Ohio Learning Standards for Science (2010) — Grade 8

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The refraction and reflection of seismic waves as they move through one type of material to another is used to differentiate the layers of Earths interior. Earth has an inner and outer core, an upper and lower mantle, and a crust.


The formation of the planet generated heat from gravitational energy and the decay of radioactive elements, which are still present today. Heat released from Earths core drives convection currents throughout the mantle and the crust.


Historical data and observations such as fossil distribution, paleomagnetism, continental drift and sea-floor spreading contributed to the theory of plate tectonics. The rigid tectonic plates move with the molten rock and magma beneath them in the upper mantle.


Convection currents in the crust and upper mantle cause the movement of the plates. The energy that forms convection currents comes from deep within the Earth.


There are three main types of plate boundaries: divergent, convergent and transform. Each type of boundary results in specific motion and causes events (such as earthquakes or volcanic activity) or features (such as mountains or trenches) that are indicative of the type of boundary.


Earths surface is formed from a variety of different geologic processes, including but not limited to plate tectonics.


Earth is approximately 4.6 billion years old. Earth history is based on observations of the geologic record and the understanding that processes observed at present day are similar to those that occurred in the past (uniformitarianism). There are different methods to determine relative and absolute age of some rock layers in the geologic record. Within a sequence of undisturbed sedimentary rocks, the oldest rocks are at the bottom (superposition). The geologic record can help identify past environmental and climate conditions.


Fossils provide important evidence of how life and environmental conditions have changed.


Changes in environmental conditions can affect how beneficial a trait will be for the survival and reproductive success of an organism or an entire species.


Throughout Earths history, extinction of a species has occurred when the environment changes and the individual organisms of that species do not have the traits necessary to survive and reproduce in the changed environment. Most species (approximately 99 percent) that have lived on Earth are now extinct


Every organism alive today comes from a long line of ancestors who reproduced successfully every generation. Reproduction is the transfer of genetic information from one generation to the next. It can occur with mixing of genes from two individuals (sexual reproduction). It can occur with the transfer of genes from one individual to the next generation (asexual reproduction). The ability to reproduce defines living things.


Expression of all traits is determined by genes and environmental factors to varying degrees. Many genes influence more than one trait, and many traits are influenced by more than one gene.


During reproduction, genetic information (DNA) is transmitted between parent and offspring. In asexual reproduction, the lone parent contributes DNA to the offspring. In sexual reproduction, both parents contribute DNA to the offspring.


Magnetic, electrical and gravitational forces can act at a distance.


The motion of an object is always measured with respect to a reference point


Forces can be added. The net force on an object is the sum of all of the forces acting on the object. The net force acting on an object can change the objects direction and/or speed.


When the net force is greater than zero, the objects speed and/or direction will change.


When the net force is zero, the object remains at rest or continues to move at a constant speed in a straight line.


Gravitational potential energy changes in a system as the masses or relative positions of objects are changed. Objects can have elastic potential energy due to their compression or chemical potential energy due to the nature and arrangement of the atoms that make up the object.