Missouri State Standards for Science — Grade 10


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B.1.1.I

Mass is conserved during any physical or chemical change

B.1.1.I.a

* Compare the mass of the reactants to the mass of the products in a chemical reaction or physical change (e.g., biochemical processes, carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle, nitrogen cycle, decomposition and synthesis reactions involved in a food web) as support for the Law of Conservation of Mass

B.1.2.F

Energy can be transferred within a system as the total amount of energy remains constant (i.e., Law of Conservation of Energy)

B.1.2.F.a

* Classify the different ways to store energy (i.e., chemical, nuclear, thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic) and describe the transfer of energy as it changes from kinetic to potential, while the total amount of energy remains constant, within a system (e.g., biochemical processes, carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle, nitrogen cycle, food web)

B.3.1.B

Organisms progress through life cycles unique to different types of organisms

B.3.1.B.a

Recognize cells both increase in number and differentiate, becoming specialized in structure and function, during and after embryonic development

B.3.1.B.b

* Identify factors (e.g., biochemical, temperature) that may affect the differentiation of cells and the development of an organism

B.3.1.C

Organisms progress through life cycles unique to different types of organisms

B.3.1.C.a

Recognize cells both increase in number and differentiate, becoming specialized in structure and function, during and after embryonic development

B.3.1.C.b

* Identify factors (e.g., biochemical, temperature) that may affect the differentiation of cells and the development of an organism

B.3.1.E

Biological classifications are based on how organisms are related

B.3.1.E.a

* Explain how similarities used to group taxa might reflect evolutionary relationships (e.g., similarities in DNA and protein structures, internal anatomical features, patterns of development)

B.3.1.E.b

* Explain how and why the classification of any taxon might change as more is learned about the organisms assigned to that taxon

B.3.2.A

The cell contains a set of structures called organelles that interact to carry out life processes through physical and chemical means

B.3.2.A.a

*Compare and contrast the structure and function of mitochondria and chloroplasts

B.3.2.A.b

*Compare and contrast the structure and function of cell wall and cell membranes

B.3.2.A.c

Explain physical and chemical interactions that occur between organelles (e.g. nucleus, cell membrane, chloroplast, mitochondrion, ribosome) as they carry out life processes

B.3.2.B

Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are complementary processes necessary to the survival of most organisms on Earth

B.3.2.B.a

Explain the interrelationship between the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration (e.g., recycling of oxygen and carbon dioxide), comparing and contrasting photosynthesis and cellular respiration reactions (Do NOT assess intermediate reactions)

B.3.2.B.b

Determine what factors affect the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration (i.e., light intensity, availability of reactants, temperature)

B.3.2.D

Cells carry out chemical transformations that use energy for the synthesis or breakdown of organic compounds

B.3.2.D.a

Summarize how energy transfer occurs during photosynthesis and cellular respiration as energy is stored in and released from the bonds of chemical compounds (i.e. ATP)

B.3.2.D.b

* Relate the structure of organic compounds (e.g., proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates) to their role in living systems

B.3.2.D.c

* Recognize energy is absorbed or released in the breakdown and/or synthesis of organic compounds

B.3.2.D.d

* Explain how protein enzymes affect chemical reactions (e.g., the breakdown of food molecules, growth and repair, regulation)

B.3.2.D.e

* Interpret a data table showing the effects of an enzyme on a biochemical reaction

B.3.2.E

Protein structure and function are coded by the DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) molecule

B.3.2.E.a

Explain how the DNA code determines the sequence of amino acids necessary for protein synthesis

B.3.2.E.b

* Recognize the function of protein in cell structure and function (i.e., enzyme action, growth and repair of body parts, regulation of cell division and differentiation)

B.3.2.F

Cellular activities and responses can maintain stability internally while external conditions are changing (homeostasis)

B.3.2.F.a

Cellular activities and responses can maintain stability internally while external conditions are changing (homeostasis)

B.3.2.F.b

Predict the movement of molecules across a selectively permeable membrane (i.e., diffusion, osmosis, active transport) needed for a cell to maintain homeostasis given concentration gradients and different sizes of molecules

B.3.2.F.c

Explain how water is important to cells (e.g., is a buffer for body temperature, provides soluble environment for chemical reactions, serves as a reactant in chemical reactions, provides hydration that maintains cell turgidity, maintains protein shape)

B.3.3.A

Reproduction can occur asexually or sexually

B.3.3.A.a

* Distinguish between asexual (i.e., binary fission, budding, cloning) and sexual reproduction

B.3.3.B

All living organisms have genetic material (DNA) that carries hereditary information

B.3.3.B.a

Describe the chemical and structural properties of DNA (e.g., DNA is a large polymer formed from linked subunits of four kinds of nitrogen bases; genetic information is encoded in genes based on the sequence of subunits; each DNA molecule in a cell forms a single chromosome) (Assess the concepts NOT memorization of nitrogen base pairs)

B.3.3.B.b

Recognize that DNA codes for proteins, which are expressed as the heritable characteristics of an organism

B.3.3.B.c

* Recognize that degree of relatedness can be determined by comparing DNA sequences

B.3.3.B.d

* Explain how an error in the DNA molecule (mutation) can be transferred during replication

B.3.3.B.e

Identify possible external causes (e.g., heat, radiation, certain chemicals) and effects of DNA mutations (e.g., altered proteins which may affect chemical reactions and structural development)

B.3.3.C

Chromosomes are components of cells that occur in pairs and carry hereditary information from one cell to daughter cells and from parent to offspring during reproduction

B.3.3.C.a

Recognize the chromosomes of daughter cells, formed through the processes of asexual reproduction and mitosis, the formation of somatic (body) cells in multicellular organisms, are identical to the chromosomes of the parent cell

B.3.3.C.b

Recognize that during meiosis, the formation of sex cells, chromosomes are reduced to half the number present in the parent cell

B.3.3.C.c

Explain how fertilization restores the diploid number of chromosomes

B.3.3.C.d

*Identify the implications of human sex chromosomes for sex determination

B.3.3.D

There is heritable variation within every species of organism

B.3.3.D.a

Describe the advantages and disadvantages of asexual and sexual reproduction with regard to variation within a population

B.3.3.D.b

* Describe how genes can be altered and combined to create genetic variation within a species (e.g., mutation, recombination of genes)

B.3.3.D.c

* Recognize that new heritable characteristics can only result from new combinations of existing genes or from mutations of genes in an organisms sex cells

B.3.3.E

The pattern of inheritance for many traits can be predicted by using the principles of Mendelian genetics

B.3.3.E.a

Explain how genotypes (heterozygous and homozygous) contribute to phenotypic variation within a species

B.3.3.E.b

Predict the probability of the occurrence of specific traits, including sex-linked traits, in an offspring by using a monohybrid cross

B.3.3.E.c

*Explain how sex-linked traits may or may not result in the expression of a genetic disorder (e.g., hemophilia, muscular dystrophy, color blindness) depending on gender

B.4.1.A

All populations living together within a community interact with one another and with their environment in order to survive and maintain a balanced ecosystem

B.4.1.A.a

Explain the nature of interactions between organisms in predator/prey relationships and different symbiotic relationships (i.e., mutualism, commensalisms, parasitism)

B.4.1.A.b

Explain how cooperative (e.g., symbiotic) and competitive (e.g., predator/prey) relationships help maintain balance within an ecosystem

B.4.1.A.c

* Explain why no two species can occupy the same niche in a community (The functional role of a species is not limited to its placement along a food pyramid; it also includes the interactions of a species with other organisms while obtaining food. For example, the methods used to tolerate the physical factors of its environment, such as climate, water, nutrients, soils, and parasites, are all part of its functional role. In other words, the ecological niche of an organism is its natural history: all the interactions and interrelationships of the species with other organisms and the environment.)

B.4.1.B

Living organisms have the capacity to produce populations of infinite size, but environments and resources are finite

B.4.1.B.a

Identify and explain the limiting factors (biotic and abiotic) that may affect the carrying capacity of a population within an ecosystem

B.4.1.B.b

*Predict how populations within an ecosystem may change in number and/or structure in response to hypothesized changes in biotic and/or abiotic factors

B.4.1.C

All organisms, including humans, and their activities cause changes in their environment that affect the ecosystem

B.4.1.C.a

*Devise a multi-step plan to restore the stability and/or biodiversity of an ecosystem when given a scenario describing the possible adverse effects of human interactions with that ecosystem (e.g., destruction caused by direct harvesting, pollution, atmospheric changes)

B.4.1.C.b

*Predict and explain how natural or human caused changes (biological, chemical and/or physical) in one ecosystem may affect other ecosystems due to natural mechanisms (e.g., global wind patterns, water cycle, ocean currents)

B.4.1.D

The diversity of species within an ecosystem is affected by changes in the environment, which can be caused by other organisms or outside processes

B.4.1.D.a

Predict the impact (beneficial or harmful) a natural or human caused environmental event (e.g., forest fire, flood, volcanic eruption, avalanche, acid rain, global warming, pollution, deforestation, introduction of an exotic species) may have on the diversity of different species in an ecosystem

B.4.1.D.b

*Describe possible causes of extinction of a population

B.4.2.A

As energy flows through the ecosystem, all organisms capture a portion of that energy and transform it to a form they can use

B.4.2.A.a

*Illustrate and describe the flow of energy within a food web

B.4.2.A.b

*Explain why there are generally more producers than consumers in an energy pyramid

B.4.2.A.c

Predict how the use and flow of energy will be altered due to changes in a food web

B.4.2.B

Matter is recycled through an ecosystem

B.4.2.B.a

*Explain the processes involved in the recycling of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon through an ecosystem

B.4.2.B.b

* Explain the importance of the recycling of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon within an eco

B.4.3.A

Evidence for the nature and rates of evolution can be found in anatomical and molecular characteristics of organisms and in the fossil record

B.4.3.A.a

*Interpret fossil evidence to explain the relatedness of organisms using the principles of superposition and fossil correlation

B.4.3.A.b

*Evaluate the evidence that supports the theory of biological evolution (e.g., fossil records, similarities between DNA and protein structures, similarities between developmental stages of organisms, homologous and vestigial structures)

B.4.3.B

Reproduction is essential to the continuation of every species

B.4.3.B.a

*Define a species in terms of the ability to mate and produce fertile offspring

B.4.3.B.b

Explain the importance of reproduction to the survival of a species (i.e., the failure of a species to reproduce will lead to extinction of that species)

B.4.3.C

Natural selection is the process of sorting individuals based on their ability to survive and reproduce within their ecosystem

B.4.3.C.a

Identify examples of adaptations that may have resulted from variations favored by natural selection (e.g., long-necked giraffes, long-eared jack rabbits) and describe how that variation may have provided populations an advantage for survival

B.4.3.C.b

*Explain how genetic homogeneity may cause a population to be more susceptible to extinction (e.g., succumbing to a disease for which there is no natural resistance)

B.4.3.C.c

Explain how environmental factors (e.g., habitat loss, climate change, pollution, introduction of non-native species) can be agents of natural selection

B.4.3.C.d

*Given a scenario describing an environmental change, hypothesize why a given species was unable to survive

B.5.3.A

Earths materials are limited natural resources affected by human activity

B.5.3.A.a

*Predict local and/or global effects of environmental changes when given a scenario describing how the composition of the geosphere, hydrosphere, or atmosphere is altered by natural phenomena or human activities

B.5.3.A.b

*Recognize how the geomorphology of Missouri (i.e., different types of Missouri soil and rock materials such as limestone, granite, clay, loam; land formations such as Karst (cave) formations, glaciated plains, river channels) affects the survival of organisms

B.6.1.B

The Earth has a composition and location suitable to sustain life

B.6.1.B.a

* Explain how Earths environmental characteristics and location in the universe (e.g., atmosphere, temperature, orbital path, magnetic field, mass-gravity, location in solar system) provide a life-supporting environment

B.7.1.A

Scientific inquiry includes the ability of students to formulate a testable question and explanation, and to select appropriate investigative methods in order to obtain evidence relevant to the explanation

B.7.1.A.a

Formulate testable questions and hypotheses

B.7.1.A.b

Analyzing an experiment, identify the components (i.e., independent variable, dependent variables, control of constants, multiple trials) and explain their importance to the design of a valid experiment

B.7.1.A.c

Design and conduct a valid experiment

B.7.1.A.d

Recognize it is not always possible, for practical or ethical reasons, to control some conditions (e.g., when sampling or testing humans, when observing animal behaviors in nature)

B.7.1.A.e

*Acknowledge some scientific explanations (e.g., explanations of astronomical or meteorological phenomena) cannot be tested using a controlled laboratory experiment, but instead by using a model, due to the limits of the laboratory environment, resources, and/or technologies

B.7.1.A.f

*Acknowledge there is no fixed procedure called the scientific method, but that some investigations involve systematic observations, carefully collected and relevant evidence, logical reasoning, and some imagination in developing hypotheses and other explanations

B.7.1.A.g

Evaluate the design of an experiment and make suggestions for reasonable improvements

B.7.1.B

Scientific inquiry relies upon gathering evidence from qualitative and quantitative observations

B.7.1.B.a

*Make qualitative and quantitative observations using the appropriate senses, tools and equipment to gather data (e.g., microscopes, thermometers, analog and digital meters, computers, spring scales, balances, metric rulers, graduated cylinders)

B.7.1.B.b

Measure length to the nearest millimeter, mass to the nearest gram, volume to the nearest milliliter, force (weight) to the nearest Newton, temperature to the nearest degree Celsius, time to the nearest second

B.7.1.B.c

Determine the appropriate tools and techniques to collect, analyze, and interpret data

B.7.1.B.d

Judge whether measurements and computation of quantities are reasonable

B.7.1.B.e

Calculate the range, average/mean, percent, and ratios for sets of data

B.7.1.B.f

*Recognize observation is biased by the experiences and knowledge of the observer (e.g., strong beliefs about what should happen in particular circumstances can prevent the detection of other results)

B.7.1.C

Scientific inquiry includes evaluation of explanations (laws/principles, theories/models) in light of evidence (data) and scientific principles (understandings)

B.7.1.C.a

Use quantitative and qualitative data as support for reasonable explanations (conclusions)

B.7.1.C.b

Analyze experimental data to determine patterns, relationships, perspectives, and credibility of explanations (e.g., predict/extrapolate data, explain the relationship between the independent and dependent variable)

B.7.1.C.c

Identify the possible effects of errors in observations, measurements, and calculations, on the validity and reliability of data and resultant explanations (conclusions)

B.7.1.C.d

Analyze whether evidence (data) and scientific principles support proposed explanations (laws/principles, theories/models)

B.7.1.D

The nature of science relies upon communication of results and justification of explanations

B.7.1.D.a

Communicate the procedures and results of investigations and explanations through: oral presentations drawings and maps data tables (allowing for the recording and analysis of data relevant to the experiment such as independent and dependent variables, multiple trials, beginning and ending times or temperatures, derived quantities) graphs (bar, single, and multiple line) equations and writings

B.7.1.D.b

* Communicate and defend a scientific argument

B.7.1.D.c

Explain the importance of the public presentation of scientific work and supporting evidence to the scientific community (e.g., work and evidence must be critiqued, reviewed, and validated by peers; needed for subsequent investigations by peers; results can influence the decisions regarding future scientific work)

B.8.1.B

Advances in technology often result in improved data collection and an increase in scientific information

B.8.1.B.a

* Recognize the relationships linking technology and science (e.g., how technological problems may create a demand for new science knowledge, how new technologies make it possible for scientists to extend research and advance science)

B.8.2.A

People of different gender and ethnicity have contributed to scientific discoveries and the invention of technological innovations

B.8.2.A.a

*Recognize contributions to science are not limited to the work of one particular group, but are made by a diverse group of scientists representing various ethnic and gender groups

B.8.2.A.b

*Recognize gender and ethnicity of scientists often influence the questions asked and/or the methods used in scientific research and may limit or advance science knowledge and/or technology

B.8.2.B

Scientific theories are developed based on the body of knowledge that exists at any particular time and must be rigorously questioned and tested for validity

B.8.2.B.a

*Identify and describe how explanations (laws/principles, theories/models) of scientific phenomena have changed over time as a result of new evidence (e.g., cell theory, theories of spontaneous generation and biogenesis, theories of extinction, evolution theory, structure of the cell membrane, genetic theory of inheritance)

B.8.2.B.b

*Identify and analyze current theories that are being questioned, and compare them to new theories that have emerged to challenge older ones (e.g., theories of evolution, extinction, global warming)

B.8.3.B

Social, political, economic, ethical and environmental factors strongly influence, and are influenced by, the direction of progress of science and technology

B.8.3.B.a

*Analyze the roles of science and society as they interact to determine the direction of scientific and technological progress (e.g., prioritization of and funding for new scientific research and technological development is determined on the basis of individual, political and social values and needs; understanding basic concepts and principles of science and technology influences debate about the economics, policies, politics, and ethics of various scientific and technological challenges)

B.8.3.B.b

*Identify and describe major scientific and technological challenges to society and their ramifications for public policy (e.g., global warming, limitations to fossil fuels, genetic engineering of plants, space and/or medical research)

B.8.3.B.c

*Analyze and evaluate the drawbacks (e.g., design constraints, unintended consequences, risks), benefits, and factors (i.e., social, political, economic, ethical, and environmental) affecting progress toward meeting major scientific and technological challenges (e.g., limitations placed on stem-cell research or genetic engineering, introduction of alien species, deforestation, bioterrorism, nuclear energy, genetic counseling, use of alternative energies for carbon fuels, use of pesticides

B.8.3.C

Scientific ethics require that scientists must not knowingly subject people or the community to health or property risks without their knowledge and consent

B.8.3.C.a

*Identify and evaluate the need for informed consent in experimentation

B.8.3.C.b

*Identify the ethical issues involved in experimentation (i.e., risks to organisms or environment)

B.8.3.C.c

*Identify and evaluate the role of models as an ethical alternative to direct experimentation (e.g., using a model for a stream rather than pouring oil in an existing stream when studying the effects of oil pollution on aquatic plants)

B.8.3.D

Scientific information is presented through a number of credible sources, but is at times influenced in such a way to become non-credible

B.8.3.D.a

*Evaluate a given source for its scientific credibility (e.g., articles in a new periodical quoting an eye witness, a scientist speaking within or outside his/her area of expertise)

B.8.3.D.b

* Explain why accurate record-keeping, openness, and replication are essential for maintaining an investigators credibility with other scientists and society

CI.1.1.A

Objects, and the materials they are made of, have properties that can be used to describe and classify them

CI.1.1.A.a

Compare the densities of regular and irregular objects using their respective measures of volume and mass

CI.1.1.A.b

Identify pure substances by their physical and chemical properties (i.e., color, luster/reflectivity, hardness, conductivity, density, pH, melting point, boiling point, specific heat, solubility, phase at room temperature, chemical reactivity)

CI.1.1.A.c

Classify a substance as being made up of one kind of atom (element) or a compound when given the molecular formula or structural formula (or electron dot diagram) for the substance

CI.1.1.A.d

Compare and contrast the common properties of metals, nonmetals, metalloids (semi-conductors), and noble gases

CI.1.1.B

Properties of mixtures depend upon the concentrations, properties, and interactions of particles

CI.1.1.B.a

Classify solutions as either dilute or concentrated; as either saturated, unsaturated, or supersaturated

CI.1.1.B.b

Compare and contrast the properties of acidic, basic, and neutral solutions

CI.1.1.B.c

Predict the effects of solvent and solute polarity on solubility (like dissolves like); and predict the effects of temperature, surface area, particle size, and agitation on rates of solubility

CI.1.1.D

Physical changes in states of matter due to thermal changes in materials can be explained by the Kinetic Theory of Matter

CI.1.1.D.a

Using the Kinetic Theory model, explain the changes that occur in the distance between atoms/molecules and temperature of a substance as energy is absorbed or released during a phase change

CI.1.1.D.b

Predict the effect of a temperature change on the properties (e.g., pressure, density) of a material (solids, liquids, gases)

CI.1.1.D.c

Predict the effect of pressure changes on the properties (e.g., temperature, density) of a material (solids, liquids, gases)

CI.1.1.E

The atomic model describes the electrically neutral atom

CI.1.1.E.a

Describe the atom as having a dense, positive nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negative electrons

CI.1.1.E.b

Calculate the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons of an isotope, given its mass number and atomic number

CI.1.1.E.c

Describe the information provided by the atomic number and the mass number (i.e., electrical charge, chemical stability)

CI.1.1.F

The periodic table organizes the elements according to their atomic structure and chemical reactivity

CI.1.1.F.a

Explain the structure of the periodic table in terms of the elements with common properties (groups/families) and repeating properties (periods)

CI.1.1.F.b

Classify elements as metals, nonmetals, metalloids (semiconductors), and noble gases according to their location on the Periodic Table

CI.1.1.F.c

Predict the chemical reactivity of elements, and the type of bonds that may result between them, using the Periodic Table

CI.1.1.G

Properties of objects and states of matter can change chemically and/or physically

CI.1.1.G.a

Distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter

CI.1.1.H

Chemical bonding is the combining of different pure substances (elements, compounds) to form new substances with different properties

CI.1.1.H.a

Describe how the valence electron configuration determines how atoms interact and may bond

CI.1.1.H.b

Chemistry II Content Predict the reaction rates of different substances based on their properties (i.e., concentrations of reactants, pressure, temperature, state of matter, surface area, type of reactant material)

CI.1.1.H.c

Compare and contrast the types of chemical bonds (i.e., ionic, covalent

CI.1.1.H.d

Predict the products of an acid/base (neutralization), oxidation (rusting), and combustion (burning) reaction

CI.1.1.I

Mass is conserved during any physical or chemical change

CI.1.1.I.a

Compare the mass of the reactants to the mass of the products in a chemical reaction or physical change as support for the Law of Conservation of Mass

CI.1.1.I.b

Recognize whether the number of atoms of the reactants and products in a chemical equation are balanced

CI.1.2.A

Forms of energy have a source, a means of transfer (work and heat), and a receiver

CI.1.2.A.a

Differentiate between thermal energy (the total internal energy of a substance which is dependent upon mass), heat (thermal energy that transfers from one object or system to another due to a difference in temperature), and temperature (the measure of average kinetic energy of molecules or atoms in a substance)

CI.1.2.A.b

Describe the relationship among wavelength, energy, and frequency as illustrated by the electromagnetic spectrum

CI.1.2.A.c

Chemistry II Content Describe sources and common uses of different forms of energy: chemical (the energy stored in the electrical fields between atoms in a compound), nuclear, thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic

CI.1.2.A.d

Describe the effect of different frequencies of electromagnetic waves on the Earth and living organisms (e.g., radio, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, gamma, cosmic rays)

CI.1.2.B

Mechanical energy comes from the motion (kinetic energy) and/or relative position (potential energy) of an object

CI.1.2.B.a

Chemistry II Content Relate kinetic energy to an objects mass and its velocity

CI.1.2.C

Electromagnetic energy from the Sun (solar radiation) is a major source of energy on Earth

CI.1.2.C.a

Chemistry II Content Describe how electromagnetic energy is transferred through space as electromagnetic waves of varying wavelength and frequency

CI.1.2.D

Chemical reactions involve changes in the bonding of atoms with the release or absorption of energy

CI.1.2.D.a

Describe evidence of energy transfer and transformations that occur during exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions

CI.1.2.E

Nuclear energy is a major source of energy throughout the universe

CI.1.2.E.a

Describe how changes in the nucleus of an atom during a nuclear reaction (i.e., nuclear decay, fusion, fission) result in emission of radiation

CI.1.2.F

Energy can be transferred within a system as the total amount of energy remains constant (i.e., Law of Conservation of Energy)

CI.1.2.F.a

Classify the different ways to store energy (i.e., chemical, nuclear, thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic) and describe the transfer of energy as it changes from kinetic to potential, while the total amount of energy remains constant, within a system (e.g., using gasoline to move a car, photocell generating electricity, electromagnetic motor doing work, energy generated by nuclear reactor)

CI.5.1.B

The hydrosphere is composed of water (a material with unique properties) and other materials

CI.5.1.B.a

Recognize the importance of water as a solvent in the environment as it relates to acid rain and water pollution

CI.5.1.C

The atmosphere (air) is composed of a mixture of gases, including water vapor, and minute particles

CI.5.1.C.a

Relate the composition of gases and temperature of the layers of the atmosphere (i.e., troposphere, stratosphere, ionosphere) to cloud formation and transmission of radiation (e.g., ultraviolet, infrared)

CI.5.1.C.b

Describe the causes and consequences of observed and predicted changes in the ozone layer

CI.5.2.F

Climate is a description of average weather conditions in a given area due to the transfer of energy and matter through Earths systems.

CI.5.2.F.a

Provide evidence (e.g., variations in sea level, glaciation, and permafrost layers, fossils, desertification) that supports theories of climate change due to natural phenomena and/or human interactions

CI.7.1.A

Scientific inquiry includes the ability of students to formulate a testable question and explanation, and to select appropriate investigative methods in order to obtain evidence relevant to the explanation

CI.7.1.A.a

Formulate testable questions and hypotheses

CI.7.1.A.b

Analyzing an experiment, identify the components (i.e., independent variable, dependent variables, control of constants, multiple trials) and explain their importance to the design of a valid experiment

CI.7.1.A.c

Design and conduct a valid experiment

CI.7.1.A.d

Recognize it is not always possible, for practical or ethical reasons, to control some conditions (e.g., when sampling or testing humans, when observing animal behaviors in nature)

CI.7.1.A.e

Acknowledge some scientific explanations (e.g., explanations of astronomical or meteorological phenomena) cannot be tested using a controlled laboratory experiment, but instead by using a model, due to the limits of the laboratory environment, resources, and/or technologies

CI.7.1.A.f

Acknowledge there is no fixed procedure called the scientific method, but that some investigations involve systematic observations, carefully collected and relevant evidence, logical reasoning, and some imagination in developing hypotheses and other explanations

CI.7.1.A.g

Evaluate the design of an experiment and make suggestions for reasonable improvements

CI.7.1.B

Scientific inquiry relies upon gathering evidence from qualitative and quantitative observations

CI.7.1.B.a

Make qualitative and quantitative observations using the appropriate senses, tools and equipment to gather data (e.g., microscopes, thermometers, analog and digital meters, computers, spring scales, balances, metric rulers, graduated cylinders)

CI.7.1.B.b

Measure length to the nearest millimeter, mass to the nearest gram, volume to the nearest milliliter, force (weight) to the nearest Newton, temperature to the nearest degree Celsius, time to the nearest second

CI.7.1.B.c

Determine the appropriate tools and techniques to collect, analyze, and interpret data

CI.7.1.B.d

Judge whether measurements and computation of quantities are reasonable

CI.7.1.B.e

Calculate the range, average/mean, percent, and ratios for sets of data

CI.7.1.B.f

Recognize observation is biased by the experiences and knowledge of the observer (e.g., strong beliefs about what should happen in particular circumstances can prevent the detection of other results)

CI.7.1.C

Scientific inquiry includes evaluation of explanations (laws/principles, theories/models) in light of evidence (data) and scientific principles (understandings)

CI.7.1.C.a

Use quantitative and qualitative data as support for reasonable explanations (conclusions)

CI.7.1.C.b

Analyze experimental data to determine patterns, relationships, perspectives, and credibility of explanations (e.g., predict/extrapolate data, explain the relationship between the independent and dependent variable)

CI.7.1.C.c

Identify the possible effects of errors in observations, measurements, and calculations, on the validity and reliability of data and resultant explanations (conclusions)

CI.7.1.C.d

Analyze whether evidence (data) and scientific principles support proposed explanations (laws/principles, theories/models)

CI.7.1.D

The nature of science relies upon communication of results and justification of explanations

CI.7.1.D.a

Communicate the procedures and results of investigations and explanations through: oral presentations drawings and maps data tables (allowing for the recording and analysis of data relevant to the experiment such as independent and dependent variables, multiple trials, beginning and ending times or temperatures, derived quantities) graphs (bar, single, and multiple line) equations and writings

CI.7.1.D.b

Communicate and defend a scientific argument

CI.7.1.D.c

Explain the importance of the public presentation of scientific work and supporting evidence to the scientific community (e.g., work and evidence must be critiqued, reviewed, and validated by peers; needed for subsequent investigations by peers; results can influence the decisions regarding future scientific work)

CI.8.2.A

People of different gender and ethnicity have contributed to scientific discoveries and the invention of technological innovations

CI.8.2.A.a

Recognize contributions to science are not limited to the work of one particular group, but are made by a diverse group of scientists representing various ethnic and gender groups

CI.8.2.B

Scientific theories are developed based on the body of knowledge that exists at any particular time and must be rigorously questioned and tested for validity

CI.8.2.B.a

Identify and describe how explanations (laws/principles, theories/models) of scientific phenomena have changed over time as a result of new evidence (e.g., basic structure of matter, structure of an atom)

CI.8.3.B

Social, political, economic, ethical and environmental factors strongly influence, and are influenced by, the direction of progress of science and technology

CI.8.3.B.a

Analyze the roles of science and society as they interact to determine the direction of scientific and technological progress (e.g., prioritization of and funding for new scientific research and technological development is determined on the basis of individual, political and social values and needs; understanding basic concepts and principles of science and technology influences debate about the economics, policies, politics, and ethics of various scientific and technological challenges)

CI.8.3.B.b

Identify and evaluate the drawbacks (e.g., design constraints, unintended consequences, risks) and benefits of technological solutions to a given problem (e.g., use of alternative energies to reduce the use of carbon fuels, use of satellite communications to gather information)

CI.8.3.D

Scientific information is presented through a number of credible sources, but is at times influenced in such a way to become non-credible

CI.8.3.D.a

Evaluate a given source for its scientific credibility (e.g., articles in a new periodical quoting an eye witness, a scientist speaking within or outside his/her area of expertise)

CI.8.3.D.b

Explain why accurate recordkeeping, openness, and replication are essential for maintaining an investigators credibility with other scientists and society

ESS.1.1.A

Objects, and the materials they are made of, have properties that can be used to describe and classify them

ESS.1.1.A.a

Compare the densities of regular and irregular objects using their respective measures of volume and mass

ESS.1.1.A.b

Identify pure substances (e.g., minerals, water, atmospheric gases) by their physical and chemical properties (i.e., color, luster/reflectivity, hardness, cleavage, fracture, conductivity, density, pH, melting point, boiling point, specific heat, solubility, phase at room temperature, chemical reactivity)

ESS.1.1.B

Properties of mixtures depend upon the concentrations, properties, and interactions of particles

ESS.1.1.B.a

Compare and contrast the properties of acidic, basic, and neutral solutions

ESS.1.1.B.b

Predict the effects of solvent and solute polarity on solubility (like dissolves like); and predict the effects of temperature, surface area, particle size, and agitation on rates of solubility

ESS.1.1.D

Physical changes in states of matter due to thermal changes in materials can be explained by the Kinetic Theory of Matter

ESS.1.1.D.a

Using the Kinetic Theory model, explain the changes that occur in the distance between atoms/molecules and temperature of a substance as energy is absorbed or released during a phase change

ESS.1.1.D.b

Predict the effect of a temperature change on the properties (e.g., pressure, density) of earth materials (i.e., rock, water, air)

ESS.1.1.D.c

Predict the effect of pressure changes on the properties (e.g., temperature, density) of earth materials (i.e., rock, water, air)

ESS.1.1.H

Chemical bonding is the combining of different pure substances (elements, compounds) to form new substances with different properties

ESS.1.1.H.a

Compare and contrast the types of chemical bonds (i.e., ionic, covalent) as they relate to mineralization, changes in rock type within the rock cycle, formation of pollutant molecules (e.g., acid rain, ozone)

ESS.1.1.H.b

Predict the products of an acid/base (neutralization), oxidation (rusting), and combustion (burning) reaction as it may occur in the geosphere, hydrosphere, or atmosphere

ESS.1.1.I

Mass is conserved during any physical or chemical change

ESS.1.1.I.a

Compare the mass of the reactants to the mass of the products in a chemical reaction or physical change (e.g., cycling of minerals within rock cycle, process of erosion/weathering, carbon dioxide oxygen cycle, nitrogen cycle, water cycle, nuclear reaction) as support for the Law of Conservation of Mass

ESS.1.2.A

Forms of energy have a source, a means of transfer (work and heat), and a receiver

ESS.1.2.A.a

Describe the relationship among wavelength, energy, and frequency as illustrated by the electromagnetic spectrum

ESS.1.2.A.b

Describe sources and common uses of different forms of energy: chemical, nuclear, thermal, electromagnetic , mechanical (as transferred by moving objects, including rock, water, wind, waves)

ESS.1.2.A.c

Identify and evaluate advantages/disadvantages of using various sources of energy (e.g., wind, solar, geothermal, hydroelectric, biomass, fossil fuel, electromagnetic radiation) for human activity

ESS.1.2.A.d

Describe the effect of different frequencies of electromagnetic waves on the Earth and living organisms (e.g., radio, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, gamma, cosmic rays)

ESS.1.2.A.e

Interpret examples (e.g., land and sea breezes, plate tectonics) of heat transfer as convection, conduction, or radiation

ESS.1.2.C

Electromagnetic energy from the Sun (solar radiation) is a major source of energy on Earth

ESS.1.2.C.a

Identify stars as producers of electromagnetic energy

ESS.1.2.C.b

Describe how electromagnetic energy is transferred through space as electromagnetic waves of varying wavelength and frequency

ESS.1.2.E

Nuclear energy is a major source of energy throughout the universe

ESS.1.2.E.a

Describe how changes in the nucleus of an atom during a nuclear reaction (i.e., nuclear decay, fusion, fission) result in emission of radiation

ESS.1.2.E.b

Identify the role of nuclear energy as it serves as a source of energy for the Earth, stars, and human activity (e.g., source of electromagnetic radiation, thermal energy within mantle, nuclear power plants, fuel for stars)

ESS.1.2.F

Energy can be transferred within a system as the total amount of energy remains constant (i.e., Law of Conservation of Energy)

ESS.1.2.F.a

Classify the different ways to store energy (i.e., chemical, nuclear, thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic) and describe the transfer of energy as it changes from kinetic to potential, while the total amount of energy remains constant, within a system (e.g., using gasoline to move a car, photocell generating electricity, electromagnetic motor doing work, energy generated by nuclear reactor)

ESS.2.2.B

Every object exerts a gravitational force on every other object

ESS.2.2.B.a

Compare and describe the gravitational forces between two objects in terms of their masses and the distances between them

ESS.4.1.C

All organisms, including humans, and their activities cause changes in their environment that affect the ecosystem

ESS.4.1.C.a

Predict and explain how natural or human caused changes (biological, chemical and/or physical) in one ecosystem may affect other ecosystems due to natural mechanisms (e.g., global wind patterns, water cycle, ocean currents)

ESS.4.2.B

Matter is recycled carbon through an ecosystem through an ecosystem

ESS.4.2.B.a

Explain the processes involved in the recycling of nitrogen, oxygen, and Matter is recycled carbon through an ecosystem

ESS.4.2.B.b

Explain the importance of the recycling of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon within an ecosystem

ESS.5.1.A

The Earths crust is composed of various materials, including soil, minerals, and rocks, with characteristic properties

ESS.5.1.A.a

Classify minerals (rock-forming and ore) based on physical and chemical properties (e.g., color, streak, luster/reflectivity, hardness, cleavage, fracture, conductivity, density, melting point, boiling point, solubility, pH, chemical reactivity)

ESS.5.1.A.b

Classify common igneous, metamorphic, and/or sedimentary rocks based on physical and chemical properties (e.g., mineral composition, texture, density, and other unique properties)

ESS.5.1.A.c

Classify earth materials as minerals, rocks, and soils by comparing and contrasting their components, unique properties, and the processes which formed them

ESS.5.1.B

The hydrosphere is composed of water (a material with unique properties) and other materials

ESS.5.1.B.a

Recognize the importance of water as a solvent in the environment as it relates to karst geology (dissolution and mineralization), acid rain, water pollution, erosion and deposition of rock and soil materials

ESS.5.1.C

The atmosphere (air) is composed of a mixture of gases, including water vapor, and minute particles

ESS.5.1.C.a

Relate the composition of gases and temperature of the layers of the atmosphere (i.e., troposphere, stratosphere, ionosphere) to cloud formation and transmission of radiation (e.g., ultraviolet, infrared)

ESS.5.1.C.b

Describe the causes and consequences of observed and predicted changes in the ozone layer

ESS.5.2.A

The Earths materials and surface features are changed through a variety of external processes

ESS.5.2.A.a

Explain the external processes (i.e., weathering, erosion, deposition of sediment) that result in the formation and modification of landforms

ESS.5.2.A.b

Describe the factors that affect rates of weathering and erosion of landforms (e.g., soil/rock type, amount and force of run-off, slope)

ESS.5.2.B

There are internal processes and sources of energy within the geosphere that cause changes in Earths crustal plates

ESS.5.2.B.a

Describe the internal source of energy on Earth that results in uneven heating of the mantle (i.e., decay of radioactive isotopes)

ESS.5.2.B.b

Illustrate and explain the convection currents that result from the uneven heating inside the mantle and cause movement of crustal plates

ESS.5.2.B.c

Describe how the energy of an earthquake travels as seismic waves and provides evidence for the layers of the geosphere

ESS.5.2.B.d

Relate the densities of the materials found in continental and oceanic plates to the processes that result in each type of plate boundary (i.e., diverging, converging, transform)

ESS.5.2.B.e

Describe the effects of the movement of crustal plates (i.e., earthquakes, sea floor spreading, mountain building, volcanic eruptions) at a given location on the planet

ESS.5.2.B.f

Articulate the processes involved in the Theory of Plate Tectonics (i.e., uneven heating of the mantle due to the decay of radioactive isotopes, movement of materials via convection currents, movement of continental and oceanic plates along diverging, converging, or transform plate boundaries) and describe evidence that supports that theory (e.g., correlation of rock sequences, landforms, and fossils; presence of intrusions and faults; evidence of seafloor spreading)

ESS.5.2.C

Continual changes in Earths materials and surface that result from internal and external processes is described by the rock cycle

ESS.5.2.C.a

Describe the rock cycle as it relates to the origin and transformation of rock types (i.e., igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary)

ESS.5.2.D

Changes in the Earth over time can be inferred through rock and fossil evidence

ESS.5.2.D.a

Use evidence from relative and real dating techniques (e.g., correlation of trace fossils, landforms, and rock sequences; evidence of climate changes; presence of intrusions and faults; magnetic orientation; relative age of drill samples) to infer geologic history

ESS.5.2.F

Climate is a description of average weather conditions in a given area due to the transfer of energy and matter through Earths systems.

ESS.5.2.F.a

Predict the weather (patterns of change in the atmosphere) at a designated location using weather maps (including map legends) and/or weather data (e.g., temperature, barometric pressure, cloud cover and type, wind speed and direction, precipitation)

ESS.5.2.F.b

Explain how global wind and ocean currents are produced on the Earths surface (e.g., effects of unequal heating of the Earths land masses, oceans, and air by the Sun due to latitude and surface material type; effects of gravitational forces acting on layers of air of different densities due to temperature differences; effects of the rotation of the Earth; effects of surface topography)

ESS.5.2.F.c

Describe the effects of natural phenomena (e.g., burning organic material, volcanic eruptions, lightning, changes in global wind and ocean currents) on the properties of the atmosphere

ESS.5.2.F.d

Explain how climate and weather patterns in a particular region are affected by factors such as proximity to large bodies of water or ice/ocean currents, latitude, altitude, wind and ocean currents, amount of solar radiation, changes in the atmosphere due to natural phenomena (e.g., burning organic material, volcanic eruptions)

ESS.5.2.F.e

Provide evidence (e.g., fossils, desertification, variation in sea level, glaciations, and permafrost layers) that supports theories of climate change due to natural phenomena and/or human interactions with the environment

ESS.5.3.A

Earths materials are limited natural resources affected by human activity

ESS.5.3.A.a

Recognize the limited availability of some energy resources (i.e., solar radiation, wind, fossil fuels) and major mineral deposits in the United States (e.g., lead, petroleum, coal, copper, zinc, iron, gravel, aluminum) and the factors that affect their availability

ESS.5.3.A.b

Identify human activities that may adversely affect the composition of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, or geosphere

ESS.5.3.A.c

Predict local and/or global effects of environmental changes when given a scenario describing how the composition of the geosphere, hydrosphere, or atmosphere is altered by natural phenomena or human activities

ESS.5.3.A.d

Recognize how the geomorphology of Missouri (i.e., different types of Missouri soil and rock materials such as limestone, granite, clay, loam; land formations such as karst (cave) formations, glaciated plains, river channels) affects the survival of organisms and the development of land use by humans (e.g., agriculture, recreation, planning and zoning, waste management)

ESS.5.3.A.e

Recognize the economic, political, social, and ethical constraints associated with obtaining and using natural resources (e.g., mining and use of different types of Missouri mineral resources such as lead mining, gravel dredging, strip mining, coal burning, production of fertilizers and explosives; use of fossil fuels versus renewable resources)

ESS.6.1.A

The Earth, Sun, and moon are part of a larger system that includes other planets and smaller celestial bodies

ESS.6.1.A.a

Describe and relate the positions and motions of the Sun-Earth solar system, the Milky-Way galaxy, and other galaxies within the universe (i.e., it is just one of several solar systems orbiting the center of a rotating spiral galaxy; that spiral galaxy is just one of many galaxies which orbit a common center of gravity; the expanding universe causes the distance between galaxies to increase)

ESS.6.1.B

The Earth has a composition and location suitable to sustain life

ESS.6.1.B.a

Explain how Earths environmental characteristics and location in the universe (e.g., atmosphere, temperature, orbital path, magnetic field, mass-gravity, location in solar system) provide a life-supporting environment

ESS.6.1.B.b

Compare the environmental characteristics and location in the universe of Earth and other celestial bodies (e.g., planets, moons) to determine ability to support life

ESS.6.1.C

Most of the information we know about the universe comes from the electromagnetic spectrum

ESS.6.1.C.a

Identify information that the electromagnetic spectrum provides about the stars and the universe (e.g., chemical composition, temperature, age of stars, location of black holes, motion of celestial bodies)

ESS.6.1.C.b

Evaluate the advantages/ disadvantages of using different tools (e.g., spectroscope, different types of telescopes, probes) to gather information about the universe (e.g., background radiation, magnetic fields, discovery of previously unknown celestial bodies)

ESS.6.2.C

The regular and predictable motions of a planet and moon relative to the Sun explain natural phenomena, such as day, month, year, shadows, moon phases, eclipses, tides, and seasons

ESS.6.2.C.a

Relate units of time (i.e., day, month, year) to the regular and predictable motion of the planets and moons and their positions in the Solar system

ESS.6.2.C.b

Explain seasonal phenomena (i.e., weather, length of day, temperature, intensity of sunlight) as a consequence of a planets axial tilt as it rotates and a planets orbital position as it revolves around the Sun

ESS.6.2.C.c

Provide evidence that can be observed from Earth that supports the fact Earth rotates on its axis and revolves around the Sun

ESS.6.2.C.d

Predict the moon rise/set times, phases of the moon, and/or eclipses when given the relative positions of the moon, planet, and Sun

ESS.6.2.C.e

Explain how the gravitational forces, due to the relative positions of a planet, moon, and Sun, determine the height and frequency of tides

ESS.6.2.D

Gravity is a force of attraction between objects in the solar system that governs their motion

ESS.6.2.D.a

Explain orbital motions of moons around planets, and planets around the Sun, as the result of gravitational forces between those objects

ESS.7.1.A

Scientific inquiry includes the ability of students to formulate a testable question and explanation, and to select appropriate investigative methods in order to obtain evidence relevant to the explanation

ESS.7.1.A.a

Formulate testable questions and hypotheses

ESS.7.1.A.b

Analyzing an experiment, identify the components (i.e., independent variable, dependent variables, control of constants, multiple trials) and explain their importance to the design of a valid experiment

ESS.7.1.A.c

Design and conduct a valid experiment

ESS.7.1.A.d

Recognize it is not always possible, for practical or ethical reasons, to control some conditions (e.g., when sampling or testing humans, when observing animal behaviors in nature)

ESS.7.1.A.e

Acknowledge some scientific explanations (e.g., explanations of astronomical or meteorological phenomena) cannot be tested using a controlled laboratory experiment, but instead by using a model, due to the limits of the laboratory environment, resources, and/or technologies

ESS.7.1.A.f

Acknowledge there is no fixed procedure called the scientific method, but that some investigations involve systematic observations, carefully collected and relevant evidence, logical reasoning, and some imagination in developing hypotheses and other explanations

ESS.7.1.A.g

Evaluate the design of an experiment and make suggestions for reasonable improvements

ESS.7.1.B

Scientific inquiry relies upon gathering evidence from qualitative and quantitative observations

ESS.7.1.B.a

Make qualitative and quantitative observations using the appropriate senses, tools and equipment to gather data (e.g., microscopes, thermometers, analog and digital meters, computers, spring scales, balances, metric rulers, graduated cylinders)

ESS.7.1.B.b

Measure length to the nearest millimeter, mass to the nearest gram, volume to the nearest milliliter, force (weight) to the nearest Newton, temperature to the nearest degree Celsius, time to the nearest second

ESS.7.1.B.c

Determine the appropriate tools and techniques to collect, analyze, and interpret data

ESS.7.1.B.d

Judge whether measurements and computation of quantities are reasonable

ESS.7.1.B.e

Calculate the range, average/mean, percent, and ratios for sets of data

ESS.7.1.B.f

Recognize observation is biased by the experiences and knowledge of the observer (e.g., strong beliefs about what should happen in particular circumstances can prevent the detection of other results)

ESS.7.1.C

Scientific inquiry includes evaluation of explanations (laws/principles, theories/models) in light of evidence (data) and scientific principles (understandings)

ESS.7.1.C.a

Use quantitative and qualitative data as support for reasonable explanations (conclusions)

ESS.7.1.C.b

Analyze experimental data to determine patterns, relationships, perspectives, and credibility of explanations (e.g., predict/extrapolate data, explain the relationship between the independent and dependent variable)

ESS.7.1.C.c

Identify the possible effects of errors in observations, measurements, and calculations, on the validity and reliability of data and resultant explanations (conclusions)

ESS.7.1.C.d

Analyze whether evidence (data) and scientific principles support proposed explanations (laws/principles, theories/models)

ESS.7.1.D

The nature of science relies upon communication of results and justification of explanations

ESS.7.1.D.a

Communicate the procedures and results of investigations and explanations through: oral presentations drawings and maps data tables (allowing for the recording and analysis of data relevant to the experiment such as independent and dependent variables, multiple trials, beginning and ending times or temperatures, derived quantities) graphs (bar, single, and multiple line) equations and writings

ESS.7.1.D.b

Communicate and defend a scientific argument

ESS.7.1.D.c

Explain the importance of the public presentation of scientific work and supporting evidence to the scientific community (e.g., work and evidence must be critiqued, reviewed, and validated by peers; needed for subsequent investigations by peers; results can influence the decisions regarding future scientific work)

ESS.8.1.A

Advances in technology often result in improved data collection and an increase in scientific information

ESS.8.1.A.a

Recognize the relationships linking technology and science (e.g., how technological problems may create a demand for new science knowledge, how new technologies make it possible for scientists to extend research and advance science)

ESS.8.2.A

People of different gender and ethnicity have contributed to scientific discoveries and the invention of technological innovations

ESS.8.2.A.a

Recognize contributions to science are not limited to the work of one particular group, but are made by a diverse group of scientists representing various ethnic and gender groups

ESS.8.2.A.b

Recognize gender and ethnicity of scientists often influence the questions asked and/or the methods used in scientific research and may limit or advance science knowledge and/or technology

ESS.8.2.B

Scientific theories are developed based on the body of knowledge that exists at any particular time and must be rigorously questioned and tested for validity

ESS.8.2.B.a

Physics II Content a. Identify and describe how explanations (laws/principles, theories/models) of scientific phenomena have changed over time as a result of new evidence (e.g., model of the solar system, basic structure of matter, structure of an atom, Theory of Plate Tectonics, Big Bang and nebular theory of the Universe, explanation of electric current)

ESS.8.2.B.b

Identify and analyze current theories that are being questioned, and compare them to new theories that have emerged to challenge older ones (e.g., theories of evolution, extinction, global warming)

ESS.8.3.B

Social, political, economic, ethical and environmental factors strongly influence, and are influenced by, the direction of progress of science and technology

ESS.8.3.B.a

Analyze the roles of science and society as they interact to determine the direction of scientific and technological progress (e.g., prioritization of and funding for new scientific research and technological development is determined on the basis of individual, political and social values and needs; understanding basic concepts and principles of science and technology influences debate about the economics, policies, politics, and ethics of various scientific and technological challenges)

ESS.8.3.B.b

Physics II Content b. Identify and describe major scientific and technological challenges to society and their ramifications for public policy (e.g., global warming, limitations to fossil fuels, genetic engineering of plants, space and/or medical research)

ESS.8.3.B.c

Analyze and evaluate the drawbacks (e.g., design constraints, unintended consequences, risks), benefits, and factors (i.e., social, political, economic, ethical, and environmental) affecting progress toward meeting major scientific and technological challenges (e.g., use of alternative energies to reduce the use of carbon fuels, use of satellite communications to gather information, nuclear energy, computer technology)

ESS.8.3.C

Scientific ethics require that scientists must not knowingly subject people or the community to health or property risks without their knowledge and consent

ESS.8.3.C.a

Identify and evaluate the need for informed consent in experimentation

ESS.8.3.C.b

Identify the ethical issues involved in experimentation (i.e., risks to organisms or environment)

ESS.8.3.C.c

Identify and evaluate the role of models as an ethical alternative to direct experimentation (e.g., using a model for human subjects when safety features of crashed vehicles)

ESS.8.3.D

Scientific information is presented through a number of credible sources, but is at times influenced in such a way to become non-credible

ESS.8.3.D.a

Evaluate a given source for its scientific credibility (e.g., articles in a new periodical quoting an eyewitness, a scientist speaking within or outside his/her area of expertise)

ESS.8.3.D.b

Explain why accurate recordkeeping, openness, and replication are essential for maintaining an investigators credibility with other scientists and society

PI.1.1.A

Objects, and the materials they are made of, have properties that can be used to describe and classify them

PI.1.1.A.a

Compare the densities of regular and irregular objects using their respective measures of volume and mass

PI.1.1.A.b

Physics II Content Identify pure substances by their physical and chemical properties (i.e., color, luster/reflectivity, hardness, conductivity, density, pH, melting point, boiling point, specific heat, solubility, phase at room temperature, chemical reactivity)

PI.1.1.A.c

Physics II Content Classify a substance as being made up of one kind of atom (element) or a compound when given the molecular formula or structural formula (introduce electron dot diagram) for the substance

PI.1.1.A.d

Physics II Content Compare and contrast the common properties of metals, nonmetals, metalloids (semi-conductors) and noble gases

PI.1.1.D

Physical changes in states of matter due to thermal changes in materials can be explained by the Kinetic Theory of Matter

PI.1.1.D.a

Physics II Content Using the Kinetic Theory model, explain the changes that occur in the distance between atoms/molecules and temperature of a substance as energy is absorbed or released during a phase change

PI.1.1.D.b

Physics II Content Predict the effect of a temperature change on the properties (e.g., pressure, density) of a material (solids, liquids, gases)

PI.1.1.D.c

Physics II Content Predict the effect of pressure changes on the properties (e.g., temperature, density) of a material (solids, liquids, gases)

PI.1.1.E

The atomic model describes the electrically neutral atom

PI.1.1.E.a

Physics II Content Describe the atom as having a dense, positive nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negative electrons

PI.1.1.E.b

Physics II Content Calculate the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons of an element (or isotopes) given its atomic mass (or mass number) and atomic number

PI.1.1.E.c

Physics II Content Describe the information provided by the atomic number and the mass number (i.e., electrical charge, chemical stability)

PI.1.2.A

Forms of energy have a source, a means of transfer (work and heat), and a receiver

PI.1.2.A.a

Physics II Content Differentiate between thermal energy (the total internal energy of a substance which is dependent upon mass), heat (thermal energy that transfers from one object or system to another due to a difference in temperature), and temperature (the measure of average kinetic energy of molecules or atoms in a substance)

PI.1.2.A.b

Physics II Content Describe the relationship among wavelength, energy, and frequency as illustrated by the electromagnetic spectrum

PI.1.2.A.c

Physics II Content Differentiate between the properties and examples of conductors and insulators of different forms of energy (i.e., thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic)

PI.1.2.A.d

Describe sources and common uses of different forms of energy: chemical, nuclear, thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic

PI.1.2.A.e

Identify and evaluate advantages/disadvantages of using various sources of energy (e.g., wind, solar, geothermal, hydroelectric, biomass, fossil fuel) for human activity

PI.1.2.A.f

Describe the effect of different frequencies of electromagnetic waves on the Earth and living organisms (e.g., radio, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, gamma, cosmic rays)

PI.1.2.A.g

Physics II Content Interpret examples (e.g., land and sea breezes, home heating, plate tectonics) of heat transfer as convection, conduction, or radiation

PI.1.2.B

Mechanical energy comes from the motion (kinetic energy) and/or relative position (potential energy) of an object

PI.1.2.B.a

Relate kinetic energy to an objects mass and its velocity

PI.1.2.B.b

Relate an objects gravitational potential energy to its weight and height relative to the surface of the Earth

PI.1.2.B.c

Distinguish between examples of kinetic and potential energy (i.e., gravitational, elastic) within a system

PI.1.2.B.d

Describe the effect of work on an objects kinetic and potential energy

PI.1.2.C

Electromagnetic energy from the Sun (solar radiation) is a major source of energy on Earth

PI.1.2.C.a

Identify stars as producers of electromagnetic energy

PI.1.2.C.b

Describe how electromagnetic energy is transferred through space as electromagnetic waves of varying wavelength and frequency

PI.1.2.E

Nuclear energy is a major source of energy throughout the universe

PI.1.2.E.a

Physics II Content Describe how changes in the nucleus of an atom during a nuclear reaction (i.e., nuclear decay, fusion, fission) result in emission of radiation)

PI.1.2.E.b

Identify the role of nuclear energy as it serves as a source of energy for the Earth, stars, and human activity (e.g., source of electromagnetic radiation, thermal energy within mantle, nuclear power plants, fuel for stars)

PI.1.2.F

Energy can be transferred within a system as the total amount of energy remains constant (i.e., Law of Conservation of Energy)

PI.1.2.F.a

Describe the transfer of energy that occurs as energy changes from kinetic to potential within a system (e.g., car moving on rollercoaster track, child swinging, diver jumping off a board)

PI.1.2.F.b

Compare the efficiency of systems (recognizing that, as work is done, the amount of usable energy decreases)

PI.1.2.F.c

Classify the different ways to store energy (i.e., chemical, nuclear, thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic) and describe the transfer of energy as it changes from kinetic to potential, while the total amount of energy remains constant, within a system (e.g., using gasoline to move a car, photocell generating electricity, electromagnetic motor doing work, energy generated by nuclear reactor)

PI.2.1.A

The motion of an object is described as a change in position, direction, and speed relative to another object (frame of reference)

PI.2.1.A.a

Represent and analyze the motion of an object graphically

PI.2.1.A.b

Analyze the velocity of two objects in terms of distance and time (i.e., verbally, diagrammatically, graphically, mathematically)

PI.2.1.B

An object that is accelerating is speeding up, slowing down, or changing direction

PI.2.1.B.a

Measure and analyze an objects motion in terms of speed, velocity, and acceleration (i.e., verbally, diagrammatically, graphically, mathematically)

PI.2.1.C

Momentum depends on the mass of the object and the velocity with which it is traveling

PI.2.1.C.a

Compare the momentum of two objects in terms of mass and velocity (Do NOT assess calculations)

PI.2.1.C.b

Explain that the total momentum remains constant within a system

PI.2.2.A

Forces are classified as either contact forces (pushes, pulls, friction, buoyancy) or non-contact forces (gravity, magnetism), that can be described in terms of direction and magnitude

PI.2.2.A.a

Identify and describe the forces acting on an object (i.e., type of force, direction, magnitude in Newtons) using a force diagram and calculating net force

PI.2.2.B

Every object exerts a gravitational force on every other object

PI.2.2.B.a

Describe gravity as an attractive force among all objects

PI.2.2.B.b

Physics II Content Compare and describe the gravitational forces between two objects in terms of their masses and the distances between them

PI.2.2.B.c

Describe weight in terms of the force of a planets or moons gravity acting on a given mass

PI.2.2.B.d

Recognize all free falling bodies accelerate at the same rate due to gravity regardless of their mass

PI.2.2.C

Magnetic forces are related to electrical forces as different aspects of a single electromagnetic force

PI.2.2.C.a

Physics II Content Recognize changing magnetic fields can produce electrical current and electric currents can produce magnetic forces

PI.2.2.C.b

Physics II Content Predict the effects of an electromagnetic force on the motion of objects (attract or repel)

PI.2.2.D

Newtons Laws of Motion explain the interaction of mass and forces, and are used to predict changes in motion

PI.2.2.D.a

Recognize that inertia is a property of matter that can be described as an objects tendency to resist a change in motion, and is dependent upon the objects mass (Newtons First Law of Motion)

PI.2.2.D.b

Determine the effect (i.e., direction and magnitude) of the sum of the forces acting on an object (i.e., net force)

PI.2.2.D.c

Using information about net force and mass determine the effect on acceleration (Newtons Second Law of Motion)

PI.2.2.D.d

Identify forces acting on a falling object (i.e., weight, air resistance) and how those forces affect the rate of acceleration

PI.2.2.D.e

Analyze force pairs (i.e., action/reaction forces) when given a scenario (e.g., handball hits concrete wall, shotgun firing) and describe their magnitudes and directions. (Newtons Third Law of Motion)

PI.2.2.E

Perpendicular forces act independently of each other

PI.2.2.E.a

Describe the force(s) that keep an object traveling in a circular path

PI.2.2.E.b

Describe the force(s) acting on a projectile on the Earth

PI.2.2.E.c

Predict the path of an object when the net force changes

PI.2.2.F

Work transfers energy into and out of a mechanical system

PI.2.2.F.a

Describe the relationships among work, applied net force, and the distance an object moves

PI.2.2.F.b

Explain how the efficiency of a mechanical system can be expressed as a ratio of work output to work input

PI.2.2.F.c

Describe power in terms of work and time

PI.2.2.F.d

Describe and analyze the relationships among force, distance, work, efficiency, and power

PI.5.2.B

There are internal processes and sources of energy within the geosphere that cause changes in Earths crustal plates

PI.5.2.B.a

Describe the internal source of energy on Earth that results in uneven heating of the mantle (i.e., decay of radioactive isotopes)

PI.5.2.B.b

Illustrate and explain the convection currents that result from the uneven heating inside the mantle and cause movement of crustal plates

PI.5.2.B.c

Illustrate and explain the convection currents that result from the uneven heating inside the mantle and cause movement of crustal plates

PI.5.2.B.d

Relate the densities of the materials found in continental and oceanic plates to the processes that result in each type of plate boundary (i.e., diverging, converging, transform)

PI.5.2.B.e

Describe the effects of the movement of crustal plates (i.e., earthquakes, sea floor spreading, mountain building, volcanic eruptions) at a given location on the planet

PI.5.2.B.f

Articulate the processes involved in the Theory of Plate Tectonics (i.e., uneven heating of the mantle due to the decay of radioactive isotopes, movement of materials via convection currents, movement of continental and oceanic plates along diverging, converging, or transform plate boundaries) and describe evidence that supports that theory (e.g., correlation of rock sequences, landforms, and fossils; presence of intrusions and faults; evidence of seafloor spreading)

PI.5.2.D

Changes in the Earth over time can be inferred through rock and fossil evidence

PI.5.2.D.a

Use evidence from relative and real dating techniques (e.g., correlation of trace fossils, landforms, and rock sequences; evidence of climate changes; presence of intrusions and faults; magnetic orientation; relative age of drill samples) to infer geologic history

PI.5.2.F

Climate is a description of average weather conditions in a given area due to the transfer of energy and matter through Earths systems.

PI.5.2.F.a

Explain how global wind and ocean currents are produced on the Earths surface (e.g., effects of unequal heating of the Earths land masses, oceans, and air by the Sun due to latitude and surface material type; effects of gravitational forces acting on layers of air of different densities due to temperature differences; effects of the rotation of the Earth; effects of surface topography)

PI.5.3.A

Earths materials are limited natural resources affected by human activity

PI.5.3.A.a

Distinguish between renewable and nonrenewable energy resources

PI.5.3.A.b

Identify human activities that may adversely affect the composition of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, or geosphere

PI.6.1.A

The Earth, Sun, and moon are part of a larger system that includes other planets and smaller celestial bodies

PI.6.1.A.a

Describe and relate the positions and motions of the Sun-Earth solar system, the Milky-Way galaxy, and other galaxies within the universe (i.e., it is just one of several solar systems orbiting the center of a rotating spiral galaxy; that spiral galaxy is just one of many galaxies which orbit a common center of gravity; the expanding universe causes the distance between galaxies to increase)

PI.6.1.B

The Earth has a composition and location suitable to sustain life

PI.6.1.B.a

Explain how Earths environmental characteristics and location in the universe (e.g., atmosphere, temperature, orbital path, magnetic field, mass-gravity, location in solar system) provide a life-supporting environment

PI.6.1.B.b

Compare the environmental characteristics and location in the universe of Earth and other celestial bodies (e.g., planets, moons) to determine ability to support life

PI.6.1.C

Most of the information we know about the universe comes from the electromagnetic spectrum

PI.6.1.C.a

Identify information that the electromagnetic spectrum provides about the stars and the universe (e.g., chemical composition, temperature, age of stars, location of black holes, motion of celestial bodies)

PI.6.1.C.b

Evaluate the advantages/ disadvantages of using different tools (e.g., spectroscope, different types of telescopes, probes) to gather information about the universe (e.g., background radiation, magnetic fields, discovery of previously unknown celestial bodies)

PI.6.2.C

The regular and predictable motions of a planet and moon relative to the Sun explain natural phenomena, such as day, month, year, shadows, moon phases, eclipses, tides, and seasons

PI.6.2.C.a

Relate units of time (i.e., day, month, year) to the regular and predictable motion of the planets and moons and their positions in the Solar system

PI.6.2.C.b

Explain seasonal phenomena (i.e., weather, length of day, temperature, intensity of sunlight) as a consequence of a planets axial tilt as it rotates and a planets orbital position as it revolves around the Sun

PI.6.2.C.c

Provide evidence that can be observed from Earth that supports the fact Earth rotates on its axis and revolves around the Sun

PI.6.2.C.d

Predict the moon rise/set times, phases of the moon, and/or eclipses when given the relative positions of the moon, planet, and Sun

PI.6.2.C.e

Explain how the gravitational forces, due to the relative positions of a planet, moon, and Sun, determine the height and frequency of tides

PI.6.2.D

Gravity is a force of attraction between objects in the solar system that governs their motion

PI.6.2.D.a

Explain orbital motions of moons around planets, and planets around the Sun, as the result of gravitational forces between those objects

PI.7.1.A

Scientific inquiry includes the ability of students to formulate a testable question and explanation, and to select appropriate investigative methods in order to obtain evidence relevant to the explanation

PI.7.1.A.a

Formulate testable questions and hypotheses

PI.7.1.A.b

Analyzing an experiment, identify the components (i.e., independent variable, dependent variables, control of constants, multiple trials) and explain their importance to the design of a valid experiment

PI.7.1.A.c

Design and conduct a valid experiment

PI.7.1.A.d

Recognize it is not always possible, for practical or ethical reasons, to control some conditions (e.g., when sampling or testing humans, when observing animal behaviors in nature)

PI.7.1.A.e

Acknowledge some scientific explanations (e.g., explanations of astronomical or meteorological phenomena) cannot be tested using a controlled laboratory experiment, but instead by using a model, due to the limits of the laboratory environment, resources, and/or technologies

PI.7.1.A.f

Acknowledge there is no fixed procedure called the scientific method, but that some investigations involve systematic observations, carefully collected and relevant evidence, logical reasoning, and some imagination in developing hypotheses and other explanations

PI.7.1.A.g

Evaluate the design of an experiment and make suggestions for reasonable improvements

PI.7.1.B

Scientific inquiry relies upon gathering evidence from qualitative and quantitative observations

PI.7.1.B.a

Make qualitative and quantitative observations using the appropriate senses, tools and equipment to gather data (e.g., microscopes, thermometers, analog and digital meters, computers, spring scales, balances, metric rulers, graduated cylinders)

PI.7.1.B.b

Measure length to the nearest millimeter, mass to the nearest gram, volume to the nearest milliliter, force (weight) to the nearest Newton, temperature to the nearest degree Celsius, time to the nearest second

PI.7.1.B.c

Determine the appropriate tools and techniques to collect, analyze, and interpret data

PI.7.1.B.d

Judge whether measurements and computation of quantities are reasonable

PI.7.1.B.e

Calculate the range, average/mean, percent, and ratios for sets of data

PI.7.1.B.f

Recognize observation is biased by the experiences and knowledge of the observer (e.g., strong beliefs about what should happen in particular circumstances can prevent the detection of other results)

PI.7.1.C

Scientific inquiry includes evaluation of explanations (laws/principles, theories/models) in light of evidence (data) and scientific principles (understandings)

PI.7.1.C.a

Use quantitative and qualitative data as support for reasonable explanations (conclusions)

PI.7.1.C.b

Analyze experimental data to determine patterns, relationships, perspectives, and credibility of explanations (e.g., predict/extrapolate data, explain the relationship between the independent and dependent variable)

PI.7.1.C.c

Identify the possible effects of errors in observations, measurements, and calculations, on the validity and reliability of data and resultant explanations (conclusions)

PI.7.1.C.d

Analyze whether evidence (data) and scientific principles support proposed explanations (laws/principles, theories/models)

PI.7.1.D

The nature of science relies upon communication of results and justification of explanations

PI.7.1.D.a

Communicate the procedures and results of investigations and explanations through: oral presentations drawings and maps data tables (allowing for the recording and analysis of data relevant to the experiment such as independent and dependent variables, multiple trials, beginning and ending times or temperatures, derived quantities) graphs (bar, single, and multiple line) equations and writings

PI.7.1.D.b

Communicate and defend a scientific argument

PI.7.1.D.c

Explain the importance of the public presentation of scientific work and supporting evidence to the scientific community (e.g., work and evidence must be critiqued, reviewed, and validated by peers; needed for subsequent investigations by peers; results can influence the decisions regarding future scientific work)

PI.8.1.A

Advances in technology often result in improved data collection and an increase in scientific information

PI.8.1.A.a

Recognize the relationships linking technology and science (e.g., how technological problems may create a demand for new science knowledge, how new technologies make it possible for scientists to extend research and advance science)

PI.8.2.A

People of different gender and ethnicity have contributed to scientific discoveries and the invention of technological innovations

PI.8.2.A.a

Recognize contributions to science are not limited to the work of one particular group, but are made by a diverse group of scientists representing various ethnic and gender groups

PI.8.2.A.b

Recognize gender and ethnicity of scientists often influence the questions asked and/or the methods used in scientific research and may limit or advance science knowledge and/or technology

PI.8.2.B

Scientific theories are developed based on the body of knowledge that exists at any particular time and must be rigorously questioned and tested for validity

PI.8.2.B.a

Physics II Content a. Identify and describe how explanations (laws/principles, theories/models) of scientific phenomena have changed over time as a result of new evidence (e.g., model of the solar system, basic structure of matter, structure of an atom, Theory of Plate Tectonics, Big Bang and nebular theory of the Universe, explanation of electric current)

PI.8.2.B.b

Identify and analyze current theories that are being questioned, and compare them to new theories that have emerged to challenge older ones (e.g., theories of evolution, extinction, global warming)

PI.8.3.B

Social, political, economic, ethical and environmental factors strongly influence, and are influenced by, the direction of progress of science and technology

PI.8.3.B.a

Analyze the roles of science and society as they interact to determine the direction of scientific and technological progress (e.g., prioritization of and funding for new scientific research and technological development is determined on the basis of individual, political and social values and needs; understanding basic concepts and principles of science and technology influences debate about the economics, policies, politics, and ethics of various scientific and technological challenges)

PI.8.3.B.b

Physics II Content b. Identify and describe major scientific and technological challenges to society and their ramifications for public policy (e.g., global warming, limitations to fossil fuels, genetic engineering of plants, space and/or medical research)

PI.8.3.B.c

Analyze and evaluate the drawbacks (e.g., design constraints, unintended consequences, risks), benefits, and factors (i.e., social, political, economic, ethical, and environmental) affecting progress toward meeting major scientific and technological challenges (e.g., use of alternative energies to reduce the use of carbon fuels, use of satellite communications to gather information, nuclear energy, computer technology)

PI.8.3.C

Scientific ethics require that scientists must not knowingly subject people or the community to health or property risks without their knowledge and consent

PI.8.3.C.a

Identify and evaluate the need for informed consent in experimentation

PI.8.3.C.b

Identify the ethical issues involved in experimentation (i.e., risks to organisms or environment)

PI.8.3.C.c

Identify and evaluate the role of models as an ethical alternative to direct experimentation (e.g., using a model for human subjects when safety features of crashed vehicles)

PI.8.3.D

Scientific information is presented through a number of credible sources, but is at times influenced in such a way to become non-credible

PI.8.3.D.a

Evaluate a given source for its scientific credibility (e.g., articles in a new periodical quoting an eye witness, a scientist speaking within or outside his/her area of expertise)

PI.8.3.D.b

Explain why accurate recordkeeping, openness, and replication are essential for maintaining an investigators credibility with other scientists and society

PS.1.1.A

Objects, and the materials they are made of, have properties that can be used to describe and classify them

PS.1.1.A.a

Compare the densities of regular and irregular objects using their respective measures of volume and mass

PS.1.1.A.b

Identify pure substances by their physical and chemical properties (i.e., color, luster/reflectivity, hardness, conductivity, density, pH, melting point, boiling point, specific heat, solubility, phase at room temperature, chemical reactivity)

PS.1.1.A.c

Classify a substance as being made up of one kind of atom (element) or a compound when given the molecular formula or structural formula (introduce electron dot diagram) for the substance

PS.1.1.A.d

Compare and contrast the common properties of metals, nonmetals, metalloids (semi-conductors) and noble gases

PS.1.1.B

Properties of mixtures depend upon the concentrations, properties, and interactions of particles

PS.1.1.B.a

Compare and contrast the properties of acidic, basic, and neutral solutions

PS.1.1.D

Physical changes in states of matter due to thermal changes in materials can be explained by the Kinetic Theory of Matter

PS.1.1.D.a

Using the Kinetic Theory model, explain the changes that occur in the distance between atoms/molecules and temperature of a substance as energy is absorbed or released during a phase change

PS.1.1.D.b

Predict the effect of a temperature change on the properties (i.e., pressure, density, volume) of a material (solids, liquids, gases)

PS.1.1.D.c

Predict the effect of pressure changes on the properties (i.e., temperature, volume, density) of a material (solids, liquids, gases)

PS.1.1.E

The atomic model describes the electrically neutral atom

PS.1.1.E.a

Describe the atom as having a dense, positive nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negative electrons

PS.1.1.E.b

Calculate the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons of an element/isotopes given its mass number and atomic number

PS.1.1.E.c

Describe the information provided by the atomic number and the mass number (i.e., electrical charge, chemical stability)

PS.1.1.F

The periodic table organizes the elements according to their atomic structure and chemical reactivity

PS.1.1.F.a

Explain the structure of the periodic table in terms of the elements with common properties (groups/families) and repeating properties (periods)

PS.1.1.F.b

Classify elements as metals, nonmetals, metalloids (semiconductors), and noble gases according to their location on the Periodic Table

PS.1.1.F.c

Predict the chemical reactivity of elements, and the type of bonds that may result between them, using the Periodic Table

PS.1.1.G

Properties of objects and states of matter can change chemically and/or physically

PS.1.1.G.a

Distinguish between physical and chemical changes in matter

PS.1.1.H

Chemical bonding is the combining of different pure substances (elements, compounds) to form new substances with different properties

PS.1.1.H.a

Describe how the valence electron configuration determines how atoms interact and may bond

PS.1.1.H.b

Compare and contrast the types of chemical bonds (i.e., ionic, covalent)

PS.1.1.I

Mass is conserved during any physical or chemical change

PS.1.1.I.a

Compare the mass of the reactants to the mass of the products in a chemical reaction or physical change as support for the Law of Conservation of Mass

PS.1.2.A

Forms of energy have a source, a means of transfer (work and heat), and a receiver

PS.1.2.A.a

Differentiate between thermal energy (the total internal energy of a substance which is dependent upon mass), heat (thermal energy that transfers from one object or system to another due to a difference in temperature), and temperature (the measure of average kinetic energy of molecules or atoms in a substance)

PS.1.2.A.b

Differentiate between the properties and examples of conductors and insulators

PS.1.2.A.c

Describe sources and common uses of different forms of energy: chemical, nuclear, thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic

PS.1.2.A.d

Identify and evaluate advantages/disadvantages of using various sources of energy (e.g., wind, solar, geothermal, hydroelectric, biomass, fossil fuel) for human activity

PS.1.2.A.e

Describe the effect of different frequencies of electromagnetic waves on the Earth and living organisms (e.g., radio, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, gamma, cosmic rays)

PS.1.2.A.f

Interpret examples of heat transfer (e.g., home heating, solar panels) as convection, conduction, or radiation

PS.1.2.B

Mechanical energy comes from the motion (kinetic energy) and/or relative position (potential energy) of an object

PS.1.2.B.a

Relate kinetic energy to an objects mass and its velocity

PS.1.2.B.b

Relate an objects gravitational potential energy to its weight and height relative to the surface of the Earth

PS.1.2.B.c

Distinguish between examples of kinetic and potential energy (i.e., gravitational) within a system

PS.1.2.B.d

Describe the effect of work on an objects kinetic and potential energy

PS.1.2.C

Electromagnetic energy from the Sun (solar radiation) is a major source of energy on Earth

PS.1.2.C.a

Identify stars as producers of electromagnetic energy

PS.1.2.C.b

Describe how electromagnetic energy is transferred through space as electromagnetic waves of varying wavelength and frequency

PS.1.2.E

Nuclear energy is a major source of energy throughout the universe

PS.1.2.E.a

Describe how changes in the nucleus of an atom during a nuclear reaction (i.e., nuclear decay, fusion, fission) result in emission of radiation

PS.1.2.E.b

Identify the role of nuclear energy as it serves as a source of energy for the Earth, stars, and human activity (e.g., source of electromagnetic radiation, nuclear power plants, fuel for stars)

PS.1.2.F

Energy can be transferred within a system as the total amount of energy remains constant (i.e., Law of Conservation of Energy)

PS.1.2.F.a

Describe the transfer of energy that occurs as energy changes from kinetic to potential within a system (e.g., car moving on rollercoaster track, child swinging, diver jumping off a board) (Do NOT assess calculations)

PS.1.2.F.b

Compare the efficiency of systems (recognizing that, as work is done, the amount of usable energy decreases)

PS.1.2.F.c

Classify the different ways to store energy (i.e., chemical, nuclear, thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic) and describe the transfer of energy as it changes from kinetic to potential, while the total amount of energy remains constant, within a system (e.g., using gasoline to move a car, photocell generating electricity, electromagnetic motor doing work, energy generated by nuclear reactor)

PS.2.1.A

The motion of an object is described as a change in position, direction, and speed relative to another object (frame of reference)

PS.2.1.A.a

Represent and analyze the motion of an object graphically

PS.2.1.A.b

Analyze the velocity of two objects in terms of distance and time (i.e., verbally, diagrammatically, graphically, mathematically)

PS.2.1.B

An object that is accelerating is speeding up, slowing down, or changing direction

PS.2.1.B.a

Measure and analyze an objects motion in terms of speed, velocity, and acceleration (i.e., verbally, diagrammatically, graphically)

PS.2.1.C

Momentum depends on the mass of the object and the velocity with which it is traveling

PS.2.1.C.a

Compare the momentum of two objects in terms of mass and velocity (Do NOT assess calculations)

PS.2.1.C.b

Explain that the total momentum remains constant within a system

PS.2.2.A

Forces are classified as either contact forces (pushes, pulls, friction, buoyancy) or non-contact forces (gravity, magnetism), that can be described in terms of direction and magnitude

PS.2.2.A.a

Identify and describe the forces acting on an object (i.e., type of force, direction, magnitude in Newtons) using a force diagram (do not assess calculations)

PS.2.2.B

Every object exerts a gravitational force on every other object

PS.2.2.B.a

Describe gravity as an attractive force among all objects

PS.2.2.B.b

Compare and describe the gravitational forces between two objects in terms of their masses and the distances between them

PS.2.2.B.c

Describe weight in terms of the force of a planets or moons gravity acting on a given mass

PS.2.2.B.d

Recognize all free falling bodies accelerate at the same rate due to gravity regardless of their mass

PS.2.2.D

Newtons Laws of Motion explain the interaction of mass and forces, and are used to predict changes in motion

PS.2.2.D.a

Recognize that inertia is a property of matter that can be described as an objects tendency to resist a change in motion, and is dependent upon the objects mass (Newtons First Law of Motion)

PS.2.2.D.b

Determine the effect (i.e., direction and magnitude) of the sum of the forces acting on an object (i.e., net force)

PS.2.2.D.c

Using information about net force and mass determine the effect on acceleration (Newtons Second Law of Motion)

PS.2.2.D.d

Identify forces acting on a falling object (i.e., weight, air resistance) and how those forces affect the rate of acceleration

PS.2.2.D.e

Analyze force pairs (i.e., action/reaction forces) when given a scenario (e.g., handball hits concrete wall, shotgun firing) and describe their magnitudes and directions. (Newtons Third Law of Motion)

PS.2.2.E

Perpendicular forces act independently of each other

PS.2.2.E.a

Predict the path of an object when the net force changes

PS.2.2.F

Work transfers energy into and out of a mechanical system

PS.2.2.F.a

Describe the relationships among work, applied net force, and the distance an object moves

PS.2.2.F.b

Explain how the efficiency of a mechanical system can be expressed as a ratio of work output to work input

PS.2.2.F.c

Describe power in terms of work and time

PS.2.2.F.d

Describe and analyze the relationships among force, distance, work, efficiency, and power

PS.6.1.B

The Earth has a composition and location suitable to sustain life

PS.6.1.B.a

Explain how Earths environmental characteristics and location in the universe (e.g., atmosphere, temperature, orbital path, magnetic field, mass-gravity, location in solar system) provide a life-supporting environment

PS.6.1.C

Most of the information we know about the universe comes from the electromagnetic spectrum

PS.6.1.C.a

Identify information that the electromagnetic spectrum provides about the stars and the universe (e.g., chemical composition, temperature, age of stars, location of black holes, motion of celestial bodies)

PS.6.2.C

The regular and predictable motions of a planet and moon relative to the Sun explain natural phenomena, such as day, month, year, shadows, moon phases, eclipses, tides, and seasons

PS.6.2.C.a

Predict the moon rise/set times, phases of the moon, and/or eclipses when given the relative positions of the moon, planet, and Sun

PS.6.2.C.b

Explain how the gravitational forces, due to the relative positions of a planet, moon, and Sun, determine the height and frequency of tides

PS.6.2.D

Gravity is a force of attraction between objects in the solar system that governs their motion

PS.6.2.D.a

Explain orbital motions of moons around planets, and planets around the Sun, as the result of gravitational forces between those objects

PS.7.1.A

Scientific inquiry includes the ability of students to formulate a testable question and explanation, and to select appropriate investigative methods in order to obtain evidence relevant to the explanation

PS.7.1.A.a

Formulate testable questions and hypotheses

PS.7.1.A.b

Analyzing an experiment, identify the components (i.e., independent variable, dependent variables, control of constants, multiple trials) and explain their importance to the design of a valid experiment

PS.7.1.A.c

Design and conduct a valid experiment

PS.7.1.A.d

Recognize it is not always possible, for practical or ethical reasons, to control some conditions (e.g., when sampling or testing humans, when observing animal behaviors in nature)

PS.7.1.A.e

Acknowledge some scientific explanations (e.g., explanations of astronomical or meteorological phenomena) cannot be tested using a controlled laboratory experiment, but instead by using a model, due to the limits of the laboratory environment, resources, and/or technologies

PS.7.1.A.f

Acknowledge there is no fixed procedure called the scientific method, but that some investigations involve systematic observations, carefully collected and relevant evidence, logical reasoning, and some imagination in developing hypotheses and other explanations

PS.7.1.A.g

Evaluate the design of an experiment and make suggestions for reasonable improvements

PS.7.1.B

Scientific inquiry relies upon gathering evidence from qualitative and quantitative observations

PS.7.1.B.a

Make qualitative and quantitative observations using the appropriate senses, tools and equipment to gather data (e.g., microscopes, thermometers, analog and digital meters, computers, spring scales, balances, metric rulers, graduated cylinders)

PS.7.1.B.b

Measure length to the nearest millimeter, mass to the nearest gram, volume to the nearest milliliter, force (weight) to the nearest Newton, temperature to the nearest degree Celsius, time to the nearest second

PS.7.1.B.c

Determine the appropriate tools and techniques to collect, analyze, and interpret data

PS.7.1.B.d

Judge whether measurements and computation of quantities are reasonable

PS.7.1.B.e

Calculate the range, average/mean, percent, and ratios for sets of data

PS.7.1.B.f

Recognize observation is biased by the experiences and knowledge of the observer (e.g., strong beliefs about what should happen in particular circumstances can prevent the detection of other results)

PS.7.1.C

Scientific inquiry includes evaluation of explanations (laws/principles, theories/models) in light of evidence (data) and scientific principles (understandings)

PS.7.1.C.a

Use quantitative and qualitative data as support for reasonable explanations (conclusions)

PS.7.1.C.b

Analyze experimental data to determine patterns, relationships, perspectives, and credibility of explanations (e.g., predict/extrapolate data, explain the relationship between the independent and dependent variable)

PS.7.1.C.c

Identify the possible effects of errors in observations, measurements, and calculations, on the validity and reliability of data and resultant explanations (conclusions)

PS.7.1.C.d

Analyze whether evidence (data) and scientific principles support proposed explanations (laws/principles, theories/models)

PS.7.1.D

The nature of science relies upon communication of results and justification of explanations

PS.7.1.D.a

Communicate the procedures and results of investigations and explanations through: oral presentations drawings and maps data tables (allowing for the recording and analysis of data relevant to the experiment such as independent and dependent variables, multiple trials, beginning and ending times or temperatures, derived quantities) graphs (bar, single, and multiple line) equations and writings

PS.7.1.D.b

Communicate and defend a scientific argument

PS.7.1.D.c

Explain the importance of the public presentation of scientific work and supporting evidence to the scientific community (e.g., work and evidence must be critiqued, reviewed, and validated by peers; needed for subsequent investigations by peers; results can influence the decisions regarding future scientific work)

PS.8.1.A

Advances in technology often result in improved data collection and an increase in scientific information

PS.8.1.A.a

Recognize the relationships linking technology and science (e.g., how technological problems may create a demand for new science knowledge, how new technologies make it possible for scientists to extend research and advance science)

PS.8.2.A

People of different gender and ethnicity have contributed to scientific discoveries and the invention of technological innovations

PS.8.2.A.a

Recognize contributions to science are not limited to the work of one particular group, but are made by a diverse group of scientists representing various ethnic and gender groups

PS.8.2.A.b

Recognize gender and ethnicity of scientists often influence the questions asked and/or the methods used in scientific research and may limit or advance science knowledge and/or technology

PS.8.2.B

Scientific theories are developed based on the body of knowledge that exists at any particular time and must be rigorously questioned and tested for validity

PS.8.2.B.a

Identify and describe how explanations (laws/principles, theories/models) of scientific phenomena have changed over time as a result of new evidence (e.g., model of the solar system, basic structure of matter, structure of an atom, Big Bang and nebular theory of the Universe)\

PS.8.2.B.b

Identify and analyze current theories that are being questioned, and compare them to new theories that have emerged to challenge older ones (e.g., theories of evolution, extinction, global warming)

PS.8.3.B

Social, political, economic, ethical and environmental factors strongly influence, and are influenced by, the direction of progress of science and technology

PS.8.3.B.a

Identify and describe major scientific and technological challenges to society and their ramifications for public policy (e.g., global warming, limitations to fossil fuels, genetic engineering of plants, space and/or medical research)

PS.8.3.B.b

Identify and evaluate the drawbacks (e.g., design constraints, unintended consequences, risks) and benefits of technological solutions to a given problem (e.g., use of alternative energies to reduce the use of carbon fuels, use of satellite communications to gather information)

PS.8.3.D

Scientific information is presented through a number of credible sources, but is at times influenced in such a way to become non-credible

PS.8.3.D.a

Evaluate a given source for its scientific credibility (e.g., articles in a new periodical quoting an eye witness, a scientist speaking within or outside his/her area of expertise)

PS.8.3.D.b

Explain why accurate recordkeeping, openness, and replication are essential for maintaining an investigators credibility with other scientists and society