Washington State K-12 Social Studies Learning Standards — Grade 8


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8.1.1.1

Understands key ideals and principles outlined in the Declaration of Independence, including life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, the U.S. Constitution, including the rule of law, separation of powers, representative government, and popular sovereignty, and the Bill of Rights, including due process and freedom of expression . Examples: Explains how the Declaration of Independence establishes life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness as goals for our nation. Explains how the Constitution distinguishes popular sovereignty as a principle of our nation. Suggested Unit: U.S.Fighting for Independence and Framing the Constitution (17761815) OSPI-developed Assessment: Constitutional Issues

8.1.1.2

Evaluates efforts to reduce discrepancies between key ideals and reality in the United States, including: How amendments to the Constitution have sought to extend rights to new groups. How key ideals and constitutional principles set forth in fundamental documents relate to public issues. Examples: Judges how well the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments have expanded freedoms for African Americans and other groups in the past and present. Page 78 Judges the legacy of the Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions in Seneca Falls in promoting womens right to own property. Judges the legacy of the Indian Reorganization Act in promoting the rights of tribal governments. Suggested Unit: U.S.Looking Forward OSPI-developed Assessment: Constitutional Issues

8.1.2.1

Understands and analyzes the structure and powers of government at the national level. Examples: Examines Article 1 of the U.S. Constitution and identifies the powers and responsibilities of the House of Representatives and Senate. Examines Article 2 of the U.S. Constitution and identifies the powers and responsibilities of the President and his cabinet. Examines Article 3 of the U.S. Constitution and identifies the responsibilities and powers of the Supreme Court. Examines how the Supreme Court exercised powers outlined in Article 3 of the Constitution when ruling in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia. Examines how Congress exercised powers outlined in Article 1 of the Constitution when it passed the Missouri Compromise. Examines how President Jefferson used Article 2 of the Constitution to justify his role in the Louisiana Purchase. Suggested Unit: U.S.Slavery, Expansion, Removal, and Reform (18011850) OSPI-developed Assessment: Checks and Balances

8.1.2.2

Evaluates the effectiveness of the system of checks and balances in the United States based on an event. Examples: Critiques the effectiveness of checks and balances when President Andrew Jackson ignored the Supreme Courts ruling in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia. Critiques the effectiveness of checks and balances when President James Polk took control of Mexican territory without a formal declaration of war. Critiques the effectiveness of checks and balances in the Supreme Court case of Marbury v. Madison. Suggested Unit: U.S.Slavery, Expansion, Removal, and Reform (18011850) OSPI-developed Assessment: Checks and Balances

8.1.2.3

Understands that the U.S. government includes concepts of both a democracy and a republic. Page 79 Examples: Explains how the U.S. government can be considered a constitutional democracy because the people are the ultimate source of authority. Explains how the U.S. government can be considered a constitutional republic because its leaders and officials are elected as representatives of the people. Suggested Unit: U.S.Fighting for Independence and Framing the Constitution (1776 1815)

8.1.3.1

Analyzes how the United States has interacted with other countries in the past or present. Examples: Examines how the Dawes Act resulted in loss of land and economic devastation for tribes. Examines how the U.S. government recruited workers from China to build the Transcontinental Railroad. Examines how the United States recruited workers from Europe to provide industrial labor. Suggested Unit: U.S.Development and Struggles in the West, Industrialization, Immigration, and Urbanization (18701900)

8.1.4.1

Analyzes how a position on an issue attempts to balance individual rights and the common good. Examples: Takes a position on federal immigration policy that attempts to balance human rights with national security. Takes a position on government surveillance that attempts to preserve individual privacy while maintaining national security. Suggested Unit: U.S.Looking Forward OSPI-developed Assessment: Constitutional Issues

8.2.1.1

Analyzes examples of how groups and individuals have considered profit and personal values in making economic choices in the past or present. Examples: Examines how the profit motive inspired the entrepreneurship of Levi Strauss, Richard Sears, Alvah Roebuck, Henry Wells, and William G. Fargo during the Gold Rush. Examines how the personal values of settlers determined what services were established, including saloons and general stores. Suggested Unit: U.S.Development and Struggles in the West, Industrialization, Immigration, and Urbanization (18701900)

8.2.2.1

Analyzes how the forces of supply and demand have affected the production, distribution, and consumption of goods, services, and resources in the United States in the past or present. Examples: Examines the use of immigrant labor in the building of the transcontinental railroads as a result of the forces of supply and demand. Suggested Unit: U.S.Development and Struggles in the West, Industrialization, Immigration, and Urbanization (18701900)

8.2.2.2

Understands and analyzes how the forces of supply and demand have affected international trade in the United States in the past or present. Examples: Examines how Englands demand for cotton and indigo resulted in increased exports for the United States. Examines how the European demand for animal furs impacted trade with the United States. Suggested Unit: U.S.Slavery, Expansion, Removal, and Reform (18011850)

8.2.3.1

Understands and analyzes the influence of the U.S. governments taxation, creation of currency, and tariffs in the past or present. Examples: Examines how President Andrew Jackson used the protective tariff to secure emerging industries in the nineteenth century. Examines and critiques how governments laissez-faire approach to business regulation led to the establishment of the Lowell Girls Union in the 1830s. Suggested Unit: U.S.Slavery, Expansion, Removal, and Reform (18011850)

8.2.4.1

Understands and analyzes the distribution of wealth and sustainability of resources in the United States in the past or present. Examples: Compares the impact of Industrialization in the North on the standard of living of laborers and factory owners. Analyzes how the growth of slavery throughout the South created an economic system dominated by large plantation owners. Suggested Unit: U.S.Slavery, Expansion, Removal, and Reform (18011850)

8.3.1.2

Understands and analyzes physical and cultural characteristics of places and regions in the United States from the past or in the present. Examples: Explains information gained from physical and political maps of the United States. Examines how the railroad led to the development of Chicago as a leader in the meatpacking industry. Suggested Unit: U.S.Development and Struggles in the West, Industrialization, Immigration, and Urbanization (18701900)

8.3.2.1

Analyzes how the environment has affected people and how people have affected the environment in the United States in the past or present. Examples: Examines how Pierre LEnfant altered the landscape of Washington, D.C., in order to build the Capitol. Examines how communication difficulties, due to the breadth of the Atlantic Ocean, were a factor in the Battle of New Orleans and the rise of Andrew Jackson. Suggested Unit: U.S.Fighting for Independence and Framing the Constitution (1776 1815)

8.3.2.2

Understands cultural diffusion in the United States from the past or in the present. Page 82 Examples: Explains the diffusion of Chinese culture in the West during the Gold Rush. Explains how Mexican vaqueros introduced ranching practices. Suggested Unit: U.S.Slavery, Expansion, Removal, and Reform. (18011850)

8.3.2.3

Understands and analyzes migration as a catalyst for the growth of the United States in the past or present. Examples: Examines the impact of the forced migration of slaves on the growth of the United States. Explains the role of European immigrants in propelling Thomas Jefferson to the presidency. Suggested Unit: U.S.Fighting for Independence and Framing the Constitution (1776 1815)

8.3.3.1

Understands that learning about the geography of the United States helps us understand the global issue of diversity. Examples: Explains how migration and immigration instigated by the California Gold Rush led to the establishment of todays multicultural communities in the West. Explains how immigration caused by the transcontinental railroad led to antiimmigration sentiment that continues today. Suggested Unit: U.S.Development and Struggles in the West, Industrialization, Urbanization, and Immigration (18701900)

8.4.1.2

Understands how the following themes and developments help to define eras in U.S. history from 1776 to 1900: Fighting for independence and framing the Constitution (17761815). Slavery, expansion, removal, and reform (18011850). Civil War and Reconstruction (18501877). Development and struggles in the West, industrialization, immigration, and urbanization (18701900). Page 83 Examples: Explains how the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 help to define early U.S. history as a time of struggle for independence. Explains how the Monroe Doctrine helps to define U.S. history from 1801 to 1850 as a period of expansion. Explains how Reconstruction and the emergence of Jim Crow laws help to define U.S. history following the Civil War. Explains how the rise of prominent American Indian leaders in resistance movements against U.S. encroachment helps to define U.S. history at the end of the 19th century.

8.4.2.1

Understands and analyzes how individuals and movements have shaped U.S. history (1776 1900). Examples: Examines the impact of Harriet Beecher Stowes novel Uncle Toms Cabin on the abolitionist movement in the United States. Explains the impact of the Seneca Falls Convention on the advancement of womens rights. Explains the impact of the Lowell strike on future labor movements. Suggested Unit: U.S.Civil War and Reconstruction (18501877)

8.4.2.2

Understands and analyzes how technology and ideas have impacted U.S. history (17761900). Examples: Examines the effect of the cotton gin on propagating the expansion of slavery in the Southern U.S. Examines how Robert Fultons steamship accelerated trade and westward movement in the United States. Suggested Unit: U.S.Civil War and Reconstruction (18501877)

8.4.2.3

Understands and analyzes how technology and ideas have impacted U.S. history (17761900).

8.4.3.1

Analyzes and interprets historical materials from a variety of perspectives in U.S. history (17761900). Examples: Distinguishes between conflicting views of the reasons for Southern secession. Examines artifacts documenting the various ways African Americans communicated on the Underground Railroad. Suggested Unit: U.S.Civil War and Reconstruction (18501877)

8.4.3.2

Analyzes multiple causal factors to create positions on major events in U.S. history (1776 1900). Examples: Presents a position on the causes and outcomes of the Civil War, demonstrating understanding of varying viewpoints of the conflict. Presents a position on the causes and outcomes of the Mexican War, demonstrating understanding of varying viewpoints of the conflict. Suggested Unit: U.S.Civil War and Reconstruction (18501877)

8.4.4.1

Analyzes how a historical event in United States history helps us to understand a current issue. Examples: Examines how past immigration patterns to the United States have shaped modern immigration policy and public opinion. Examines how the Sherman Anti-Trust Act helps us to understand corporate regulations today. Suggested Unit: U.S.Development and Struggles in the West, Immigration, Industrialization, and Urbanization (1870present)

8.5.1.1

Understands reasons based on evidence for a position on an issue or event. Examples: Explains the reasons for ones own position about the effectiveness of the system of checks and balances when Jackson ignored the Supreme Court Ruling in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia. Page 85 Explains the reasons for ones own position about the effectiveness of the system of checks and balances when Congress impeached Andrew Johnson. Suggested Unit: U.S.Slavery, Expansion, Removal, and Reform (18011850) OSPI-developed Assessment: Checks and Balances

8.5.1.2

Evaluates the logic of reasons for a position on an issue or event. Examples: Critiques the order and coherence of reasons when evaluating the effectiveness of the federal system of checks and balances during Andrew Jacksons presidency. Critiques the organization of reasons when evaluating the effectiveness of the federal system of checks and balances during the impeachment of Andrew Johnson. Suggested Unit: U.S.Slavery, Expansion, Removal, and Reform (18011850) OSPI-developed Assessment: Checks and Balances

8.5.2.1

Creates and uses research questions that are tied to an essential question to focus inquiry on an issue. Examples: Develops research questions that are tied to an essential question to focus inquiry on how the need for national security can be balanced with the right to individual privacy. Develops research questions that are tied to an essential question to focus inquiry on how amendments to the Constitution have sought to extend rights to disenfranchised individuals. Suggested Unit: U.S.Looking Forward OSPI-developed Assessment: Constitutional Issues

8.5.2.2

Evaluates the logic of positions in primary and secondary sources to interpret an issue or event. Examples: Critiques the order and coherence of newscasts and newspaper articles on the contributions of migrant workers when interpreting various perspectives on federal immigration policy. Critiques the coherence of positions taken by slaves, slaveholders, and abolitionists. Suggested Unit: U.S.Development and Struggles in the West, Industrialization, Immigration, and Urbanization (18701900) OSPI-developed Assessment: Constitutional Issues; Checks and Balances

8.5.3.1

Applies key ideals outlined in fundamental documents to clarify and address public issues in the context of a discussion. Examples: Applies key ideals outlined in the Constitution to clarify and address positions on federal immigration policy that attempt to balance human rights with national security. Applies key ideals outlined in the Constitution to clarify and address the governments position on surveillance that attempts to preserve individual privacy while maintaining national security. Suggested Unit: U.S.Development and Struggles in the West, Industrialization, Immigration, and Urbanization (18701900) OSPI-developed Assessment: Constitutional Issues

8.5.4.1

Uses sources within the body of the work to support positions in a paper or presentation. Examples: Uses sources within the body of the work to support ones position on the Indian Removal Act. Uses sources within the body of the work to support ones position on the framing of the Constitution. Suggested Unit: U.S.Looking Forward OSPI-developed Assessments: Constitutional Issues; Checks and Balances

8.5.4.2

Uses appropriate format to cite sources within an essay or presentation. Examples: Demonstrates proper citation by citing others ideas within an essay (e.g., MLA, APA)