Oklahoma Academic Standards for the Social Studies (2014) — Grade 12

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Define and apply basic economic concepts of scarcity, surplus, choice, opportunity cost, cost/benefit analysis, risk/reward relationship, incentive, disincentive, and trade-off to a variety of economic situations.


Examine the purposes and effects of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments.


Assess the impact of the Black Codes, Jim Crow laws, and the actions of the Ku Klux Klan.


Determine appropriate courses of economic actions using a variety of economic reasoning and decision-making models including the PACED Decision-Making Model by using the five step process of P = Stating the PROBLEM, A = Listing the ALTERNATIVES, C = Identifying the CRITERIA, E = EVALUATING the options, based on the criteria, and D = Making a DECISION.


Summarize the reasons for immigration, shifts in settlement patterns, and the immigrant experience including the Chinese Exclusion Act, the impact of Nativism, Americanization, and the immigrant experiences at Ellis Island.


Examine the rationale behind federal policies toward Native Americans including the establishment of reservations, attempts at assimilation, the end of the Indian Wars at Wounded Knee, and the impact of the Dawes Act on tribal sovereignty and land ownership.


Compare the contrasting view points of Native American leaderships resistance to United States Indian policies as evidenced by Red Cloud and his Cooper Union speech, Seattle, Quanah Parker, and Chief Joseph as expressed in his I Will Fight No More Forever speech.


Compare and contrast the goals and significance of early Spanish, French, and American expeditions including the impact of disease, interactions with Native Americans, and the arrival of the horse and new technologies.


Analyze the impact of leading industrialists as robber barons and as philanthropists including John D. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie and his Gospel of Wealth essay on American society.


Identify the impact of new inventions and industrial production methods including new technologies by Thomas Edison, Alexander G. Bell, and the Bessemer process.


Evaluate the contributions of muckrakers including Ida Tarbell and Upton Sinclair that changed government policies regarding child labor, working conditions, and the Sherman Antitrust Act.


Analyze major social reform movements including the Womens Suffrage and Temperance Movement and their significant leaders including Susan B. Anthony, Alice Paul, and Jane Addams.


Evaluate the significance of the Labor Movement on the organization of workers including the impact of the Pullman strikes, the Haymarket Riot, and the leadership of Eugene V. Debs.


Evaluate the rise and reforms of the Progressive Movement including the


Direct primary, initiative petition, referendum, and recall,


Impact of William Jennings Bryan and his Cross of Gold speech on the political landscape, and


Conservation of the environment under the leadership of Theodore Roosevelt.


Analyze the series of events leading to and the effects of the 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, and 21st Amendments to the United States Constitution.


Assess and summarize changing race relations as exemplified in the Plessy v. Ferguson case.


Cite specific textual and visual evidence to compare and contrast early civil rights leadership including the viewpoints of Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. DuBois, and Marcus Garvey in response to rising racial tensions, and the use of poll taxes and literacy tests to disenfranchise blacks and poor whites.


Compare and contrast cultural perspectives of Native Americans and European Americans regarding land ownership and trading practices.


Compare and contrast the property and due process rights in the United States free-market economy which are protected by the United States Constitution to the restricted property and due process rights existing/nonexisting under command economic systems.


Examine the origins, traditions, beliefs, and impact of Confucianism and Daoism including how those ideas and beliefs influenced Asian civilizations into the modern eras.


Examine the origins, traditions, beliefs, and impact of Islam including the religious, political, and economic causes and effects of the Crusades on the spread of Islam, and the influence of Islam into the modern eras.


Determine how interest rates, unemployment, Consumer Price Index (CPI), individual savings and debt, government debt, labor supply, and inflation impact current economic conditions in the United States.


Explain how these conditions have an impact on consumers, producers, and government policymakers.


Explain GDP and GNP and how they are used to describe economic output over time and compare the GDP of various countries representing free-market, command, and mixed economies.


Describe the impact on the economy when GDP and GNP are growing or declining.


Define inflation and determine how it is measured and the impact it has on different sectors of the United States economy.


Define the different types of unemployment and determine how it is measured and the impact it has on different sectors of the United States economy.


Compare and contrast fiscal and monetary policy and their impact on the economy.


Evaluate the conditions under which the federal government and the Federal Reserve implement expansionary or contractionary policies.


Compare the worlds basic economic systems of market (free enterprise), command, and mixed market economies identifying countries that have adopted each and comparing and contrasting the results those economic systems have produced in those countries as measured by GDP, national prosperity, and individual income and wealth.


Compare and contrast the economic, religious, social, and political rationales for American imperialism including the concept of white mans burden, the annexation of Hawaii, the impact of Admiral Alfred T. Mahan, and the actions of the Anti-Imperialist League.


Assess the role of yellow journalism in inciting American desire to go to war with Spain.


Examine how the Spanish-American War resulted in the rise of the United States as a world power, and led to new territorial acquisitions and national insurrections in Cuba and the Philippines.


Compare and contrast the foreign policies of Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson including Big Stick Diplomacy, Dollar Diplomacy, Missionary Diplomacy the Roosevelt Corollary, military interventionism, and the territorial acquisition and construction of the Panama Canal.


Describe the role of the factors of production, land, labor, capital, entrepreneurship, and technology in economic systems.


Integrate visual and textual evidence to explain the reasons for and trace the migrations of Native American peoples including the Five Tribes into present-day Oklahoma, the Indian Removal Act of 1830, and tribal resistance to the forced relocations.


Summarize the transformation of the United States from a position of neutrality to engagement in World War I including the Zimmerman Note and the threats to international trade caused by unrestricted submarine warfare.


Analyze the experiences of the wars homefront including the use of propaganda, womens increased role in industry, the marshaling of industrial production, the Great Migration, the institution of a draft, and the suppression of individual liberties resulting in the First Red Scare.


Cite specific textual and visual evidence to examine Wilsons foreign policy as proposed in his Fourteen Points and the reasons for the nations return to isolationism including the rejection of the League of Nations.


Summarize the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction Treaties on Native American peoples, territories, and tribal sovereignty including the


Required enrollment of the Freedmen,


Second Indian Removal and the role of the Buffalo Soldiers,


Significance of the Massacre at the Washita,


Reasons for the reservation system, and


Establishment of the western military posts of Fort Sill, Fort Supply, and Fort Reno.


Cite specific visual and textual evidence to assess the impact of the cattle and coal mining industries on the location of railroad lines, transportation routes, and the development of communities.


Analyze the influence of the idea of Manifest Destiny on the Boomer Movement including the official closing of the frontier in 1890.


Compare and contrast multiple points of view to evaluate the impact of the Dawes Act which resulted in the loss of tribal communal lands and the redistribution of lands by various means including land runs as typified by the Unassigned Lands and the Cherokee Outlet, lotteries, and tribal allotments.


Analyze how price and non-price factors affect the demand and supply of goods and services available in the marketplace.


Cite specific textual and visual evidence to describe modern forms of cultural expression including the Harlem Renaissance, the Jazz Age, and talkies (movies).


Describe the rising racial tensions in American society including the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan, increased lynchings, race riots as typified by the Tulsa Race Riot, and the use of poll taxes and literacy tests to disenfranchise blacks and poor whites.


Examine growing labor unrest and industrys reactions including the use of sit-down strikes and court injunctions, and why socialism and communism appealed to labor.


Describe the booming economy based upon access to and easy credit through installment buying of appliances and inventions of modern conveniences including the automobile.


Assess the impact of the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 upon the various Native American tribes.


Explain what causes shortages and surpluses including government imposed price floors, price ceilings, and other government regulations and the impact they have on prices and peoples decisions to buy or sell.


Identify causes contributing to an unstable economy including the overproduction of agriculture products, greater speculation and buying on margin in the Stock Market, and the governments laissez-faire policy.


Examine the role of the Stock Market Crash and bank failures in weakening both the agricultural and manufacturing sectors of the economy leading to the Great Depression.


Analyze how President Herbert Hoovers financial policies and massive unemployment as exemplified by the Bonus Army March and Hoovervilles impacted the presidential election of 1932.


Cite specific textual and visual evidence to compare points of view regarding the economic and social impact of the Great Depression on individuals, families, and the nation.


Compare and contrast Oklahomas state government to the United States national system of government including the branches of government, their functions, and powers.


Assess changing viewpoints regarding the expanding role of government as expressed in President Franklin Roosevelts First Inaugural Address and the Four Freedoms speech.


Examine how national policies addressed the economic crisis including deficit spending, Roosevelts court packing plan, and the new federal agencies of the Social Security Administration, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Works Progress Administration, and Tennessee Valley Authority.


Cite specific textual and visual evidence to summarize the causes and impact of the Dust Bowl including the governments responses.


Describe the division, function, and sharing of powers among levels of government including city, county, tribal, and state.


Identify major sources of local and state revenues and the services provided including education, infrastructure, courts, and public safety.


Describe state constitutional provisions including the direct primary, initiative petition, referendum, and recall.


Analyze the United States governments responsibility to protect minority rights while legitimizing majority rule including the rights of due process and equality under the law.


Cite specific textual and visual evidence and compare points of view regarding the shared values and ideals of American political culture as set forth in basic documents and speeches including the Declaration of Sentiments, Abraham Lincolns Gettysburg Address, Franklin Roosevelts Four Freedoms speech, and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.s Letter From Birmingham Jail.


Explain how competition impacts the free market including the concepts that competition among sellers lowers costs and prices while encouraging increased production and competition among buyers increases prices and the allocation of goods and services to consumers willing and able to pay higher prices.


Examine the roles of appeasement and isolationism in the United States reluctance to respond to Fascist military aggression in Europe and Asia including the Neutrality Acts and the Lend-Lease program.


Evaluate the mobilization for war as stated in President Roosevelts Day Which Will Live in Infamy speech including the role of women and minorities in the war effort, rationing, the internment of Japanese Americans and the Korematsu v. United States decision, and the internment of Americans of German and Italian descent.


Explain how peoples own self-interest, incentives and disincentives influence market decisions.


Identify constitutional qualifications for holding public office, the terms of office, and the expressed powers delegated to each branch of the national government including the numbers of members comprising the United States Congress and United States Supreme Court.


Evaluate the extent to which each branch of government reflects the peoples sovereignty including current issues concerning representation such as term limitations and legislative redistricting.


Describe the process in which public policy is formulated into law including both the constitutional and operational procedures utilized in the modern legislative process.


Explain why certain provisions of the United States Constitution result in tensions among the three branches, and evaluate how the functions of the national government have changed over time through executive actions and judicial interpretation of the necessary and proper clause.


Compare and contrast the structure of the national branches of government to Oklahomas state government.


Apply the principles of limited government, federalism, checks and balances, and separation of powers to the workings of the three branches of government in real world situations including current issues and events.


Identify the issues behind and explain the changes resulting from landmark United States Supreme Court decisions including Marbury v. Madison (1803), McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954), Mapp v. Ohio (1961), Engel v. Vitale (1962), Miranda v. Arizona (1966), Furman v. Georgia (1972), Roe v. Wade (1973), United States v. Nixon (1974), and Bush v. Gore (2000).


Summarize the impact of the national Socialist movement and organized labor on various segments of Oklahoma society including agriculture, mining, and state politics.


Evaluate the role of political parties, interest groups including organized labor and the media in influencing the public agenda, public opinion, and the actions of government.


Describe the electoral process including the components of national campaigns, the nominative process, campaign funding, and the Electoral College.


Examine how the economic cycles of boom and bust of the oil industry affected major sectors of employment, mining, and the subsequent development of communities, as well as the role of entrepreneurs including J.J. McAlester, Frank Phillips, E.W. Marland, and Robert S. Kerr.


Identify major sources of revenues for the federal government and how revenue is budgeted.


Analyze significant policy issues and how they reflect the nations interests and principles including entitlements and environmental concerns.


Cite specific textual and visual evidence to evaluate the impact of the boom and bust cycle of Oklahomas agricultural production as a response to the needs of World War I, and its effect as a precursor of the Great Depression.


Describe the steps of the budget process including examples of economic trade-offs that occur when addressing competing public needs.


Determine how the government influences economic growth by using the tools of fiscal and monetary policy.


Explain how legislation, executive departments, and regulatory agencies affect both economic sectors and individual citizens.


Cite specific textual and visual evidence of the environmental conditions and the impact of human mismanagement of resources resulting in the Dust Bowl including the migration of the Okies, the national perceptions of Oklahomans as shaped by The Grapes of Wrath, and the New Deal policies regarding conservation of natural resources.


Evaluate the effectiveness of cooperative efforts exercised through international alliances and organizations from the perspective of the United States including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and the North American Free Trade Agreement.


Examine issues of national sovereignty and human rights on contemporary decisions of foreign policy


Describe the contributions of Oklahomans in 1920s and 1930s including Deep Deuce and African-American jazz musicians, Will Rogerss and Woody Guthries political and social commentaries, Wiley Posts aviation milestones, and the artwork of the Kiowa Six (formerly the Kiowa Five).


Summarize and analyze the impact of mobilization for World War II including the establishment of military bases and prisoner of war installations and the contributions of Oklahomans to the war effort including the Native American code talkers and the 45th Infantry Division.


Evaluate the impact of government ensuring the protection of private property rights and the rule of law in a market economy.


Judicial interpretation of the equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment which ultimately resulted in the desegregation of public facilities, and public schools and universities,


Landmark Supreme Court cases of Sipuel v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma (1948) and McLaurin v. Oklahoma Board of Regents for Higher Education (1950),


Lunch counter sit-ins organized by Clara Luper and the NAACP, and


Leadership of Governor Gary in the peaceful integration of the public common and higher education systems


Cite specific textual and visual evidence to analyze the causes and effects of the domestic terrorist attack on the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City including the responses of Oklahomans to the event, the concept of the Oklahoma Standard and the creation of the Oklahoma City National Memorial and Museum.


Describe how banks match savers with borrowers and allow people to pool their incomes and provide future income through investing in stocks.


Impact of rural to urban migration,


Development of water and timber resources,


Emergence of the tourism as an industry,


Discovery of new fossil fuel resources, Tulsas designation as Oil Capital of the World, and the opening of the Anadarko Basin, and


Improvement of the states transportation infrastructures and the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System.


Identify how labor unions, corporations, and not-for profits influence a market economy.


Analyze the rights and liberties guaranteed to all citizens in and protected by the Bill of Rights, how they are applied and protected within the states through the 14th Amendment, and sustained through the actions of individual citizens.


Explain the impact on American politics, both historically and presently, of the racial, religious, socioeconomic, and ethnic diversity of American society including the importance of adhering to constitutional values in managing conflicts over diversity.


Summarize the impact of Oklahomas leadership on state and national politics including the rise of viable two party elections, Governor Henry Bellmon, and United States Representative Carl Albert.


Assess the effects of President Trumans decision to desegregate the United States armed forces, and the legal attacks on segregation by the NAACP and Thurgood Marshall, the United States Supreme Court decisions in the cases of Ada Lois Sipuel Fisher and George McLaurin, and the differences between de jure and de facto segregation.


Compare and contrast segregation policies of separate but equal, disenfranchisement of African Americans through poll taxes, literacy tests, and violence; and the sustained attempts to dismantle segregation including the Brown v. Board of Education decision, Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott, the desegregation of Little Rock Central High School, the Oklahoma City lunch counter sit-ins led by Clara Luper, the Freedom Rides, the March on Washington, the Birmingham church bombing, the adoption of the 24th Amendment, the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the Selma to Montgomery marches, and the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.


Compare and contrast the view points and the contributions of civil rights leaders and organizations linking them to events of the movement including Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and his I Have a Dream speech, Malcolm X, NAACP, SCLC, CORE, SNCC, and the tactics used at different times including civil disobedience, non-violent resistance, sit-ins, boycotts, marches, and voter registration drives.


Evaluate the effects the Civil Rights Movement had on other contemporaneous social movements including the Womens Liberation Movement, the United Farm Workers and Csar Chvez, and the American Indian Movement


Analyze the evolving relationship between state and tribal governments impacting tribal self-determination and control over Native American lands and resources including issues of joint jurisdiction, taxation, and gaming.


Summarize and examine the United States Supreme Courts use of the incorporation doctrine in applying the Bill of Rights to the states, thereby securing and further defining individual rights and civil liberties.


Assess the lasting impact of President Lyndon Johnsons civil rights initiatives, the war on poverty, and the Great Society.


Describe the goals and effectiveness of the Native American movement on tribal identity and sovereignty including the American Indian Movement (AIM), and the Siege at Wounded Knee.


Cite specific textual and visual evidence to compare and contrast the changing roles of women from the Post-war Era through the 1970s including the goals of the Womens Liberation Movement, the National Organization of Women (NOW), the attempts to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), and the United States Supreme Courts ruling in Roe v. Wade.


Analyze the political and economic impact of President Nixons foreign policies including dtente and the opening of China.


Evaluate the impact of the Watergate Scandal on executive powers including the role of the media, the Pentagon Papers, the first use of the 25th Amendment, and President Fords decision to pardon former President Nixon.


Cite specific textual and visual evidence to analyze the oil and gas boom of the 1970s and the subsequent bust of the energy industry during the 1980s including the impact of the Penn Square Bank Collapse on the states economy, employment, and banking.


Describe the contemporary role the states agriculture plays in feeding the nation and the world including the wheat, corn, cattle, pork, and chicken industries.


Explain the leadership of Oklahoma and its people in the field of aeronautics including the Federal Aviation Administration, NASA space program, and the influence of weather research on national disaster preparedness.


Examine major cultural and ethnic groups contributions to the social and economic transformation of the modern state of Oklahoma.


Explain how individuals, businesses and the overall economy benefit from using and saving money.


Identify the components of the money supply, the different functions of money, and give examples of each.


Explain how the value of money is determined by the goods and services it can buy.


Describe the goal of President H.W. Bushs foreign policy in forming an international coalition to counter Iraqi aggression in the Persian Gulf.


Describe and evaluate the continuing global influence of the United States under the leadership of President Bill Clinton including NAFTA and the NATO interventions to restore stability to the former Yugoslav republics.


Evaluate the rise of terrorism and its impact on the United States including the 1995 bombing of the Murrah Federal Building, the first attack on the World Trade Center Towers in 1993, the attacks on September 11, 2001, the PATRIOT ACT, and the creation of the Department of Homeland Security. *


Analyze the relationship between interest rates and inflation rates.


Determine how changes in real interest rates impact peoples decisions to borrow money and purchase goods in a market economy.


Examine influences on aggression and conflict including the factors associated with the bystander effect as demonstrated in such cases as the Kitty Genovese murder.


Analyze the potential risks and potential gains of entrepreneurs opening new businesses or inventing a new product, and determine the financial and nonfinancial incentives that motivate them.


Identify an entrepreneur and describe how his/her decisions affect job opportunities for others.


Compare available treatment options and how they evolved through history and among different cultures.


Interpret how social behavior is influenced by propaganda, the news media, and advertising.


Investigate the impact of rumor, gossip, and other inaccurate communications upon group behavior.


Explain the role that government has in dealing with issues such as poverty, pollution, and medical research.


Describe the costs and benefits of government assistance programs, education, and other government funded services and projects.


Analyze the relationship between psychological health and physiological health.


Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information.


Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text


Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether earlier events caused later ones or simply preceded them.


Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social science.


Analyze how a text uses structure to emphasize key points or advance an explanation or analysis.


Compare the point of view of two or more authors for how they treat the same or similar topics, including which details they include and emphasize in their respective accounts.


Integrate quantitative or technical analysis (e.g., charts, research data) with qualitative analysis in print or digital text.


Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the authors claims.


Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several primary and secondary sources.


By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend history/ social studies texts in the grades 910 text complexity band independently and proficiently.


Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.


Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.


Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form and in a manner that anticipates the audiences knowledge level and concerns.


Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.


Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.


Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.


Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historic events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.


Introduce a topic and organize ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.


Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audiences knowledge of the topic.


Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.


Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic and convey a style appropriate to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.


Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.


Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).


Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.


Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.


Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technologys capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically


Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.


Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.


Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.


Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.