire in 1833, and the role of various antislavery societies. (H)


Explain the impact of various social and political reforms and reform movements in Europe. (H, C, E) A. liberalism B. child labor laws, and social legislation such as old age pensions and health and unemployment insurance C. the expansion of voting rights