Maryland Social Studies Standards — Grade 12

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Evaluate the principles of federalism, representative democracy, popular sovereignty, consent of the governed, separation of powers, checks and balances, rule of law, limited government, majority rule and how they protect individual rights and impact the functioning of government


Explain how the powers of government are divided and shared on the federal and state levels including delegated, reserved and concurrent powers


Analyze the principle of equal protection and how it has affected individual rights


Examine the purpose of eminent domain and how it affects citizens rights


Describe the formal process for amending the Constitution and why this process is necessary


Describe how the Constitution provides for checks and balances, such as Legislative overrides of vetoes, the limitations on the powers of the President and the appointment process (Unit 2)


Explain the powers denied to the national and state governments including:bills of attainder, ex post facto laws and the suspension of habeas corpus in the Constitution


Identify and explain the implied powers of Congress including the Elastic Clause (necessary and proper) and its effects on the functioning of government


Describe the bicameral structure, powers and organization of the United States Congress and the Maryland General Assembly


Describe legislative tools that can be used during the lawmaking process, such as filibuster, conference committees, and over-riding a veto


Examine the powers and functions of local legislative bodies in Maryland, such as county councils, county commissioners, and city councils (Unit 3)


Describe the structure, powers and authority of the executive branch on the federal, state, and local levels


Analyze the degree to which the powers of the executive branch have changed over time, such as the War Powers Act (1973)


Describe the selection process for the president of the United States including the Electoral College (Unit 4)


Describe the powers, structure and organization of the Federal and Maryland court systems


Explain the difference between original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction


Explain how judicial review affects the functioning of government


Analyze why the United States Supreme Court justices interpretations of the Constitution change over time


Explain the methods of selecting federal justices/judges and Maryland judges (Unit 5)


Describe an individuals legal obligations to obey the law, pay taxes, serve on a jury and serve as a witness


Describe the election process in the United States including the nominating process, primary and general elections (Unit 7)


Describe the purposes of government, such as protecting individual rights, promoting the common good and providing economic security


Evaluate why governments are formed (Unit 1)


Examine the fundamental principles of government and law developed by leading philosophers, such as Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu and Rousseau


Explain how common law and historic documents, such as Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights and the Mayflower Compact influenced the framers of the Constitution and its development


Analyze how the Constitution eliminated the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation


Examine the ratification process of the Constitution and the arguments that occurred including the viewpoints of the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists


Explain the fundamental principles of American government contained in the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, United States Constitution and the Maryland Constitution


Analyze the Preamble as the mission statement of the Constitution of the United States


Identify the rights in the Bill of Rights and how they protect individuals and limit the power of government


Apply the principles of federalism, checks and balances, rule of law, judicial review, separation of powers, consent of the governed and majority rule to real world situations


Explain how amendments to the Constitution expand or limit individual civil liberties, such as the 14th Amendment, 18th Amendment & proposed flag burning amendment (Unit 2)


Describe the purpose, limitations and impact of executive orders in maintaining order and providing safety for citizens


Explain how executive departments and regulatory agencies assist in maintaining order and protecting the safety of the nation, such as the Department of Defense (DOD), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Department of Homeland Security (DHS)


Analyze the impact of national emergencies on the expansion of the powers of the government


Analyze the relationship between governmental authority and maintaining order under the rule of law


Describe how the governor of Maryland can use executive power to maintain order and safety in the state, such as calling out the National Guard in the case of a natural disaster (Unit 4)


Examine the impact of government decisions on individuals and groups, such as approval policies of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), environmental standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), regulations by the Maryland Department of the Environment


Evaluate the role of state and national governments concerning issues related to public safety and maintaining order, such as crime prevention, changes in driver's license requirements, seatbelt laws, and immunization shots (Unit 6)


Describe public policies that promote equity, such as affirmative action, and Higher Education Act Title IX (1972)


Describe how the United States provides national and international service programs to meet the critical needs of society, such as AmeriCorps, Peace Corps (Unit 6)


Explain how initiative, referendum, and recall are opportunities for individuals and groups to initiate change in state and local government policy


Analyze the external factors that influence the law-making process including the roles of the media, lobbyists, Political Action Committees (PACs), special-interest groups, citizens and public opinion (Unit 3)


Analyze the role of the media, special-interest groups, and public opinion in influencing the policy and decisions of the executive branch (Unit 4)


Evaluate how the media, political parties, special-interest groups, lobbyists, Political Action Committees (PACs) influence public opinion and government policies


Evaluate the reliability and influence of the media on elections, elected officials and public opinion


Describe the roles of political parties in the United States and how they influence elections, elected officials and public opinion


Describe how citizens, candidates, campaigns and campaign financing influence the political process in the United States


Analyze the roles of participants in the election process including voting, contributing, and electioneering


Analyze how citizens make informed decisions regarding candidates, issues, and policies


Describe the importance of being informed on civic issues, volunteering and public service


Analyze the United States Supreme Court case Marbury v. Madison (1803) and the establishment of judicial review


Analyze the historical expansion of the powers of the federal government by examining the United States Supreme Court case McCulloch v. Maryland(1819)


Analyze how the Supreme Court decisions in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) andBrown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) impacted the rights of individuals


Examine the significance of the United States Supreme Court's decisions on the rights of those accused of crimes in the cases Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) and Miranda v. Arizona (1966)


Examine the expansion or restriction of student rights in the cases Tinker v. Des Moines School District (1969) and New Jersey v. T.L.O (1985)


Examine the impact of United States Supreme Court decisions on minority andcivil rights issues, such as Regents of the University of California v. Bakke(1978)


Evaluate the decisions of the United States Supreme Court that have limited or expanded the liberties of citizens, such as Schenck v. U.S. (1919), Gitlow v. New York (1925), Engel v. Vitale (1962), Katz v. U.S. (1967), Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier (1988), Texas v. Johnson (1989) (Unit 5)


Evaluate the effectiveness of legislation in promoting equity and civil rights, such as the Civil Rights Act (1964), Voting Rights Act (1965), Higher Education Act Title IX (1972), Indian Education Act (1972), Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA 1990) and Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 1997)


Examine immigration policies the government has implemented, such as the Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986) and the Immigration Act of 1990


Identify the purpose of affirmative action and explain how the implementation of affirmative action has changed over time (Unit 3)


Describe the purpose, limitations and impact of executive orders in maintaining order and providing safety for citizens


Explain how executive departments and regulatory agencies assist in maintaining order and protecting the safety of the nation, such as the Department of Defense (DOD), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Department of Homeland Security (DHS)


Analyze the impact of national emergencies on the expansion of the powers of the government


Analyze the relationship between governmental authority and maintaining order under the rule of law


Describe how the governor of Maryland can use executive power to maintain order and safety in the state, such as calling out the National Guard in the case of a natural disaster (Unit 4)


Examine the impact of government decisions on individuals and groups, such as approval policies of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), environmental standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), regulations by the Maryland Department of the Environment


Evaluate the role of state and national governments concerning issues related to public safety and maintaining order, such as crime prevention, changes in driver's license requirements, seat belt laws, and immunization shots (Unit 6)


Explain the meaning of due process of law as set forth in the Fifth Amendment


Explain how procedural due process limits the powers of government and protects the accused


Explain why it is necessary to have both substantive and procedural due process


Analyze the implications and applications of the Fourteenth Amendment, focusing on the due process and equal protection clauses


Explain how the Supreme Court used the incorporation doctrine to expand the influence of the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment in cases, such as Gitlow v. New York (1925), Near v. Minnesota (1931), Mapp v. Ohio(1961) (Unit 5)


Describe the role of the courts in settling disputes between individuals


Analyze alternatives to litigation in the United States legal system for maintaining order and resolving conflicts including out-of-court settlements,arbitration and mediation


Identify the elements of civil law including: plaintiff, defendant, contract,breach of contract, torts, damages, preponderance of evidence, petit jury


Identify the elements of criminal law including: defendant, prosecutor,reasonable doubt, felony, misdemeanor, grand jury, indictment, probable cause, presumption of innocence, plea bargaining, writ of habeas corpus,subpoena


Compare the proceedings of civil and criminal cases including: grand jury,petit jury, indictment, standards of proof (beyond a reasonable doubt and preponderance of the evidence), plea bargaining, probable cause, writ of habeas corpus, and subpoena (Unit 5)


Describe the advantages and disadvantages of a direct and representative democracy


Compare confederate, unitary and federal forms of government and determine how each assists or impedes the functioning of government


Compare parliamentary and presidential democracies


Describe the characteristics of limited (democratic) and unlimited (authoritarian) governments


Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of limited and unlimited political systems


Explain how governments with written constitutions are not necessarily constitutional governments which follow the rule of law such as People's Republic of China and North Korea (Unit 1)


Explain how the executive develops and implements foreign policy, such as executive agreements, the appointment of foreign ambassadors and the creation of treaties


Evaluate how policies of the executive affect relationships with other countries including alliances for national defense, arms control, economic trade, and social programs (Unit 4)


Analyze isolationism v. interventionism in United States foreign policy


Evaluate how international issues and interests affect national government policy, such as anti-terrorism policy, protection of human rights and international economic stability


Examine how foreign aid affects the United States relationships with other countries


Evaluate the goals of United States foreign policy, such as national security, economic stability, promoting the spread of democracy


Analyze the effect of trade and trade policy including: free trade agreements, embargoes, tariffs and economic sanctions on relationships with other countries


Analyze contemporary concerns that affect international relationships and government policies, such as world health, human rights, nation-building, national security and weapons of mass destruction, outsourcing and technology transfer (Unit 6)


Explain the various roles of the United Nations (UN) such as maintaining international peace, enforcing international law, addressing human rights violations and solving international problems


Explain the role of the International Federation of the Red Cross and the Red Crescent and other agencies, such as United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the World Health Organization (WHO) in addressing humanitarian issues


Describe the roles of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank


Examine the function and purpose of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the United Nations and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)


Describe the responsibility of the United States as a member of various international organizations including the United Nations (UN), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and the World Bank (Unit 6)


Compare climate, land use, natural resources, population distribution, demographic and density maps of Maryland and the United States


Explain how geographic characteristics and shared interests stimulate regional cooperation between governments


Analyze how the population shifts in and between regions affects the formation and implementation of government policy, such as the relocation or loss of industry and urban flight


Analyze the importance of regional characteristics and interests including economic development, natural resources, climate and environmental issues in formulating local, state, and national government policy


Explain the geographic factors that influence foreign policy and international political relations (Unit 6)


Evaluate the impact of changing population size on representation in legislative bodies as determined by the United States Census


Explain the reasons for reapportionment and its impact on fiscal decisions and representation (Unit 3)


Determine the influence demographic factors, such as race, age, education, ethnicity and gender have on voting patterns


Analyze patterns, trends, and projections of population in regions and how these may affect the environment, society and government policy


Analyze the influence of demographic factors on the formation and implementation of government policy and funding decisions, such as education, health care and social security (Unit 6)


Determine the impact of reapportionment and redistricting on individuals, groups, local communities and regions


Determine the impact of gerrymandering on groups, communities and the legislative bodies involved


Analyze how demographic characteristics of constituents affect the election of representatives and the policy decisions they make (Unit 7)


Analyze the affect of legislative decisions on land use and environmental issues


Describe how local governments control the use of land and manage growth through zoning laws and/or ordinances (Unit 3)


Analyze the role of the state executive branch in addressing land use and environmental issues, such as Smart Growth, deforestation, urban sprawl, pollution, natural disasters, water resources, wetland preservation and critical areas


Analyze the role of the state and local governments in addressing land use, such as zoning issues, building moratoriums and wetland preservation (Unit 4)


Evaluate the way national, state, and local governments develop policy to address land use and environmental issues, such as urban sprawl, Smart Growth and commercial use of public land (Unit 6)


Explain how scarcity and opportunity cost affect government decision-making


Explain how governments attempt to prioritize socio-economic goals in response to changing economic, social and political conditions


Evaluate the role of government in providing public goods, such as national defense and public education (Unit 1)


Explain examples of trade-offs that occur within competing socio-economic goals during the budget-creation process at the national, state and local levels, such as economic freedom v. economic equity and security (Unit 4)


Evaluate how the principles of economic costs, benefits, and opportunity costs are used to address public policy issues, such as environmental and health care concerns (Unit 6)


Explain how traditional, command and market economies answer the basic economic questions of what to produce, how to produce and for whom to produce


Describe how governments organize their economic system for the production,distribution and consumption of goods and services


Explain how elements of market, command and tradition have shaped the United States' mixed economic system, such as consumer preferences and tariff policies (Unit 1)


Describe the role of regulatory agencies in carrying out the policies of the executive on the national and state level (Unit 4)


Describe the purpose, roles and responsibilities of regulatory agencies:Federal Trade Commission (FTC), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA),Federal Communications Commission (FCC)


Analyze how the actions of regulatory agencies address public issues, market failures and monopolies at the local, state and/or national level


Examine how other government agencies, such as the Maryland Public Service Commission, the Consumer Product Safety Commission, Securities and Exchange Commission, Occupational Safety and Health Administration fulfill the obligations of government and respond to issues in society (Unit 6)


Describe the role of the United States Congress and the Maryland General Assembly in developing fiscal policy and the approval of budgets


Describe how national, state, and local legislative bodies use taxing and spending to influence the economy


Evaluate the effectiveness of fiscal policy in achieving economic growth and employment, such as tax incentives and changes in spending (Unit 3)


Analyze the role of the executive on the national, state and local level in the budgetary process


Determine how the executive branch influences economic performance by using the tools of fiscal policy including increasing and decreasing taxes and tariffs and/or spending (Unit 4)


Describe how the Federal Reserve System uses the three tools of monetary policy, including open market operations, changes in the discount (interest) rate and changes in the reserve requirements to influence the economy


Describe the effectiveness of monetary policy in achieving economic growth, full employment and price stability


Explain how the Consumer Price Index (CPI), the unemployment rate and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) measure economic performance


Explain how economic instability, including periods of growth and recession, is a part of the free enterprise system


Explain how inflation reduces buying power and may contribute to a slowdown in the economy (Unit 6)


Students shall use reading, writing, and thinking processes and skills to gain knowledge and understanding of political, historical, and current events using disciplinary and inquiry literacies.


Analyze the political and social impact of the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments, such as the election of African-Americans to local, state, and federal offices (PS, PNW)


Evaluate the power struggle between the executive and legislative branches at the national level during Reconstruction, such as Presidential v. Congressional Reconstruction plans


Evaluate the social and economic effects of sharecropping, tenant farming and the Freedmans Bureau in the post Civil War South (PNW, G, E)


Analyze the practices, policies and legislation used to deny African-Americans civil rights, including black codes, lynching, the Ku Klux Klan, voting restrictions, Jim Crow Laws and Plessy v. Ferguson(1896) (PS, PNW, E)


Examine African-American responses to the denial of civil rights such as the rise of African-American churches, African-American newspapers, historically black colleges and the responses of individuals, such as Ida B. Wells, W.E.B. DuBois, and Booker T. Washington (PS, PNW)


Analyze the economic, political and social factors that influenced the end of Reconstruction, such as northern reluctance to advocate for African-American equality, corruption in government, the Panic of 1873, and the election of 1876 (PS, E)


Analyze the causes of industrialization including improved use of resources, technology, labor, capital and transportation networks (PNW, G, E)


Describe laissez-faire attitudes toward capitalism and the changes in the organization of businesses, such as trusts, holding companies, and monopolies and their impact on government policy and regulation (E)


Describe new technologies and inventions in agriculture, transportation, communication, manufacturing and the impact on individuals, groups and regions (PNW, G, E)


Analyze the shift in government intervention and regulation of the economy, such as protective tariffs, the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and the Interstate Commerce Act (PS, E)


Evaluate the role of business leaders, such as Andrew Carnegie, John Rockefeller, Cornelius Vanderbilt, and J.P. Morgan in transforming the United States economy (PNW, E)


Evaluate the impact of industrialization and laissez-faire policies on workers, such as the National Labor Union, Knights of Labor, American Federation of Labor, and the impact of events, such as the Haymarket Riot, Homestead Strike, and the Pullman Strike (PS, PNW, E)


Evaluate the impact of industrialization on regional development, settlement patterns and quality of life (PNW, G, E)


Evaluate the government and public response to immigrants as a result of industrialization, such as nativism, the Americanization Movement, and immigration restrictions (PS, PNW, G)


Describe both the positive and negative functions of political machines and their influence at the state and local level (PS, PNW)


Describe the relationship between industrialization and urbanization, such as increased socio-economic stratification, innovations in technology and transportation on urban life (PNW, G, E)


Examine the responses to social problems created by industrial growth, such as the Social Gospel movement, the Gospel of Wealth and Social Darwinism (PNW)


Evaluate the economic, political and social conditions that prompted the rise of the Populist movement (PS, PNW, E)


Analyze the factors of westward expansion, including the rise of industrialization, concept of Manifest Destiny, perceptions of overcrowding, opportunities to acquire land, and the discovery of gold and silver (PNW, G, E)


Describe the impact of geography and technology on the settlement of the west, such as mining, ranching, lumbering and farming and the environmental consequences (G, E)


Evaluate the impact of westward expansion on Native Americans and their responses to the destruction of the buffalo, military conflicts, and the Dawes Severalty Act (1887) (PS, PNW, G)


Evaluate the impact of government actions on migration patterns, such as the Homestead Act of 1862, state land grant acts, and the development of the Transcontinental Railroad (PS, G)


Describe the experiences of minorities in the west, such as extended rights for African Americans, the mistreatment of Chinese and Irish immigrants, and the extension of political and legal rights to women (PS, PNW, G)


Analyze the impact of the muckrakers of the Progressive Movement on child labor reform, workplace conditions and government reforms (PS, PNW, E)


Describe local, state and national reforms that addressed political corruption, including secret ballot, referendum, initiative, recall, the city manager, and the direct election of senators (PS)


Describe the impact of the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th amendments to the Constitution (PS, PNW, E)


Describe the impact of government actions on big business and labor, such as Supreme Court cases and legislation as remedies to problems in society (PS, PNW, E)


Analyze the role of presidential power and the shaping of the modern presidency, such as the Square Deal and Roosevelts response to the 1902 Coal Strike (PS, E)


Evaluate how the Progressive movement impacted women and immigrants (PS, PNW)


Analyze African American responses to inequality, such as the Niagara Movement, the establishment of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the Urban League, and the Universal Negro Improvement Association (PS, PNW, G, E)


Analyze conservationism and creation of national parks during the Roosevelt administration (PS, G, E)


Explain reasons for the creation of the Federal Reserve System and its influence on the economy of the 1920s (PS, E)


Describe the positive and negative impact of the Progressive Era (PS, PNW, E)


Describe factors that contributed to imperialism, such as the industrial revolution, racism, a desire to spread Christianity, a desire for naval power, the closing of the American frontier, and the resulting emergence of nationalism/jingoism (PS, G, E)


Examine the impact of the Spanish American War, such as the acquisition of new territories (PS, G)


Describe the impact of United States policy in Latin America, such as the events leading to the construction of the Panama Canal, the Roosevelt Corollary, Dollar Diplomacy, and Moral Diplomacy (PS, E)


Analyze the impact of United States foreign policy in East Asia such as the Open Door Policy, the renewal of the Chinese Exclusion Act (PS, E)


Analyze the arguments of Americans who opposed imperialism, such as the Anti-Imperialist League and organized labor (PS, PNW)


Analyze the impact of imperialism, empire building and colonization on native societies (PS, PNW, G)


Describe the factors leading to World War I, including militarism, the formation of alliances, nationalism, imperialism, and the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand (PS, PNW, G, E)


Analyze the events leading to United States entry into World War I, including unrestricted submarine warfare, and the Zimmerman Note (PS)


Analyze the significance of Woodrow Wilson's foreign policy decisions, including the Fourteen Points and the debate over the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles (PS, PNW)


Describe the effects of the Treaty of Versailles, its provisions for reparations, the war guilt clause, the League of Nations and changes in national boundaries on international conflicts after World War I (PS, G)


Analyze the impact of United States involvement in World War I on future foreign policy (PS, G)


Examine the restrictions on civil liberties during World War I (PS, PNW)


Describe how World War I led to an increase in nativism and xenophobia in the United States, such as anti-German sentiment, anti-immigration attitudes, anti-Semitism, and the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan (PNW)


Describe the political and social consequences of the Red Scare, including the Palmer Raids, immigration restrictions and the Sacco and Vanzetti case (PS, PNW)


Examine the connection between Prohibition and the emergence of organized crime (PS, PNW)


Describe the tension between fundamentalism and the changing social values, including Prohibition, and the issues surrounding the Scopes Monkey Trial (PS, PNW)


Describe the changing social and economic role of women and the impact of the womans suffrage movement (PS, PNW, E)


Analyze the shift of African American demographics from the rural South to the urban/industrial north and west during the Great Migration and the consequences of the migration on regions (PNW, G)


Analyze the relationship between the arts and social and political changes, such as the Harlem Renaissance, the rise of youth culture, the leisure culture, radio and motion pictures, the Jazz Age, and the lost generation (PS, PNW)


Analyze the consumer culture of the 1920s, such as the growth of advertising, the impact of the automobile industry, mail order catalogues, and department stores (PNW, G, E)


Examine the economic characteristics of the 1920s that led to the stock market crash of 1929 and to the Great Depression, such as the unequal distribution of income, buying on credit, buying stocks on margin, inflated real estate prices and overproduction in industry, and agriculture (E)


Evaluate the hardships of the Great Depression on various groups in American society, including families, farmers, African Americans, and industrial workers (PNW, G, E)


Describe the responses of the Hoover administration to the Great Depression (PS, G, E)


Describe the responses of the Roosevelt administration to the Great Depression (PS, G, E)


Analyze the effectiveness of New Deal programs, such as Social Security Administration (SSA), Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA,) Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) (PS, E)


Describe the arguments of New Deal critics such as Huey Long, Father Charles Coughlin, and Dr. Charles Townshend (PS, PNW, E)


Describe the influence of the arts, film, and the popularity of radio in helping Americans deal with the trials of the Great Depression (PNW)


Analyze the lasting legacy of the New Deal, including economic stability and the increased involvement of the government in the lives of citizens (PS, PNW, E)


Explain the events that led to the beginning of the Second World War including the failure of the Treaty of Versailles, the rise of totalitarian regimes in Europe and Asia and the worldwide recession of the 1920s and 1930s. (PS, E)


Explain the United States gradual involvement in the war in Europe through legislative and executive measures, such as Cash and Carry, Lend Lease, and the Atlantic Charter (PS, PNW, E)


Describe how the economic and political conflicts between Japan and the United States led to the attack on Pearl Harbor (PS, E)


Examine military strategies and technologies employed by the United States in WWII including D-Day, island hopping and the development and use of atomic weapons (PS, PNW, G, E)


Investigate the response of the United States government to the discovery of the Holocaust and immigration policies with respect to refugees (PS, PNW)


Analyze how the events, such as the Yalta and Potsdam conferences and creation of the United Nations shaped the post war world (PS, PNW)


Analyze the long-term consequences of the United States involvement in WWII and the emergence of America as a economic and military force (PS, PNW, G, E)


Describe how American citizens supported the war effort through rationing and purchasing of war bonds (PS, E)


Evaluate the governments use of propaganda in gaining support and cooperation for war efforts (PS, PNW, E)


Evaluate the decision of the government to limit civil liberties during World War II (PS, PNW)


Evaluate the decision of the government to relocate American citizens and aliens to internment camps during the war (PS, PNW, G)


Describe the changing roles of women, African-Americans and other minority groups during the war years, such as access to education and jobs (PS, PNW, G)


Describe the response of the United States to communist expansion in Europe, including the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, the Berlin Airlift (1948), and the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (PS, G, E)


Describe the development of United States containment policies in Asia as a result of the rise of Communist China (PS, G)


Analyze the role of the United States in the United Nations, including the establishment of the state of Israel and participation in the Korean Conflict (PS, PNW, G)


Analyze the impact of Cold War events in Cuba, including the Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961) and Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) and the expansion of the Cold War into the Western Hemisphere (PS, G)


Examine the causes and escalation of United States involvement in the Vietnam War, including the domino theory and Tonkin Gulf resolution (PS, G)


Analyze the competition and the consequences of the space and arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union, including the impact of Sputnik (PS, PNW)


Describe the conflict between protecting civil liberties and maintaining national security that arose during the second Red Scare, such as House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), Federal Employees Loyalty Program, McCarthyism, and the Rosenberg case (PS, PNW)


Describe the impact of the creation of the interstate highway system, such as the evolution of suburbia, increasing dependence on the automobile and movement of people and industry away from central cities (G, E)


Describe the economic boom of the 1950s and the impact on American life, such as the G.I. Bill on the qualifications of workers, the increase of consumerism, increasing dependence on oil, and the development of the leisure class (PNW, E)


Describe the baby boom and its consequences on American society (PNW, E)


Analyze the growing impact of television and other mass media on politics and political attitudes, such as the Kennedy-Nixon debate, the Vietnam conflict, and the Civil Rights movement (PS, PNW)


Describe the overall goals of the Great Society and its programs, such as the War on Poverty and Medicare/Medicaid (PS, PNW, G, E)


Analyze the significance of the Warren Court in decisions, including Mapp v. Ohio (1961), Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), and Miranda v. Arizona (1966) (PS)


Analyze the economic, political and social impact of the changing role of women (PS, PNW, E)


Examine trends in popular culture from 1946-1968 such as advertising, the beat movement, rock and roll music, the growth of television, and changes in the motion picture industry (PNW)


Examine the battle for school desegregation, including Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954) and the roles of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and Thurgood Marshall (PS, G)


Describe the efforts to enforce school desegregation and local reactions to these efforts, including crisis at Little Rock (1957) and the University of Mississippi (1962) (PS, G)


Describe various activities that Civil Rights activists used to protest segregation, including boycotts, sit- ins, marches, and voter registration campaigns (PS, E)


Compare the philosophies of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X and the Black Power Movement (PS, PNW)


Describe the impact of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.s and Malcolm Xs leadership and assassinations on the Civil Rights Movement (PS, PNW)


Describe the goals of Civil Rights legislation, including the Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1968, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the 24th Amendment (PS)


Describe why urban violence and race riots escalated during the 1960s in reaction to ongoing discrimination and the slow pace of Civil Rights advances (PS, PNW, G)


Analyze the opposition to the Civil Rights Movement, such as the Dixiecrats, white citizens councils, white supremacist movements (PS, PNW)


Analyze the significance of key events during the Vietnam War, including the Tet Offensive (1968), the My Lai Massacre (1968), the publication of the Pentagon Papers, and the invasions of Cambodia and Laos (1970) (PS, PNW, G)


Explain the development of the anti-war movement and its consequences for American society, including reactions to the military draft and returning veterans, the polarization of society, the Chicago Democratic Convention (1968), and Kent State (1970) (PS, PNW)


Evaluate the effectiveness of the media on shaping public opinion about the Vietnam War and the invasions of Cambodia and Laos (PS, PNW)


Describe the actions the United States took to withdraw from the Vietnam War and the effects on the Vietnamese, including Vietnamization (PNW, PS, G)


Describe how and why the War Powers Act (1973) changed presidential power (PS)


Evaluate the changing United States relationship with the Soviet Union, including dtente, arms control agreements, such as SALT I (1972), and SALT II (1979), the invasion of Afghanistan, and the decision to boycott the 1980 Olympic Games ( PS, PNW, G)


Describe the impact of the changing relationship between the United States and China (PS, G)


Analyze how Arab-Israeli tensions impacted United States foreign policy, including the Energy Crisis (1973), and Camp David Accords (1979) (PS, PNW, G, E)


Describe the political tensions that led to the Iranian Hostage Crisis (1980) (PS, PNW, E)


Analyze the impact of the Watergate crisis on American attitudes toward the government and the office of the President (PS, PNW).


Describe the public awareness of increased environmental problems and government efforts to address them, such as the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency, The Clean Air Act, The Clean Water Act, and the Endangered Species Act (PS, PNW, G, E)


Evaluate the increasing role of regulatory agencies in protecting United States citizens, such as the Food and Drug Administration, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (PS, E)


Describe the impact of 'stagflation' and deficit spending on the American economy (PS, E)


Describe the cause of the energy crisis in the 1970s and its effect on American society (PNW, E)


Evaluate the impact of school desegregation stemming from the Brown v. Board of Education (1954) decision, including local implementation of busing (PS, PNW)


Describe the controversy involving the extension of civil rights through the implementation of Affirmative Action, such as the Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978) (PS, PNW, E)


Describe the Native American quest for civil rights, including the establishment of the American Indian Movement (AIM) and the implementation of legislation (PS, PNW)


Describe the Latino quest for civil rights and the formation of the United Farm Workers Union (PNW, G, E)


Describe the impact of the womens movement on government actions such as Higher Education Act Title IX (1972), the Equal Rights Amendment (1972)(PS, PNW, E)


Describe how United States policies and actions contributed to the end of the Cold War (PS)


Evaluate United States policies and actions in response to international terrorism, such as the attack on the Marine barracks in Beirut (1983), Embassy bombings (2000), the attacks on the U.S.S. Cole (2000), and September 11, 2001 (PS, E)


Describe how the United States has addressed issues related to global economic interdependence, such as free trade v. protectionism, and the debate over outsourcing (PS, G, E)


Describe United States involvement with international and regional organizations, such as the European Union (EU), North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and the United Nations (UN) (PS, PNW, G, E)


Explain how developments in the Middle East have affected United States foreign policy, such as the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, the rise of political Islam, and the Israeli-Palestinian conflicts (PS, PNW, G)


Evaluate the role of the United States in addressing global and humanitarian issues such as the environment, the A.I.D.S. epidemic, healthcare and human rights (PS, PNW, G)


Explain how the dependence on energy sources shapes United States foreign policy (PS, G, E)


Analyze the purposes and effects of United States military interventions using regional case studies in the context of the Cold War, international peacekeeping efforts, and responses to terrorism before and after September 11, 2001 (PS, PNW, G, E)


Describe the political and social issues that polarized United States political culture after 1980, such as Iran-Contra, conflicts over judicial appointments, the controversial election of 2000, criticism of federal government subsistence programs and conservative v. liberal debates (PS, PNW, E)


Evaluate how the government has addressed changing demographics, including immigration, the changing age structure and increasing minority populations in the United States (PS, PNW, G)


Analyze how globalization has increased due to economic and technological innovations, such as outsourcing, computers, cell phones, and the Internet (PNW, G, E)


Describe the significance of the growing federal deficit and the impact of the global market, such as supply-side economics, entitlements, and loss of domestic industry (PS, G, E)


Explain the influence of special-interest groups, the media and political parties on the changing political landscape and culture (PS, PNW)