Alabama Learning Standards for Social Studies — Grade 9

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Describe developments in Italy and Northern Europe during the Renaissance period with respect to humanism, arts and literature, intellectual development, increased trade, and advances in technology.


Explain the relationship between physical geography and cultural development in India, Africa, Japan, and China in the early Global Age, including trade and travel, natural resources, and movement and isolation of peoples and ideas.


Depicting the general location of, size of, and distance between regions in the early Global Age Example: drawing sketch maps


Describe the influence of urbanization on the Western World during the nineteenth century. Examples: interaction with the environment, provisions for public health, increased opportunities for upward mobility, changes in social stratification, development of Romanticism and Realism, development of Impressionism and Cubism


Describing the search for political democracy and social justice in the Western World Examples: European Revolution of 1848, slavery and emancipation in the United States, emancipation of serfs in Russia, universal manhood suffrage, womens suffrage


Describe the impact of European nationalism and Western imperialism as forces of global transformation, including the unification of Italy and Germany, the rise of Japans power in East Asia, economic roots of imperialism, imperialist ideology, colonialism and national rivalries, and United States imperialism


Describing resistance to European imperialism in Africa, Japan, and China


Explain causes and consequences of World War I, including imperialism, militarism, nationalism, and the alliance system.


Describing the rise of Communism in Russia during World War I Examples: return of Vladimir Lenin, rise of the Bolsheviks


Describing military technology used during World War I


Identifying problems created by the Treaty of Versailles of 1919 Examples: Germanys reparations and war guilt, international controversy over the League of Nations


Identifying alliances during World War I and boundary changes after World War I


Explain challenges of the post-World War I period. Examples: 1920s cultural disillusionment, colonial rebellion and turmoil in Ireland and India, attempts to achieve political stability in Europe


Identifying causes of the Great Depression


Characterizing the global impact of the Great Depression


Describe causes and consequences of World War II. Examples: causesunanswered aggression, Axis goal of world conquest consequenceschanges in political boundaries; Allied goals; lasting issues such as the Holocaust, Atomic Age, and Nuremberg Trials


Explaining the rise of militarist and totalitarian states in Italy, Germany, the Soviet Union, and Japan


Identifying turning points of World War II in the European and Pacific Theaters


Depicting geographic locations of world events between 1939 and 1945


Identifying on a map changes in national borders as a result of World War II


Describe post-World War II realignment and reconstruction in Europe, Asia, and Latin America, including the end of colonial empires. Examples: reconstruction of Japan; nationalism in India, Pakistan, Indonesia, and Africa; Chinese Communist Revolution; creation of the Jewish state of Israel; Cuban Revolution; Central American conflicts


Explaining origins of the Cold War Examples: Yalta and Potsdam Conferences, Iron Curtain, Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, United Nations, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Warsaw Pact


Tracing the progression of the Cold War Examples: nuclear weapons, European power struggles, Korean War, Berlin Wall, Cuban Missile Crisis, Vietnam War


Describe the role of nationalism, militarism, and civil war in todays world, including the use of terrorism and modern weapons at the close of the twentieth and the beginning of the twenty-first centuries


Describing the collapse of the Soviet Empire and Russias struggle for democracy, free markets, and economic recovery and the roles of Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan, and Boris Yeltsin Examples: economic failures, demands for national and human rights, resistance from Eastern Europe, reunification of Germany


Describing effects of internal conflict, nationalism, and enmity in South Africa, Northern Ireland, Chile, the Middle East, Somalia and Rwanda, Cambodia, and the Balkans


Characterizing the War on Terrorism, including the significance of the Iran Hostage Crisis; the Gulf Wars; the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks; and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict


Depicting geographic locations of major world events from 1945 to the present


Describe emerging democracies from the late twentieth century to the present.


Discussing problems and opportunities involving science, technology, and the environment in the late twentieth century Examples: genetic engineering, space exploration


Identifying problems involving civil liberties and human rights from 1945 to the present and ways in which these problems have been addressed


Relating economic changes to social changes in countries adopting democratic forms of government


Describe the role of mercantilism and imperialism in European exploration and colonization in the sixteenth century, including the Columbian Exchange.


Describing the impact of the Commercial Revolution on European society


Identifying major ocean currents, wind patterns, landforms, and climates affecting European exploration Example: marking ocean currents and wind patterns on a map


Explain causes of the Reformation and its impact, including tensions between religious and secular authorities, reformers and doctrines, the Counter Reformation, the English Reformation, and wars of religion.


Describe the rise of absolutism and constitutionalism and their impact on European nations.


Contrasting philosophies of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke and the belief in the divine right of kings


Comparing absolutism as it developed in France, Russia, and Prussia, including the reigns of Louis XIV, Peter the Great, and Frederick the Great


Identifying major provisions of the Petition of Rights and the English Bill of Rights


Describe the impact of technological inventions, conditions of labor, and the economic theories of capitalism, liberalism, socialism, and Marxism during the Industrial Revolution on the economies, societies, and politics of Europe.


Identifying important inventors in Europe during the Industrial Revolution


Comparing the Industrial Revolution in England to later revolutions in Europe


Describe the impact of the French Revolution on Europe, including political evolution, social evolution, and diffusion of nationalism and liberalism.


Identifying causes of the French Revolution


Describing the influence of the American Revolution on the French Revolution


Identifying objectives of different groups participating in the French Revolution


Describing the role of Napolon Bonaparte as an empire builder


Compare revolutions in Latin America and the Caribbean, including Haiti, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, and Mexico


Identifying the location of countries in Latin America


Identify significant ideas and achievements of scientists and philosophers of the Scientific Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment. Examples: Scientific Revolutionastronomical theories of Nicolaus Copernicus and Galileo Galilei, Sir Isaac Newtons law of gravity Age of Enlightenmentphilosophies of Charles de Montesquieu, Franois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire), and Jean-Jacques Rousseau