Utah Learning Standards for Science — Grade 10


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S.BIO.1.1a

Arrange components of a food chain according to energy flow.

S.BIO.1.1b

Compare the quantity of energy in the steps of an energy pyramid.

S.BIO.1.1c

Describe strategies used by organisms to balance the energy expended to obtain food to the energy gained from the food (e.g., migration to areas of seasonal abundance, switching type of prey based upon availability, hibernation or dormancy).

S.BIO.1.1d

Compare the relative energy output expended by an organism in obtaining food to the energy gained from the food (e.g., hummingbird - energy expended hovering at a flower compared to the amount of energy gained from the nectar, coyote - chasing mice to the energy gained from catching one, energy expended in migration of birds to a location with seasonal abundance compared to energy gained by staying in a cold climate with limited food).

S.BIO.1.1e

Research food production in various parts of the world (e.g., industrialized societies greater use of fossil fuel in food production, human health related to food product).

S.BIO.1.2a

Use diagrams to trace the movement of matter through a cycle (e.g., carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, water) in a variety of biological communities and ecosystems.

S.BIO.1.2b

Explain how water is a limiting factor in various ecosystems

S.BIO.1.2c

Distinguish between inference and evidence in a newspaper, magazine, journal, or Internet article that addresses an issue related to human impact on cycles of matter in an ecosystem and determine the bias in the article

S.BIO.1.2d

Evaluate the impact of personal choices in relation to the cycling of matter within an ecosystem (e.g., impact of automobiles on the carbon cycle, impact on landfills of processed and packaged foods).

S.BIO.1.3a

Categorize relationships among living things according to predator-prey, competition, and symbiosis.

S.BIO.1.3b

Formulate and test a hypothesis specific to the effect of changing one variable upon another in a small ecosystem

S.BIO.1.3c

Use data to interpret interactions among biotic and abiotic factors (e.g., pH, temperature, precipitation, populations, diversity) within an ecosystem.

S.BIO.1.3d

Investigate an ecosystem using methods of science to gather quantitative and qualitative data that describe the ecosystem in detail.

S.BIO.1.3e

Research and evaluate local and global practices that affect ecosystems.

S.BIO.2.1a

List the major chemical elements in cells (e.g., carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, sulfur).

S.BIO.2.1b

Identify the function of the four major macromolecules (e.g., carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids).

S.BIO.2.1c

Explain how the properties of water (e.g., cohesion, adhesion, heat capacity, solvent properties) contribute to the maintenance of cells and living organisms.

S.BIO.2.1d

Explain the role of enzymes in cell chemistry.

S.BIO.2.2a

Distinguish between autotrophic and heterotrophic cells.

S.BIO.2.2b

Illustrate the cycling of matter and the flow of energy through photosynthesis (e.g., using light energy to combine CO2 and H2O to produce oxygen and sugars) and respiration (e.g., releasing energy from sugar and O2 to produce CO2 and H2O).

S.BIO.2.2c

Measure the production of one or more of the products of either photosynthesis or respiration.

S.BIO.2.3a

Explain how cells divide from existing cells through the process of mitosis.

S.BIO.2.3b

Describe cell theory and relate the nature of science to the development of cell theory (e.g., built upon previous knowledge, use of increasingly more sophisticated technology).

S.BIO.2.3c

Describe how the transport of materials in and out of cells enables cells to maintain homeostasis (e.g., osmosis, diffusion, active transport).

S.BIO.2.3d

Describe the relationship between the organelles in a cell and the functions of that cell

S.BIO.2.3e

Experiment with microorganisms and/or plants to investigate growth and reproduction.

S.BIO.3.1a

Diagram and label the structure of the primary components of representative organs in plants and animals (e.g., heart - muscle tissue, valves and chambers; lung - trachea, bronchial, alveoli; leaf - veins, stomata; stem - xylem, phloem, cambium; root - tip, elongation, hairs; skin - layers, sweat glands, oil glands, hair follicles; ovaries - ova, follicles, corpus luteum).

S.BIO.3.1b

Describe the function of various organs (e.g. heart, lungs, skin, leaf, stem, root, ovary).

S.BIO.3.1c

Relate the structure of organs to the function of organs.

S.BIO.3.1d

Compare the structure and function of organs in one organism to the structure and function of organs in another organism.

S.BIO.3.1e

Research and report on technological developments related to organs.

S.BIO.3.2a

Relate the function of an organ to the function of an organ system

S.BIO.3.2b

Describe the structure and function of various organ systems (e.g., digestion, respiration, circulation, protection and support, nervous) and how these systems contribute to homeostasis of the organism.

S.BIO.3.2c

Examine the relationships of organ systems within an organism (e.g., respiration to circulation, leaves to roots) and describe the relationship of structure to function in the relationship.

S.BIO.3.2d

Relate the tissues that make up organs to the structure and function of the organ.

S.BIO.3.2e

Compare the structure and function of organ systems in one organism to the structure and function in another organism (e.g., chicken to sheep digestive system; fern to peach reproductive system).

S.BIO.4.1a

Explain the significance of meiosis and fertilization in genetic variation.

S.BIO.4.1b

Compare the advantages/disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction to survival of species

S.BIO.4.1c

Formulate, defend, and support a perspective of a bioethical issue related to intentional or unintentional chromosomal mutations.

S.BIO.4.2a

Explain Mendels laws of segregation and independent assortment and their role in genetic inheritance.

S.BIO.4.2b

Demonstrate possible results of recombination in sexually reproducing organisms using one or two pairs of contrasting traits in the following crosses: dominance/recessive, incomplete dominance, codominance, and sex-linked traits

S.BIO.4.2c

Relate Mendelian principles to modern-day practice of plant and animal breeding

S.BIO.4.2d

Analyze bioethical issues and consider the role of science in determining public policy.

S.BIO.4.3a

Use a model to describe the structure of DNA.

S.BIO.4.3b

Explain the importance of DNA replication in cell reproduction.

S.BIO.4.3c

Summarize how genetic information encoded in DNA provides instructions for assembling protein molecules

S.BIO.4.3d

Describe how mutations may affect genetic expression and cite examples of mutagens.

S.BIO.4.3e

Relate the historical events that led to our present understanding of DNA to the cumulative nature of science knowledge and technology

S.BIO.4.3f

Research, report, and debate genetic technologies that may improve the quality of life (e.g., genetic engineering, cloning, gene splicing).

S.BIO.5.1a

Describe the effects of environmental factors on natural selection.

S.BIO.5.1b

Relate genetic variability to a species potential for adaptation to a changing environment.

S.BIO.5.1c

Relate reproductive isolation to speciation.

S.BIO.5.1d

Compare selective breeding to natural selection and relate the differences to agricultural practices

S.BIO.5.2a

Cite evidence that supports biological evolution over time (e.g., geologic and fossil records, chemical mechanisms, DNA structural similarities, homologous and vestigial structures).

S.BIO.5.2b

Identify the role of mutation and recombination in evolution.

S.BIO.5.2c

Relate the nature of science to the historical development of the theory of evolution.

S.BIO.5.2d

Distinguish between observations and inferences in making interpretations related to evolution (e.g., observed similarities and differences in the beaks of Galapagos finches leads to the inference that they evolved from a common ancestor; observed similarities and differences in the structures of birds and reptiles leads to the inference that birds evolved from reptiles).

S.BIO.5.2e

Review a scientific article and identify the research methods used to gather evidence that documents the evolution of a species.

S.BIO.5.3a

Classify organisms using a classification tool such as a key or field guide

S.BIO.5.3b

Generalize criteria used for classification of organisms (e.g., dichotomy, structure, broad to specific).

S.BIO.5.3c

Explain how evolutionary relationships are related to classification systems.

S.BIO.5.3d

Justify the ongoing changes to classification schemes used in biology.

S.CHEM.1.1a

Identify evidence supporting the assumption that matter in the universe has a common origin

S.CHEM.1.1b

Recognize that all matter in the universe and on earth is composed of the same elements.

S.CHEM.1.1c

Identify the distribution of elements in the universe.

S.CHEM.1.1d

Compare the occurrence of heavier elements on earth and the universe.

S.CHEM.1.2a

Summarize the major experimental evidence that led to the development of various atomic models, both historical and current

S.CHEM.1.2b

Evaluate the limitations of using models to describe atoms

S.CHEM.1.2c

Discriminate between the relative size, charge, and position of protons, neutrons, and electrons in the atom.

S.CHEM.1.2d

Generalize the relationship of proton number to the elements identity

S.CHEM.1.2e

Relate the mass and number of atoms to the gram-sized quantities of matter in a mole.

S.CHEM.1.3a

Use the periodic table to correlate the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom.

S.CHEM.1.3b

Compare the number of protons and neutrons in isotopes of the same element.

S.CHEM.1.3c

Identify similarities in chemical behavior of elements within a group.

S.CHEM.1.3d

Generalize trends in reactivity of elements within a group to trends in other groups

S.CHEM.1.3e

Compare the properties of elements (e.g., metal, nonmetallic, metalloid) based on their position in the periodic table.

S.CHEM.2.1a

Identify the relationship between wavelength and light energy

S.CHEM.2.1b

Examine evidence from the lab indicating that energy is absorbed or released in discrete units when electrons move from one energy level to another.

S.CHEM.2.1c

Correlate the energy in a photon to the color of light emitted.

S.CHEM.2.1d

After observing spectral emissions in the lab (e.g., flame test, spectrum tubes), identify unknown elements by comparison to known emission spectra.

S.CHEM.2.2a

Recognize that radioactive particles and wavelike radiations are products of the decay of an unstable nucleus

S.CHEM.2.2b

Interpret graphical data relating half-life and age of a radioactive substance.

S.CHEM.2.2c

Compare the mass, energy, and penetrating power of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation.

S.CHEM.2.2d

Compare the strong nuclear force to the amount of energy released in a nuclear reaction and contrast it to the amount of energy released in a chemical reaction.

S.CHEM.2.2e

After researching, evaluate and report the effects of nuclear radiation on humans or other organisms.

S.CHEM.3.1a

Determine the number of valence electrons in atoms using the periodic table.

S.CHEM.3.1b

Predict the charge an atom will acquire when it forms an ion by gaining or losing electrons

S.CHEM.3.1c

Predict bond types based on the behavior of valence (outermost) electrons.

S.CHEM.3.1d

Compare covalent, ionic, and metallic bonds with respect to electron behavior and relative bond strengths.

S.CHEM.3.2a

Use a chemical formula to represent the names of elements and numbers of atoms in a compound and recognize that the formula is unique to the specific compound.

S.CHEM.3.2b

Compare the physical properties of a compound to the elements that form it

S.CHEM.3.2c

Compare the chemical properties of a compound to the elements that form it.

S.CHEM.3.2d

Explain that combining elements in different proportions results in the formation of different compounds with different properties.

S.CHEM.3.3a

Generalize, from investigations, the physical properties (e.g., malleability, conductivity, solubility) of substances with different bond types.

S.CHEM.3.3b

Given a model, describe the shape and resulting polarity of water, ammonia, and methane molecules

S.CHEM.3.3c

Identify how intermolecular forces of hydrogen bonds in water affect a variety of physical, chemical, and biological phenomena (e.g., surface tension, capillary action, boiling point).

S.CHEM.4.1a

Generalize evidences of chemical reactions.

S.CHEM.4.1b

Compare the properties of reactants to the properties of products in a chemical reaction.

S.CHEM.4.1c

Use a chemical equation to describe a simple chemical reaction

S.CHEM.4.1d

Recognize that the number of atoms in a chemical reaction does not change.

S.CHEM.4.1e

Determine the molar proportions of the reactants and products in a balanced chemical reaction.

S.CHEM.4.1f

Investigate everyday chemical reactions that occur in a student's home (e.g., baking, rusting, bleaching, cleaning).

S.CHEM.4.2a

Using data from quantitative analysis, identify evidence that supports the conservation of mass in a chemical reaction.

S.CHEM.4.2b

Use molar relationships in a balanced chemical reaction to predict the mass of product produced in a simple chemical reaction that goes to completion

S.CHEM.4.2c

Report evidence of energy transformations in a chemical reaction.

S.CHEM.4.2d

After observing or measuring, classify evidence of temperature change in a chemical reaction as endothermic or exothermic.

S.CHEM.4.2e

Using either a constructed or a diagrammed electrochemical cell, describe how electrical energy can be produced in a chemical reaction (e.g., half reaction, electron transfer).

S.CHEM.4.2f

Using collected data, report the loss or gain of heat energy in a chemical reaction.

S.CHEM.5.1a

Design and conduct an investigation of the factors affecting reaction rate and use the findings to generalize the results of other reactions

S.CHEM.5.1b

Use information from graphs to draw warranted conclusions about reaction rates.

S.CHEM.5.1c

Correlate frequency and energy of collisions to reaction rate.

S.CHEM.5.1d

Identify that catalysts are effective in increasing reaction rates.

S.CHEM.5.2a

Explain the concept of dynamic equilibrium.

S.CHEM.5.2b

Given an equation, identify the effect of adding either product or reactant to a shift in equilibrium.

S.CHEM.5.2c

Indicate the effect of a temperature change on the equilibrium, using an equation showing a heat term.

S.CHEM.6.1a

Use the terms solute and solvent in describing a solution

S.CHEM.6.1b

Sketch a solution at the particle level.

S.CHEM.6.1c

Describe the relative amount of solute particles in concentrated and dilute solutions and express concentration in terms of molarity and molality.

S.CHEM.6.1d

Design and conduct an experiment to determine the factors (e.g., agitation, particle size, temperature) affecting the relative rate of dissolution.

S.CHEM.6.1e

Relate the concept of parts per million (PPM) to relevant environmental issues found through research.

S.CHEM.6.2a

Identify the colligative properties of a solution

S.CHEM.6.2b

Measure change in boiling and/or freezing point of a solvent when a solute is added.

S.CHEM.6.2c

Describe how colligative properties affect the behavior of solutions in everyday applications (e.g., road salt, cold packs, antifreeze).

S.CHEM.6.3a

Relate hydrogen ion concentration to pH values and to the terms acidic, basic or neutral

S.CHEM.6.3b

Using an indicator, measure the pH of common household solutions and standard laboratory solutions, and identify them as acids or bases

S.CHEM.6.3c

Determine the concentration of an acid or a base using a simple acid-base titration.

S.CHEM.6.3d

Research and report on the uses of acids and bases in industry, agriculture, medicine, mining, manufacturing, or construction.

S.CHEM.6.3e

Evaluate mechanisms by which pollutants modify the pH of various environments (e.g., aquatic, atmospheric, soil).

S.ES.1.1a

Identify the scientific evidence for the age of the solar system (4.6 billion years), including Earth (e.g., radioactive decay).

S.ES.1.1b

Describe the big bang theory and the evidence that supports this theory (e.g., cosmic background radiation, abundance of elements, distance/redshift relation for galaxies).

S.ES.1.1c

Describe the nebular theory of solar system formation and the evidence supporting it (e.g., solar system structure due to gravity, motion and temperature; composition and age of meteorites; observations of newly forming stars).

S.ES.1.1d

Explain that heavy elements found on Earth are formed in stars.

S.ES.1.1e

Investigate and report how science has changed the accepted ideas regarding the nature of the universe throughout history

S.ES.1.1f

Provide an example of how technology has helped scientists investigate the universe.

S.ES.1.2a

Relate the composition of objects in the solar system to their distance from the Sun.

S.ES.1.2b

Compare the size of the solar system to the Milky Way galaxy

S.ES.1.2c

Compare the size and scale of objects within the solar system

S.ES.1.2d

Evaluate the conditions that currently support life on Earth (biosphere) and compare them to the conditions that exist on other planets and moons in the solar system (e.g., atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, amounts of incoming solar energy, habitable zone).

S.ES.2.1a

Identify that radioactive decay and heat of formation are the sources of Earths internal heat.

S.ES.2.1b

Trace the lines of scientific evidence (e.g., seismic studies, composition of meteorites, and samples of the crust and mantle) that led to the inference that Earths core, mantle, and crust are separated based on composition.

S.ES.2.1c

Trace the lines of scientific evidence that led to the inference that Earths lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesosphere, outer core, and inner core are separated based on physical properties.

S.ES.2.1d

Model how convection currents help distribute heat within the mantle.

S.ES.2.2a

Explain Alfred Wegeners continental drift hypothesis, his evidence (e.g., fossil record, ancient climates, geometric fit of continents), and why it was not accepted in his time

S.ES.2.2b

Cite examples of how the geologic record preserves evidence of past change.

S.ES.2.2c

Establish the importance of the discovery of mid-ocean ridges, oceanic trenches, and magnetic striping of the sea floor to the development of the modern theory of plate tectonics

S.ES.2.2d

Explain how mantle plumes (hot spots) provide evidence for the rate and direction of tectonic plate motion.

S.ES.2.2e

Organize and evaluate the evidence for the current theory of plate tectonics: sea floor spreading, age of sea floor, distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes.

S.ES.2.3a

Describe a lithospheric plate and identify the major plates of the Earth.

S.ES.2.3b

Describe how earthquakes and volcanoes transfer energy from Earths interior to the surface (e.g., seismic waves transfer mechanical energy, flowing magma transfers heat and mechanical energy).

S.ES.2.3c

Model the factors that cause tectonic plates to move (e.g., gravity, density, convection).

S.ES.2.3d

Model tectonic plate movement and compare the results of plate movement along convergent, divergent, and transform boundaries (e.g., mountain building, volcanoes, earthquakes, mid-ocean ridges, oceanic trenches).

S.ES.2.3e

Design, build, and test a model that investigates local geologic processes (e.g., mudslides, earthquakes, flooding, erosion) and the possible effects on human-engineered structures (e.g., dams, homes, bridges, roads).

S.ES.3.1a

Compare and contrast the amount of energy coming from the Sun that is reflected, absorbed or scattered by the atmosphere, oceans, and land masses.

S.ES.3.1b

Construct a model that demonstrates how the greenhouse effect contributes to atmospheric energy.

S.ES.3.1c

Conduct an investigation on how the tilt of Earths axis causes variations in the intensity and duration of sunlight striking Earth.

S.ES.3.1d

Explain how uneven heating of Earths atmosphere at the equator and polar regions combined with the Coriolis effect create an atmospheric circulation system including, Hadley cells, trade winds, and prevailing westerlies, that moves heat energy around Earth

S.ES.3.1e

Explain how the presence of ozone in the stratosphere is beneficial to life, while ozone in the troposphere is considered an air pollutant.

S.ES.3.2a

Identify the elements of weather and the instruments used to measure them (e.g., temperaturethermometer; precipitationrain gauge or Doppler radar; humidity hygrometer; air pressurebarometer; windanemometer; cloud coveragesatellite imaging).

S.ES.3.2b

Describe conditions that give rise to severe weather phenomena (e.g., thunderstorms, tornados, hurricanes, El Nio/La Nia).

S.ES.3.2c

Explain a difference between a low pressure system and a high pressure system, including the weather associated with them

S.ES.3.2d

Diagram and describe cold, warm, occluded, and stationary boundaries (weather fronts) between air masses.

S.ES.3.2e

Design and conduct a weather investigation, use an appropriate display of the data, and interpret the observations and data.

S.ES.3.3a

Explain differences between weather and climate and the methods used to investigate evidence for changes in climate (e.g., ice core sampling, tree rings, historical temperature measurements, changes in the extent of alpine glaciers, changes in the extent of Arctic sea ice).

S.ES.3.3b

Explain how Earths climate has changed over time and describe the natural causes for these changes (e.g., Milankovitch cycles, solar fluctuations, plate tectonics).

S.ES.3.3c

Describe how human activity influences the carbon cycle and may contribute to climate change.

S.ES.3.3d

Explain the differences between air pollution and climate change and how these are related to societys use of fossil fuels

S.ES.3.3e

Investigate the current and potential consequences of climate change (e.g., ocean acidification, sea level rise, desertification, habitat loss) on ecosystems, including human communities

S.ES.4.1a

Identify oceans, lakes, running water, frozen water, ground water, and atmospheric moisture as the reservoirs of Earths water cycle, and graph or chart the relative amounts of water in each

S.ES.4.1b

Describe how the processes of evaporation, condensation, precipitation, surface runoff, ground infiltration and transpiration contribute to the cycling of water through Earths reservoirs.

S.ES.4.1c

Model the natural purification of water as it moves through the water cycle and compare natural purification to processes used in local sewage treatment plants.

S.ES.4.2a

Investigate the properties of water: exists in all three states, dissolves many substances, exhibits adhesion and cohesion, density of solid vs. liquid water.

S.ES.4.2b

Plan and conduct an experiment to investigate biotic and abiotic factors that affect freshwater ecosystems.

S.ES.4.2c

Using data collected from local water systems, evaluate water quality and conclude how pollution can make water unavailable or unsuitable for life.

S.ES.4.2d

Research and report how communities manage water resources (e.g., distribution, shortages, quality, flood control) to address social, economic, and environmental concerns

S.ES.4.3a

Research how the oceans formed from outgassing by volcanoes and ice from comets

S.ES.4.3b

Investigate how salinity, temperature, and pressure at different depths and locations in oceans and lakes affect saltwater ecosystems.

S.ES.4.3c

Design and conduct an experiment comparing chemical properties (e.g., chemical composition, percent salinity) and physical properties (e.g., density, freezing point depression) of freshwater samples to saltwater samples from different sources

S.ES.4.3d

Model energy flow in the physical dynamics of oceans (e.g., wave action, deep ocean tides circulation, surface currents, land and sea breezes, El Nio, upwellings).

S.ES.4.3e

Evaluate the impact of human activities (e.g., sediment, pollution, overfishing) on ocean systems.

S.ES.5.1a

Illustrate how energy flowing and matter cycling within Earths biosphere, geosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere give rise to processes that shape Earth.

S.ES.5.1b

Explain how Earths systems are dynamic and continually react to natural and humancaused changes.

S.ES.5.1c

Explain how technological advances lead to increased human knowledge (e.g., satellite imaging, deep sea ocean probes, seismic sensors, weather radar systems) and ability to predict how changes affect Earths systems.

S.ES.5.1d

Design and conduct an experiment that investigates how Earths biosphere, geosphere, atmosphere, or hydrosphere reacts to human-caused change.

S.ES.5.1e

Research and report on how scientists study feedback loops to inform the public about Earths interacting systems.

S.ES.5.2a

Investigate how Earth's resources (e.g., mineral resources, petroleum resources, alternative energy resources, water resources, soil and agricultural resources) are distributed across the state, the country, and the world.

S.ES.5.2b

Research and report on how human populations depend on Earth resources for sustenance and how changing conditions over time have affected these resources (e.g., water pollution, air pollution, increases in population).

S.ES.5.2c

Predict how resource development and use alters Earth systems (e.g., water reservoirs, alternative energy sources, wildlife preserves).

S.ES.5.2d

Describe the role of scientists in providing data that informs the discussion of Earth resource use.

S.ES.5.2e

Justify the claim that Earth science literacy can help the public make informed choices related to the extraction and use of natural resources.

S.ES.5.3a

Identify and describe natural hazards that occur locally (e.g., wildfires, landslides, earthquakes, floods, drought) and globally (e.g., volcanoes, tsunamis, hurricanes).

S.ES.5.3b

Evaluate and give examples of human activities that can contribute to the frequency and intensity of some natural hazards (e.g., construction that may increase erosion, human causes of wildfires, climate change).

S.ES.5.3c

Document how scientists use technology to continually improve estimates of when and where natural hazards occur.

S.ES.5.3d

Investigate and report how social, economic, and environmental issues affect decisions about human-engineered structures (e.g., dams, homes, bridges, roads).

S.PH.1.1a

Calculate the average velocity of a moving object using data obtained from measurements of position of the object at two or more times.

S.PH.1.1b

Distinguish between distance and displacement.

S.PH.1.1c

Distinguish between speed and velocity

S.PH.1.1d

Determine and compare the average and instantaneous velocity of an object from data showing its position at given times

S.PH.1.1e

Collect, graph, and interpret data for position vs. time to describe the motion of an object and compare this motion to the motion of another object.

S.PH.1.2a

Determine the average acceleration of an object from data showing velocity at given times.

S.PH.1.2b

Describe the velocity of an object when its acceleration is zero.

S.PH.1.2c

Collect, graph, and interpret data for velocity vs. time to describe the motion of an object.

S.PH.1.2d

Describe the acceleration of an object moving in a circular path at constant speed (e.g., constant speed, but changing direction).

S.PH.1.2e

Analyze the velocity and acceleration of an object over time.

S.PH.1.3a

Compare the motion of an object relative to two frames of reference.

S.PH.1.3b

Predict the motion of an object relative to a different frame of reference (e.g., an object dropped from a moving vehicle observed from the vehicle and by a person standing on the sidewalk).

S.PH.1.3c

Describe how selecting a specific frame of reference can simplify the description of the motion of an object.

S.PH.1.4a

Describe the motion of a moving object on which balanced forces are acting

S.PH.1.4b

Describe the motion of a stationary object on which balanced forces are acting.

S.PH.1.4c

Describe the balanced forces acting on a moving object commonly encountered (e.g., forces acting on an automobile moving at constant velocity, forces that maintain a body in an upright position while walking).

S.PH.2.1a

Observe and describe forces encountered in everyday life (e.g., braking of an automobile - friction, falling rain drops - gravity, directional compass - magnetic, bathroom scale - elastic or spring).

S.PH.2.1b

Use vector diagrams to represent the forces acting on an object.

S.PH.2.1c

Measure the forces on an object using appropriate tools.

S.PH.2.1d

Calculate the net force acting on an object.

S.PH.2.2a

Determine the relationship between the net force on an object and the objects acceleration

S.PH.2.2b

Relate the effect of an objects mass to its acceleration when an unbalanced force is applied.

S.PH.2.2c

Determine the relationship between force, mass, and acceleration from experimental data and compare the results to Newtons second law.

S.PH.2.2d

Predict the combined effect of multiple forces (e.g., friction, gravity, and normal forces) on an objects motion.

S.PH.2.3a

Identify pairs of forces (e.g., action-reaction, equal and opposite) acting between two objects (e.g., two electric charges, a book and the table it rests upon, a person and a rope being pulled).

S.PH.2.3b

Determine the magnitude and direction of the acting force when magnitude and direction of the reacting force is known.

S.PH.2.3c

Provide examples of practical applications of Newtons third law (e.g., forces on a retaining wall, rockets, walking).

S.PH.2.3d

Relate the historical development of Newtons laws of motion to our current understanding of the nature of science (e.g., based upon previous knowledge, empirical evidence, replicable observations, development of scientific law).

S.PH.3.1a

Investigate how mass affects the gravitational force (e.g., spring scale, balance, or other method of finding a relationship between mass and the gravitational force).

S.PH.3.1b

Distinguish between mass and weight.

S.PH.3.1c

Describe how distance between objects affects the gravitational force (e.g., effect of gravitational forces of the moon and sun on objects on Earth).

S.PH.3.1d

Explain how evidence and inference are used to describe fundamental forces in nature, such as the gravitational force.

S.PH.3.1e

Research the importance of gravitational forces in the space program.

S.PH.3.2a

Relate the types of charge to their effect on electric force (e.g., like charges repel, unlike charges attract).

S.PH.3.2b

Describe how the amount of charge affects the electric force

S.PH.3.2c

Investigate the relationship of distance between charged objects and the strength of the electric force.

S.PH.3.2d

Research and report on electric forces in everyday applications found in both nature and technology (e.g., lightning, living organisms, batteries, copy machine, electrostatic precipitators).

S.PH.4.1a

Identify various types of potential energy (e.g., gravitational, elastic, chemical, electrostatic, nuclear).

S.PH.4.1b

Calculate the kinetic energy of an object given the velocity and mass of the object.

S.PH.4.1c

Describe the types of energy contributing to the total energy of a given system.

S.PH.4.2a

Describe a closed system in terms of its total energy

S.PH.4.2b

Relate the transformations between kinetic and potential energy in a system (e.g., moving magnet induces electricity in a coil of wire, roller coaster, internal combustion engine).

S.PH.4.2c

Gather data and calculate the gravitational potential energy and the kinetic energy of an object (e.g., pendulum, water flowing downhill, ball dropped from a height) and relate this to the conservation of energy of a system

S.PH.4.2d

Evaluate social, economic, and environmental issues related to the production and transmission of electrical energy.

S.PH.4.3a

Describe the loss of useful energy in energy transformations.

S.PH.4.3b

Investigate the transfer of heat energy by conduction, convection, and radiation.

S.PH.4.3c

Describe the transformation of mechanical energy into electrical energy and the transmission of electrical energy.

S.PH.4.3d

Research and report on the transformation of energy in electrical generation plants (e.g., chemical to heat to electricity, nuclear to heat to mechanical to electrical, gravitational to kinetic to mechanical to electrical), and include energy losses during each transformation

S.PH.5.1a

Differentiate between period, frequency, wavelength, and amplitude of waves

S.PH.5.1b

Investigate and compare reflection, refraction, and diffraction of waves

S.PH.5.1c

Provide examples of waves commonly observed in nature and/or used in technological applications

S.PH.5.1d

Identify the relationship between the speed, wavelength, and frequency of a wave.

S.PH.5.1e

Explain the observed change in frequency of a mechanical wave coming from a moving object as it approaches and moves away (e.g., Doppler effect).

S.PH.5.1f

Explain the transfer of energy through a medium by mechanical waves.

S.PH.5.2a

Describe the relationship of energy to wavelength or frequency for electromagnetic radiation

S.PH.5.2b

Distinguish between the different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum (e.g., radio waves and x-rays or visible light and microwaves).

S.PH.5.2c

Explain that the different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum all travel through empty space and at the same speed.

S.PH.5.2d

Explain the observed change in frequency of an electromagnetic wave coming from a moving object as it approaches and moves away (e.g., Doppler effect, red/blue shift).

S.PH.5.2e

Provide examples of the use of electromagnetic radiation in everyday life (e.g., communications, lasers, microwaves, cellular phones, satellite dishes, visible light).