Ohio Learning Standards for Science — Grade 5

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The distance from the sun, size, composition and movement of each planet are unique. Planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits. Some of the planets have moons and/or debris that orbit them. Comets, asteroids and meteoroids orbit the sun.


The sun appears to be the largest star in the sky because it is the closest star to Earth. Some stars are larger than the sun and some stars are smaller than the sun.


Earths revolution around the sun takes approximately 365 days. Earth completes one rotation on its axis in a 24-hour period, producing day and night. This rotation makes the sun, stars and moon appear to change position in the sky. Earths axis is tilted at an angle of 23.5. This tilt, along with Earths revolution around the sun, affects the amount of direct sunlight that the Earth receives in a single day and throughout the year. The average daily temperature is related to the amount of direct sunlight received. Changes in average temperature throughout the year are identified as seasons.


Populations of organisms can be categorized by how they acquire energy


Food webs can be used to identify the relationships among producers, consumers and decomposers in an ecosystem.


For ecosystems, the major source of energy is sunlight.


Energy entering ecosystems as sunlight is transferred and transformed by producers into energy that organisms use through the process of photosynthesis. That energy then passes from organism to organism as illustrated in food webs.


In most ecosystems, energy derived from the sun is transferred and transformed into energy that organisms use by the process of photosynthesis in plants and other photosynthetic organisms.


Movement can be measured by speed. The speed of an object is calculated by determining the distance (d) traveled in a period of time (t).


Earth pulls down on all objects with a gravitational force. Weight is a measure of the gravitational force between an object and the Earth


Any change in speed or direction of an object requires a force and is affected by the mass* of the object and the amount of force applied.


Light travels and maintains its direction until it interacts with an object or moves from one medium to another and then it can be reflected, refracted or absorbed.


Sound is produced by vibrating objects and requires a medium through which to travel. The rate of vibration is related to the pitch of the sound.