# Montana State Standards for Science — Grade 5

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#### 5.1.1

Identify a question, determine relevant variable and a control, formulate a testable hypothesis, plan and predict the outcome of an investigation, safely conduct scientific investigation, and compare and analyze data

#### 5.1.1.A

Recognize and select a testable question when presented with multiple choices

#### 5.1.1.B

Write a testable question for an investigation

#### 5.1.1.C

Identify a hypothesis

#### 5.1.1.D

Explain the relationship between a testable question and a hypothesis

#### 5.1.1.E

Plan an investigation to test a hypothesis

#### 5.1.1.F

Identify the independent and dependent variable

#### 5.1.1.G

Identify a control group and explain its purpose

#### 5.1.1.H

List and follow appropriate safety procedures.

#### 5.1.1.I

Conduct the investigation

#### 5.1.2

Select and use appropriate tools including technology to make measurements (in metric units), gather, process and analyze data from scientific investigations

#### 5.1.2.A

Collect data using observation and tools such as scale, balances, thermometer, beaker, digital probes, stop watch, graduated cylinder in metric units

#### 5.1.2.B

Record data using data tables

#### 5.1.2.C

Represent data using graphs

#### 5.1.3

Review, communicate and defend results of investigations, including considering alternative explanations.

#### 5.1.3.A

Compare data to hypothesis with guidance

#### 5.1.3.B

Determine if hypothesis is supported or not supported with guidance

#### 5.1.3.C

Communicate findings in written or oral format.

#### 5.1.4

Create models to illustrate scientific concepts and use the model to predict change. (e.g., computer simulation, stream table, graphic representation)

#### 5.1.4.A

Explain the purpose of a model

#### 5.1.4.B

List various types of models including 2-D, 3- D and computer simulations

#### 5.1.4.C

Follow step-by-step directions to build a model

#### 5.1.5

Identify strengths and weakness in an investigation design

#### 5.1.6

Compare how observations of nature form an essential base of knowledge among the Montana American Indians.

#### 5.1.6.A

Identify examples of Montana American Indians using observation to create knowledge of nature

#### 5.1.6.B

Explain how Montana American Indians have used observation to explain processes of nature

#### 5.2.1

Classify, describe, and manipulate the physical models of matter in terms of: elements, and compounds, pure substances and mixtures, atoms, and molecules

#### 5.2.1.A

Identify common elements

#### 5.2.1.B

Define elements as pure substances

#### 5.2.1.C

Identify common compounds (water, carbon dioxide, salt)

#### 5.2.1.D

Distinguish between pure substances and mixtures

#### 5.2.1.E

Explain the relationship between elements, compounds, pure substances, and mixtures.

#### 5.2.2

Examine, describe, compare and classify objects and substances based on common physical properties and simple chemical properties

#### 5.2.2.A

Define physical properties as properties that do not change the chemical nature of matter (i.e., color, smell, freezing point, boiling point, melting point, magnetism)

#### 5.2.2.B

Define chemical properties as properties that do change the chemical nature of matter (i.e., combustion, rust, decompose)

#### 5.2.2.C

Identify examples of chemical change (generating a gas, color change, rust)

#### 5.2.3

Describe energy and compare and contrast the energy transformations and the characteristics of light, heat, motion, magnetism, electricity, sound and mechanical waves

#### 5.2.3.A

Identify that most matter can exist as a solid, liquid or gas depending on temperature.

#### 5.2.3.B

Describe the processes of sublimation, condensation, and evaporation

#### 5.2.3.C

Explain how sound is produced, transmitted, and received.

#### 5.2.3.D

Describe how sound can be changed

#### 5.2.3.E

Design and construct instruments that produce sound (The effects of mechanical waves are applied in Standard 4 Benchmark 1)

#### 5.2.3.F

Define electricity as the flow of energy

#### 5.2.3.G

Distinguish the differences between simple, series, and parallel circuits

#### 5.2.3.H

Model series and parallel circuits

#### 5.2.3.I

Explain the flow of energy in a circuit.

#### 5.2.3.J

Explain the three types of heat transfer

#### 5.2.4

Model and explain that states of matter are dependent upon the quantity of energy present in the system and describe what will change and what will remain unchanged at the particulate level when matter experiences an external force or energy change

#### 5.2.5

Describe and explain the motion of an object in terms of its position, direction, & speed as well as the forces acting upon it

#### 5.2.5.A

Experiment with potential and kinetic energy, (i.e., cars/balls on ramp)

#### 5.2.5.B

Explain the differences between kinetic and potential energy

#### 5.2.5.C

Identify that work is movement following application of a force.

#### 5.2.5.D

Demonstrate an example of work.

#### 5.2.6

Identify, build, describe, measure, and analyze mechanical systems (e.g., simple and complex compound machines) and describe the forces acting within those systems

#### 5.2.7

Give examples and describe how energy is transferred and conserved (e.g. electric to light and heat [light bulb], chemical to mechanical [fuel to propulsion])

#### 5.3.1

Compare the structure and function of prokaryotic cells (bacteria) and eukaryotic cells (plant, animal, etc.) including the levels of organization of the structure and function, particularly with humans

#### 5.3.1.A

Describe the basic structure and function of a cell.

#### 5.3.1.B

Observe cells using a microscope.

#### 5.3.1.C

Compare plant and animals cells

#### 5.3.1.D

Create model/diagram of an animal and/or plant cells.

#### 5.3.2

Explain how organisms and systems of organisms obtain and use energy resources to maintain stable conditions (e.g., food webs, photosynthesis, respiration)

#### 5.3.2.A

Identify plant structures involved in photosynthesis and transpiration

#### 5.3.2.B

Identify the compounds involved in photosynthesis and transpiration

#### 5.3.2.C

Explain the process of photosynthesis and transpiration in terms of the key structures and compounds that are utilized.

#### 5.3.2.D

Explain the relationship between photosynthesis and transpiration

#### 5.3.3

Communicate the differences in the reproductive processes of a variety of plants and animals using the principles of genetic modeling (e.g., Punnet squares)

#### 5.3.4

Investigate and explain the interdependent nature of populations and communities in the environment and describe how species in these populations adapt by evolving

#### 5.3.4.A

Explore and compare symbiotic relationships

#### 5.3.4.C

Identify the key characteristics of an ecosystem

#### 5.3.4.D

Describe the interdependence between the parts of an ecosystem

#### 5.3.5

Create and use a basic classification scheme to identify plants and animals

#### 5.3.5.A

Employ dichotomous key to separate a collection of basic objects

#### 5.3.5.B

Identify the kingdoms

#### 5.3.5.C

Know the difference between kingdom, phylum and class

#### 5.3.5.D

Define vertebrate/invertebrate, warm blooded/cold blooded

#### 5.3.5.E

Compare and contrast two characteristics of the animal kingdoms.

#### 5.3.5.F

Classify plants by flowering, non-flowering, mosses, ferns

#### 5.4.1

Model and explain the internal structure of the earth and describe the formation and composition of earths external features in terms of the rock cycle and plate tectonics and constructive and destructive forces

#### 5.4.1.A

Describe Earth's physical features

#### 5.4.1.B

Explain glaciations and weathering effects on the Earth's surface

#### 5.4.1.C

Define the role that plate tectonics play in changing Earth's features

#### 5.4.2

Differentiate between rocks types and minerals types and classify both by how they are formed and the utilization by humans

#### 5.4.2.A

Differentiate between igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.

#### 5.4.2.B

Identify that rock is composed of different kinds of minerals

#### 5.4.2.C

Define minerals as the building blocks of rocks

#### 5.4.2.D

Compare and contrast the differences between rocks and minerals.

#### 5.4.3

Use fossils to describe the geological timeline

#### 5.4.3.A

Explain how sedimentary rock layers represent a progression of time

#### 5.4.3.B

Describe how the relative age of fossils can be determined from their position in sedimentary rock layers

#### 5.4.4

Describe the water cycle, the composition and structure of the atmosphere and the impact of oceans on large-scale weather patterns

#### 5.4.4.A

Explain the water cycle and its application to weather

#### 5.4.4.B

Identify different types of clouds and how they can be used to predict weather.

#### 5.4.4.C

Describe properties of air masses moving across the earth's surface

#### 5.4.4.D

Discuss how interactions of air masses are used to forecast the weather

#### 5.4.4.E

Interpret a weather map using correct symbols

#### 5.4.5

Describe and model the motion and tilt of earth in relation to the sun, and explain the concepts of day, night, seasons, year, and climatic changes

#### 5.4.5.A

Compare and contrast revolution and rotation

#### 5.4.5.B

Illustrate/model Earth's rotation in relation to the sun

#### 5.4.5.C

Explain how the Earth's rotation causes day and night

#### 5.4.5.D

Illustrate and model Earth's revolution in relation to the sun

#### 5.4.5.E

Describe and model the causes of seasons and year due to the revolution and tilt of the Earth in relation to the sun

#### 5.4.6

Describe the earth, moon, planets and other objects in space in terms of size, force of gravity, structure, and movement in relation to the sun

#### 5.4.6.A

Identify the relationship between the Earth, the sun, and the moon

#### 5.4.6.B

Explain how the moon is lighted by the sun

#### 5.4.6.C

Model the relative movements of the moon, Earth and sun

#### 5.4.6.D

Identify phases of the moon by how much of the lighted part of moon can be seen from Earth

#### 5.4.7

Identify scientific theories about the origin and evolution of the earth and solar system

#### 5.5.1

Describe the specific fields of science and technology as they relate to occupations within those fields

#### 5.5.1.A

Identify specific fields of science

#### 5.5.1.B

Identify occupations within specific fields of science

#### 5.5.1.C

Identify uses of technology unique to specific occupations within each field of science

#### 5.5.2

Apply scientific knowledge and process skills to understand issues and everyday events

#### 5.5.2.A

Identify a local current event or problem involving science

#### 5.5.2.B

Research and summarize the scientific issues relevant to that local current event or problem

#### 5.5.3

Simulate collaborative problem solving and give examples of how scientific knowledge and technology are shared with other scientists and the public

#### 5.5.4

Use scientific knowledge to investigate problems and their proposed solutions and evaluate those solutions while considering environmental impacts

#### 5.5.4.A

Identify a local issue with an environmental impact

#### 5.5.4.B

List possible environmental impacts

#### 5.5.4.C

Research and discuss proposed solutions

#### 5.5.5

Describe how the knowledge of science and technology influences the development of the Montana American Indian cultures

#### 5.5.5.A

Investigate how science and technology have an impact on Montana American Indians

#### 5.5.5.B

Explain the impact of science and technology on Montana American Indians

#### 5.6.1

Give examples of scientific discoveries and describe the interrelationship between technological advances and scientific understanding, including Montana American Indian examples

#### 5.6.1.A

Identify examples of technological advances throughout history, including Montana American Indian examples

#### 5.6.1.B

Identify and discuss scientific discoveries influenced by these technologies

#### 5.6.1.C

Discuss how technology advances science understanding

#### 5.6.2

Identify major milestones in science that have impacted science, technology, and society

#### 5.6.2.A

Chart the history of scientific milestones (see Grades 6-8.)

#### 5.6.2.B

Discuss how milestones have impacted society over time.

#### 5.6.3

Describe and explain science as a human endeavor and an ongoing process

#### 5.6.3.A

Investigate occupations that use science

#### 5.6.3.B

Identify the features of science that make it a human endeavor and an ongoing process.

#### 5.ESS.1

Develop a model using an example to describe ways the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, or atmosphere interact

#### 5.ESS.2

Graph and explain the proportion and quantities of water and fresh water in various natural and human-made reservoirs to provide evidence about the distribution of water on Earth

#### 5.ESS.3

Obtain and combine information from various sources about ways individual communities use science ideas to protect the Earth's resources, environment, and systems and describe examples of how American Indians use scientific knowledge and practices to maintain relationships with the natural world

#### 5.ESS.4

Use evidence or models to support the claim that differences in the apparent brightness of the sun compared to other stars is due to their relative distances from Earth

#### 5.ESS.5

Graph the daily changes in the length, shape, and direction of shadows; lengths of day and night; and the seasonal appearance of select stars to communicate the patterns of the Earth's movement and describe how astronomical knowledge is used by American Indians

#### 5.LS.1

Support an argument that plants get the materials they need for growth chiefly from air and water

#### 5.LS.2

Develop and critique a model to describe the movement of matter among plants, animals, decomposers, and the environment

#### 5.PS.1

Develop a model to communicate that matter is made of particles too small to be seen

#### 5.PS.2

Measure and graph quantities to provide evidence that the total mass of matter is conserved regardless of the type of change that occurs when heating, cooling, or mixing substances

#### 5.PS.3

Observe and record qualitative and quantitative evidence to support identification of materials based on their properties

#### 5.PS.4

Conduct an investigation that produces quantitative and qualitative data to analyze whether the mixing of two or more substances results in new substances

#### 5.PS.5

Use models to describe that energy in animals' food was once energy from the sun

#### 5.PS.6

Support an argument that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed toward the center of the Earth