Ontario Curriculum — Grade 10


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10-MFM2P.A.1.

Solving Problems Involving Similar Triangles: By the end of this course, students will:

10-MFM2P.A.1.1.

Verify, through investigation (e.g., using dynamic geometry software, concrete materials), properties of similar triangles (e.g., given similar triangles, verify the equality of corresponding angles and the proportionality of corresponding sides);

10-MFM2P.A.1.2.

Determine the lengths of sides of similar triangles, using proportional reasoning;

10-MFM2P.A.1.3.

Solve problems involving similar triangles in realistic situations (e.g., shadows, reflections, scale models, surveying)

10-MFM2P.A.2.

Solving Problems Involving the Trigonometry of Right Triangles: By the end of this course, students will:

10-MFM2P.A.2.1.

Determine, through investigation (e.g., using dynamic geometry software, concrete materials), the relationship between the ratio of two sides in a right triangle and the ratio of the two corresponding sides in a similar right triangle, and define the sine, cosine, and tangent ratios (e.g., sin A = opposite/hypotenuse);

10-MFM2P.A.2.2.

Determine the measures of the sides and angles in right triangles, using the primary trigonometric ratios and the Pythagorean theorem;

10-MFM2P.A.2.3.

Solve problems involving the measures of sides and angles in right triangles in real-life applications (e.g., in surveying, in navigation, in determining the height of an inaccessible object around the school), using the primary trigonometric ratios and the Pythagorean theorem

10-MFM2P.A.2.4.

Describe, through participation in an activity, the application of trigonometry in an occupation (e.g., research and report on how trigonometry is applied in astronomy; attend a career fair that includes a surveyor, and describe how a surveyor applies trigonometry to calculate distances; job shadow a carpenter for a few hours, and describe how a carpenter uses trigonometry).

10-MFM2P.A.3.

Solving Problems Involving Surface Area and Volume, Using the Imperial and Metric Systems of Measurement: By the end of this course, students will:

10-MFM2P.A.3.1.

Use the imperial system when solving measurement problems (e.g., problems involving dimensions of lumber, areas of carpets, and volumes of soil or concrete);

10-MFM2P.A.3.2.

Perform everyday conversions between the imperial system and the metric system (e.g., millilitres to cups, centimetres to inches) and within these systems (e.g., cubic metres to cubic centimetres, square feet to square yards), as necessary to solve problems involving measurement

10-MFM2P.A.3.3.

Determine, through investigation, the relationship for calculating the surface area of a pyramid (e.g., use the net of a square-based pyramid to determine that the surface area is the area of the square base plus the areas of the four congruent triangles);

10-MFM2P.A.3.4.

Solve problems involving the surface areas of prisms, pyramids, and cylinders, and the volumes of prisms, pyramids, cylinders, cones, and spheres, including problems involving combinations of these figures, using the metric system or the imperial system, as appropriate

10-MFM2P.B.1.

Manipulating and Solving Algebraic Equations: By the end of this course, students will:

10-MFM2P.B.1.1.

Solve first-degree equations involving one variable, including equations with fractional coefficients (e.g. using the balance analogy, computer algebra systems, paper and pencil)

10-MFM2P.B.1.2.

Determine the value of a variable in the first degree, using a formula (i.e., by isolating the variable and then substituting known values; by substituting known values and then solving for the variable) (e.g., in analytic geometry, in measurement)

10-MFM2P.B.1.3.

Express the equation of a line in the form y = mx + b, given the form Ax + By + C = 0.

10-MFM2P.B.2.

Graphing and Writing Equations of Lines: By the end of this course, students will:

10-MFM2P.B.2.1.

Connect the rate of change of a linear relation to the slope of the line, and define the slope as the ratio m = rise/run; identify, through investigation, y = mx + b as a common form for the equation of a straight line, and identify the special cases x = a, y = b;

10-MFM2P.B.2.2.

Identify, through investigation with technology, the geometric significance of m and b in the equation y = mx + b;

10-MFM2P.B.2.3.

Identify, through investigation, properties of the slopes of lines and line segments (e.g., direction, positive or negative rate of change, steepness, parallelism), using graphing technology to facilitate investigations, where appropriate;

10-MFM2P.B.2.4.

Graph lines by hand, using a variety of techniques (e.g., graph y = 2/3 x - 4 using the y-intercept and slope; graph 2x + 3y = 6 using the x- and y-intercepts);

10-MFM2P.B.2.5.

Determine the equation of a line, given its graph, the slope and y-intercept, the slope and a point on the line, or two points on the line.

10-MFM2P.B.3.

Solving and Interpreting Systems of Linear Equations: By the end of this course, students will:

10-MFM2P.B.3.1.

Determine graphically the point of intersection of two linear relations (e.g., using graph paper, using technology)

10-MFM2P.B.3.2.

Solve systems of two linear equations involving two variables with integral coefficients, using the algebraic method of substitution or elimination

10-MFM2P.B.3.3.

Solve problems that arise from realistic situations described in words or represented by given linear systems of two equations involving two variables, by choosing an appropriate algebraic or graphical method

10-MFM2P.C.1.

Manipulating Quadratic Expressions: By the end of this course, students will:

10-MFM2P.C.1.1.

Expand and simplify second-degree polynomial expressions involving one variable that consist of the product of two binomials [e.g., (2x + 3)(x + 4)] or the square of a binomial [e.g., (x + 3) ^ 2], using a variety of tools (e.g., algebra tiles, diagrams, computer algebra systems, paper and pencil) and strategies (e.g. patterning);

10-MFM2P.C.1.2.

Factor binomials (e.g., 4x ^ 2 + 8x) and trinomials (e.g., 3x ^ 2 + 9x - 15) involving one variable up to degree two, by determining a common factor using a variety of tools (e.g., algebra tiles, computer algebra systems, paper and pencil) and strategies (e.g., patterning);

10-MFM2P.C.1.3.

Factor simple trinomials of the form x ^ 2 + bx + c (e.g., x ^ 2 + 7x + 10, x ^ 2 + 2x - 8), using a variety of tools (e.g., algebra tiles, computer algebra systems, paper and pencil) and strategies (e.g., patterning);

10-MFM2P.C.1.4.

Factor the difference of squares of the form x ^ 2 - a ^ 2 (e.g., x ^ 2 - 16).

10-MFM2P.C.2.

Identifying Characteristics of Quadratic Relations: By the end of this course, students will:

10-MFM2P.C.2.1.

Collect data that can be represented as a quadratic relation, from experiments using appropriate equipment and technology (e.g., concrete materials, scientific probes, graphing calculators), or from secondary sources (e.g., the Internet, Statistics Canada); graph the data and draw a curve of best fit, if appropriate, with or without the use of technology

10-MFM2P.C.2.2.

Determine, through investigation using technology, that a quadratic relation of the form y = ax ^ 2 + bx + c (a does not equal 0) can be graphically represented as a parabola, and determine that the table of values yields a constant second difference

10-MFM2P.C.2.3.

Identify the key features of a graph of a parabola (i.e., the equation of the axis of symmetry, the coordinates of the vertex, the y-intercept, the zeros, and the maximum or minimum value), using a given graph or a graph generated with technology from its equation, and use the appropriate terminology to describe the features;

10-MFM2P.C.2.4.

Compare, through investigation using technology, the graphical representations of a quadratic relation in the form y = x ^ 2 + bx + c and the same relation in the factored form y = (x - r)(x - s) (i.e., the graphs are the same), and describe the connections between each algebraic representation and the graph [e.g., the y-intercept is c in the form y = x ^ 2 + bx + c; the x-intercepts are r and s in the form y = (x - r)(x - s)]

10-MFM2P.C.3.

Solving Problems by Interpreting Graphs of Quadratic Relations: By the end of this course, students will:

10-MFM2P.C.3.1.

Solve problems involving a quadratic relation by interpreting a given graph or a graph generated with technology from its equation (e.g., given an equation representing the height of a ball over elapsed time, use a graphing calculator or graphing software to graph the relation, and answer questions such as the following: What is the maximum height of the ball? After what length of time will the ball hit the ground? Over what time interval is the height of the ball greater than 3 m?);

10-MFM2P.C.3.2.

Solve problems by interpreting the significance of the key features of graphs obtained by collecting experimental data involving quadratic relations

10-MPM2D.A.1.

Investigating the Basic Properties of Quadratic Relations: By the end of this course, students will:

10-MPM2D.A.1.1.

Collect data that can be represented as a quadratic relation, from experiments using appropriate equipment and technology (e.g., concrete materials, scientific probes, graphing calculators), or from secondary resources (e.g., the Internet, Statistics Canada); graph the data and draw a curve of best fit, if appropriate, with or without the use of technology

10-MPM2D.A.1.2.

Determine, through investigation with and without the use of technology, that a quadratic relation of the form y = ax ^ 2 + bx + c (a does not equal 0) can be graphically represented as a parabola, and that the table of values yields a constant second difference

10-MPM2D.A.1.3.

Identify the key features of a graph of a parabola (i.e., the equation of the axis of symmetry, the coordinates of the vertex, the y-intercept, the zeros, and the maximum or minimum value), and use the appropriate terminology to describe them;

10-MPM2D.A.1.4.

Compare, through investigation using technology, the features of the graph of y = x ^ 2 and the graph of y = 2 ^ x, and determine the meaning of a negative exponent and of zero as an exponent (e.g., by examining patterns in a table of values for y = 2 ^ x; by applying the exponent rules for multiplication and division).

10-MPM2D.A.2.

Relating the Graph of y = X ^ 2 and Its Transformations: By the end of this course, students will:

10-MPM2D.A.2.1.

Identify, through investigation using technology, the effect on the graph of y = x ^ 2 of transformations (i.e., translations, reflections in the x-axis, vertical stretches or compressions) by considering separately each parameter a, h, and k [i.e., investigate the effect on the graph of y = x ^ 2 of a, h, and k in y = x ^ 2 + k, y = (x - h) ^ 2, and y = ax ^ 2];

10-MPM2D.A.2.2.

Explain the roles of a, h, and k in y = a(x - h) ^ 2 + k, using the appropriate terminology to describe the transformations, and identify the vertex and the equation of the axis of symmetry;

10-MPM2D.A.2.3.

Sketch, by hand, the graph of y = a(x - h) ^ 2 + k by applying transformations to the graph of y = x ^ 2

10-MPM2D.A.2.4.

Determine the equation, in the form y = a(x - h) ^ 2 + k, of a given graph of a parabola.

10-MPM2D.A.3.

Solving Quadratic Equations: By the end of this course, students will:

10-MPM2D.A.3.1.

Expand and simplify second-degree polynomial expressions [e.g., (2x + 5) ^ 2, (2x - y)(x + 3y)], using a variety of tools (e.g., algebra tiles, diagrams, computer algebra systems, paper and pencil) and strategies (e.g., patterning);

10-MPM2D.A.3.2.

Factor polynomial expressions involving common factors, trinomials, and differences of squares [e.g., 2x ^ 2 + 4x, 2x - 2y + ax - ay, x ^ 2 - x - 6, 2a ^ 2 + 11a + 5, 4x ^ 2 - 25], using a variety of tools (e.g., concrete materials, computer algebra systems, paper and pencil) and strategies (e.g., patterning);

10-MPM2D.A.3.3.

Determine, through investigation, and describe the connection between the factors of a quadratic expression and the x-intercepts (i.e., the zeros) of the graph of the corresponding quadratic relation, expressed in the form y = a(x - r)(x - s);

10-MPM2D.A.3.4.

Interpret real and non-real roots of quadratic equations, through investigation using graphing technology, and relate the roots to the x-intercepts of the corresponding relations;

10-MPM2D.A.3.5.

Express y = ax ^ 2 + bx + c in the form y = a(x - h) ^ 2 + k by completing the square in situations involving no fractions, using a variety of tools (e.g. concrete materials, diagrams, paper and pencil);

10-MPM2D.A.3.6.

Sketch or graph a quadratic relation whose equation is given in the form y = ax ^ 2 + bx + c, using a variety of methods (e.g., sketching y = x ^ 2 - 2x - 8 using intercepts and symmetry; sketching y = 3x ^ 2 - 12x + 1 by completing the square and applying transformations; graphing h = -4.9t ^ 2 + 50t + 1.5 using technology);

10-MPM2D.A.3.7.

Explore the algebraic development of the quadratic formula (e.g., given the algebraic development, connect the steps to a numerical example; follow a demonstration of the algebraic development [student reproduction of the development of the general case is not required]);

10-MPM2D.A.3.8.

Solve quadratic equations that have real roots, using a variety of methods (i.e., factoring, using the quadratic formula, graphing)

10-MPM2D.A.4.

Solving Problems Involving Quadratic Relations: By the end of this course, students will:

10-MPM2D.A.4.1.

Determine the zeros and the maximum or minimum value of a quadratic relation from its graph (i.e., using graphing calculators or graphing software) or from its defining equation (i.e., by applying algebraic techniques);

10-MPM2D.A.4.2.

Solve problems arising from a realistic situation represented by a graph or an equation of a quadratic relation, with and without the use of technology (e.g., given the graph or the equation of a quadratic relation representing the height of a ball over elapsed time, answer questions such as the following: What is the maximum height of the ball? After what length of time will the ball hit the ground? Over what time interval is the height of the ball greater than 3 m?).

10-MPM2D.B.1.

Using Linear Systems to Solve Problems: By the end of this course, students will:

10-MPM2D.B.1.1.

Solve systems of two linear equations involving two variables, using the algebraic method of substitution or elimination

10-MPM2D.B.1.2.

Solve problems that arise from realistic situations described in words or represented by linear systems of two equations involving two variables, by choosing an appropriate algebraic or graphical method

10-MPM2D.B.2.

Solving Problems Involving Properties of Line Segments: By the end of this course, students will:

10-MPM2D.B.2.1

Develop the formula for the midpoint of a line segment, and use this formula to solve problems (e.g., determine the coordinates of the midpoints of the sides of a triangle, given the coordinates of the vertices, and verify concretely or by using dynamic geometry software);

10-MPM2D.B.2.2

Develop the formula for the length of a line segment, and use this formula to solve problems (e.g., determine the lengths of the line segments joining the midpoints of the sides of a triangle, given the coordinates of the vertices of the triangle, and verify using dynamic geometry software);

10-MPM2D.B.2.3

Develop the equation for a circle with centre (0, 0) and radius r, by applying the formula for the length of a line segment;

10-MPM2D.B.2.4

Determine the radius of a circle with centre (0, 0), given its equation; write the equation of a circle with centre (0, 0), given the radius; and sketch the circle, given the equation in the form x ^ 2 + y ^ 2 = r ^ 2;

10-MPM2D.B.2.5

Solve problems involving the slope, length, and midpoint of a line segment (e.g., determine the equation of the right bisector of a line segment, given the coordinates of the endpoints; determine the distance from a given point to a line whose equation is given, and verify using dynamic geometry software).

10-MPM2D.B.3.

Using Analytic Geometry to Verify Geometric Properties: By the end of this course, students will:

10-MPM2D.B.3.1.

Determine, through investigation (e.g., using dynamic geometry software, by paper folding), some characteristics and properties of geometric figures (e.g., medians in a triangle, similar figures constructed on the sides of a right triangle);

10-MPM2D.B.3.2.

Verify, using algebraic techniques and analytic geometry, some characteristics of geometric figures (e.g., verify that two lines are perpendicular, given the coordinates of two points on each line; verify, by determining side length, that a triangle is equilateral, given the coordinates of the vertices);

10-MPM2D.C.1.

Investigating Similarity and Solving Problems Involving Similar Triangles: By the end of this course, students will:

10-MPM2D.C.1.1.

Verify, through investigation (e.g., using dynamic geometry software, concrete materials), the properties of similar triangles (e.g., given similar triangles, verify the equality of corresponding angles and the proportionality of corresponding sides);

10-MPM2D.C.1.2.

Describe and compare the concepts of similarity and congruence;

10-MPM2D.C.1.3.

Solve problems involving similar triangles in realistic situations (e.g., shadows, reflections, scale models, surveying)

10-MPM2D.C.2.

Solving Problems Involving the Trigonometry of Right Triangles: By the end of this course, students will:

10-MPM2D.C.2.1.

Determine, through investigation (e.g., using dynamic geometry software, concrete materials), the relationship between the ratio of two sides in a right triangle and the ratio of the two corresponding sides in a similar right triangle, and define the sine, cosine, and tangent ratios (e.g., sin A = opposite/ hypotenuse);

10-MPM2D.C.2.2.

Determine the measures of the sides and angles in right triangles, using the primary trigonometric ratios and the Pythagorean theorem;

10-MPM2D.C.2.3.

Solve problems involving the measures of sides and angles in right triangles in real-life applications (e.g., in surveying, in navigating, in determining the height of an inaccessible object around the school), using the primary trigonometric ratios and the Pythagorean theorem.

10-SNC2D.A1.

Scientific Investigation Skills: Throughout this course, students will:

10-SNC2D.A1.1.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Formulate scientific questions about observed relationships, ideas, problems, and/or issues, make predictions, and/or formulate hypotheses to focus inquiries or research

10-SNC2D.A1.10.

Analysing and Interpreting [AI]: Draw conclusions based on inquiry results and research findings, and justify their conclusions

10-SNC2D.A1.11.

Communicating [C]: Communicate ideas, plans, procedures, results, and conclusions orally, in writing, and/or in electronic presentations, using appropriate language and a variety of formats (e.g., data tables, laboratory reports, presentations, debates, simulations, models)

10-SNC2D.A1.12.

Communicating [C]: Use appropriate numeric, symbolic, and graphic modes of representation, and appropriate units of measurement (e.g., SI and imperial units)

10-SNC2D.A1.13.

Communicating [C]: Express the results of any calculations involving data accurately and precisely

10-SNC2D.A1.2.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Select appropriate instruments (e.g., a microscope, laboratory glassware, an optical bench) and materials (e.g., prepared slides, an aquarium, lenses, pH paper) for particular inquiries

10-SNC2D.A1.3.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Identify and locate print, electronic, and human sources that are relevant to research questions

10-SNC2D.A1.4.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Apply knowledge and understanding of safe practices and procedures when planning investigations (e.g., appropriate techniques for handling, storing, and disposing of laboratory materials [following the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System-WHMIS]; safe operation of optical equipment; safe handling and disposal of biological materials), with the aid of appropriate support materials (e.g., the Reference Manual on the WHMIS website; the Live Safe! Work Smart! website)

10-SNC2D.A1.5.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Conduct inquiries, controlling some variables, adapting or extending procedures as required, and using standard equipment and materials safely, accurately, and effectively, to collect observations and data

10-SNC2D.A1.6.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Gather data from laboratory and other sources, and organize and record the data using appropriate formats, including tables, flow charts, graphs, and/or diagrams

10-SNC2D.A1.7.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Select, organize, and record relevant information on research topics from various sources, including electronic, print, and/or human sources (e.g., websites for public health organizations, federal and provincial government publications, reference books, personal interviews), using recommended formats and an accepted form of academic documentation

10-SNC2D.A1.8.

Analysing and Interpreting [AI]: Analyse and interpret qualitative and/or quantitative data to determine whether the evidence supports or refutes the initial prediction or hypothesis, identifying possible sources of error, bias, or uncertainty

10-SNC2D.A1.9.

Analysing and Interpreting [AI]: Analyse the information gathered from research sources for reliability and bias

10-SNC2D.A2.

Career Exploration: Throughout this course, students will:

10-SNC2D.A2.1.

Identify and describe a variety of careers related to the fields of science under study (e.g., meteorologist, medical illustrator, geochemist, optical physicist) and the education and training necessary for these careers

10-SNC2D.A2.2.

Identify scientists, including Canadians (e.g., Sheela Basrur, William Richard Peltier, Alice Wilson, Willard Doyle), who have made a contribution to the fields of science under study

10-SNC2D.B1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

10-SNC2D.B1.1.

Analyse, on the basis of research, ethical issues related to a technological development in the field of systems biology (e.g., cloning, stem-cell research, live organ transplants, transgenic transplants), and communicate their findings [IP, PR, AI, C]

10-SNC2D.B1.2.

Assess the importance to human health and/or society of medical imaging technologies (e.g., ultrasound, X-rays, computerized axial tomography [CT or CAT] scan, magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], microscopy, biophotonics) used in Canada in diagnosing or treating abnormalities in tissues, organs, and/or systems [AI, C]

10-SNC2D.B1.3.

Describe public health strategies related to systems biology (e.g., cancer screening and prevention programs; vaccines against the human papillomavirus [HPV] and measles, mumps, and rubella [MMR]; AIDS education), and assess their impact on society [AI, C]

10-SNC2D.B2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

10-SNC2D.B2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to cells, tissues, organs, and systems of living things, including, but not limited to: absorption, anaphase, capillaries, concentration, differentiation, diffusion, meristematic, mesophyll, phloem, prophase, red blood cells, regeneration, stomate, and xylem [C]

10-SNC2D.B2.2.

Examine cells under a microscope or similar instrument to identify the various stages of mitosis in plants and animals [PR, AI]

10-SNC2D.B2.3.

Examine different plant and animal cells (e.g., cheek cells, onion cells) under a microscope or similar instrument, and draw labelled biological diagrams to show how the cells' organelles differ [PR, C]

10-SNC2D.B2.4.

Investigate, using a microscope or similar instrument, specialized cells in the human body or in plants, focusing on different types of cells (e.g., bone, muscle, leaf, root cells), and draw labelled biological diagrams to show the cells' structural differences [PR, C]

10-SNC2D.B2.5.

Investigate the rate of cell division in cancerous and non-cancerous cells, using pictures, videos, or images, and predict the impact of this rate of cell division on an organism [PR, AI]

10-SNC2D.B2.6.

Investigate, through a laboratory or computer-simulated dissection of a plant, worm, fish, or frog, the interrelationships between organ systems of a plant or an animal (e.g., between the root system and leaf system in a plant; between the digestive system and circulatory system in an animal) [PR, AI]

10-SNC2D.B2.7.

Use a research process to investigate a disease or abnormality related to tissues, organs, or systems of humans or plants (e.g., heart disease, tobacco mosaic virus, wheat rust) [IP, PR, C]

10-SNC2D.B3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

10-SNC2D.B3.1.

Describe the cell cycle in plants and animals, and explain the importance of mitosis for the growth of cells and repair of tissues

10-SNC2D.B3.2.

Explain the importance of cell division and cell specialization in generating new tissues and organs (e.g., the division of stem cells into specialized cells such as muscle cells or nerve cells in humans; the division of meristematic cells to expand and differentiate plant tissue)

10-SNC2D.B3.3.

Explain the links between specialized cells, tissues, organs, and systems in plants and animals (e.g., muscle cells and nerve cells form the tissue found in the heart, which is a component of the circulatory system; granum and thylakoid structures act as solar collectors in the chloroplast to produce carbohydrates for plant growth)

10-SNC2D.B3.4.

Explain the primary functions of a variety of systems in animals (e.g., the circulatory system transports materials through the organism; the respiratory system supplies oxygen to and removes carbon dioxide from the body)

10-SNC2D.B3.5.

Explain the interaction of different systems within an organism (e.g., the respiratory system brings oxygen into the body, and the circulatory system transports the oxygen to cells) and why such interactions are necessary for the organism's survival

10-SNC2D.C1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

10-SNC2D.C1.1.

Analyse, on the basis of research, various safety and environmental issues associated with chemical reactions and their reactants and/or product(s) (e.g., chemical reactions related to the use of cyanide in gold mining, the corrosion of metal supports on bridges, the use of different antibacterial agents such as chlorine and bromine in recreational pools) [IP, PR, AI, C]

10-SNC2D.C1.2.

Analyse how an understanding of the properties of chemical substances and their reactions can be applied to solve environmental challenges (e.g., renewing the Great Lakes, neutralizing acid spills, scrubbing smokestack emissions) [AI, C]

10-SNC2D.C2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

10-SNC2D.C2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to chemical reactions, including, but not limited to: compounds, product, and reactant [C]

10-SNC2D.C2.2.

Construct molecular models to illustrate the structure of molecules in simple chemical reactions (e.g., C + O2 yields CO2; 2H2 + O2 yields 2H2O), and produce diagrams of these models [PR, C]

10-SNC2D.C2.3.

Investigate simple chemical reactions, including synthesis, decomposition, and displacement reactions, and represent them using a variety of formats (e.g., molecular models, word equations, balanced chemical equations) [PR, AI, C]

10-SNC2D.C2.4.

Use an inquiry process to investigate the law of conservation of mass in a chemical reaction (e.g., compare the values before and after the reaction), and account for any discrepancies [PR, AI]

10-SNC2D.C2.5.

Plan and conduct an inquiry to identify the evidence of chemical change (e.g., the formation of a gas or precipitate, a change in colour or odour, a change in temperature) [IP, PR, AI]

10-SNC2D.C2.6.

Plan and conduct an inquiry to classify some common substances as acidic, basic, or neutral (e.g., use acid-base indicators or pH test strips to classify common household substances) [IP, PR, AI]

10-SNC2D.C3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

10-SNC2D.C3.1.

Describe the relationships between chemical formulae, composition, and names of binary compounds (e.g., carbon dioxide, CO2, has two oxygen atoms and one carbon atom)

10-SNC2D.C3.2.

Explain, using the law of conservation of mass and atomic theory, the rationale for balancing chemical equations

10-SNC2D.C3.3.

Describe the types of evidence that indicate chemical change (e.g., changes in colour, the production of a gas, the formation of a precipitate, the production or absorption of heat, the production of light)

10-SNC2D.C3.4.

Write word equations and balanced chemical equations for simple chemical reactions (e.g., 2H2 + O2 yields 2H2O)

10-SNC2D.C3.5.

Describe, on the basis of observation, the reactants in and products of a variety of chemical reactions, including synthesis, decomposition, and displacement reactions (e.g., reactions occurring when magnesium burns or in the production of oxygen from hydrogen peroxide; the reaction of iron and copper sulphate; reactions occurring when fossil fuels burn)

10-SNC2D.C3.6.

Describe the process of acid-base neutralization (i.e., an acid reacts with a base to form a salt and often water)

10-SNC2D.C3.7.

Describe how the pH scale is used to classify solutions as acidic, basic, or neutral (e.g., a solution with a pH of 1 is highly acidic; a solution with a pH of 7 is neutral)

10-SNC2D.C3.8.

Identify simple ionic compounds (e.g., NaCl), simple compounds involving polyatomic ions (e.g., KNO3, NaOH), molecular compounds (e.g., CO2, H2O, NH3), and acids (e.g., HCl(aq), H2SO4(aq)), using the periodic table and a list of the most common polyatomic ions (e.g., OH(-1), SO4(-2)), and write the formulae

10-SNC2D.D1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

10-SNC2D.D1.1.

Analyse current and/or potential effects, both positive and negative, of climate change on human activity and natural systems (e.g., loss of habitat for Arctic mammals such as polar bears and loss of traditional lifestyles for Inuit as Arctic ice shrinks; famine as arable land is lost to desertification; an increase in water-borne disease and human resettlement as coastal lands are flooded; expansion of the growing season in some regions) [AI, C]

10-SNC2D.D1.2.

Assess, on the basis of research, the effectiveness of some current individual, regional, national, or international initiatives that address the issue of climate change (e.g., Drive Clean, ENERGY STAR, federal and provincial government rebates for retrofitting older buildings to be more energy efficient, carbon offset programs, community tree-planting programs, municipal recycling programs, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC]), and propose a further course of action related to one of these initiatives [PR, AI, C]

10-SNC2D.D2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

10-SNC2D.D2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to climate change, including, but not limited to: albedo, anthropogenic, atmosphere, cycles, heat sinks, and hydrosphere [C]

10-SNC2D.D2.2.

Design and build a model to illustrate the natural greenhouse effect, and use the model to explain the anthropogenic greenhouse effect [IP, PR, C]

10-SNC2D.D2.3.

Analyse different sources of scientific data (e.g., lake cores, tree rings, fossils and preserved organisms, ice cores) for evidence of natural climate change and climate change influenced by human activity [PR, AI, C]

10-SNC2D.D2.4.

Investigate a popular hypothesis on a cause-and- effect relationship having to do with climate change (e.g., the combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for rising global temperatures; the concentration of atmospheric CO2 is responsible for rising global temperatures; global temperatures have been on the increase since the industrial revolution; the severity of cyclones, hurricanes, and tornadoes increases as atmospheric temperatures increase), using simulations and/or time-trend data that model climate profiles (e.g., data from Statistics Canada and Environment Canada) [PR, AI, C]

10-SNC2D.D2.5.

Investigate, through laboratory inquiry or simulations, the effects of heat transfer within the hydrosphere and atmosphere [PR, AI]

10-SNC2D.D2.6.

Investigate, through laboratory inquiry or simulations, how water in its various states influences climate patterns (e.g., water bodies moderate climate, water vapour is a greenhouse gas, ice increases the albedo of Earth's surface) [PR, AI]

10-SNC2D.D2.7.

Investigate, through research or simulations, the influence of ocean currents on local and global heat transfer and precipitation patterns [PR, AI]

10-SNC2D.D2.8.

Classify the climate of their local region using various tools or systems (e.g., Ecoregions of Canada, bioclimate profiles), and compare their region to other regions in Ontario, Canada, and the world [AI, C]

10-SNC2D.D2.9.

Compare different perspectives and/or biases evident in discussions of climate change in scientific and non-scientific media (e.g., with reference to knowledge, beliefs, and values) [AI, C]

10-SNC2D.D3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

10-SNC2D.D3.1.

Describe the principal components of Earth's climate system (e.g., the sun, oceans, and atmosphere; the topography and configuration of land masses) and how the system works

10-SNC2D.D3.2.

Describe and explain heat transfer in the hydrosphere and atmosphere and its effects on air and water currents

10-SNC2D.D3.3.

Describe the natural greenhouse effect, explain its importance for life, and distinguish it from the anthropogenic greenhouse effect

10-SNC2D.D3.4.

Identify natural phenomena (e.g., plate tectonics, uplift and weathering, solar radiance, cosmic ray cycles) and human activities (e.g., forest fires, deforestation, the burning of fossil fuels, industrial emissions) known to affect climate, and describe the role of both in Canada's contribution to climate change

10-SNC2D.D3.5.

Describe the principal sources and sinks, both natural and/or anthropogenic, of greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, water vapour)

10-SNC2D.D3.6.

Describe how different carbon and nitrogen compounds (e.g., carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide) influence the trapping of heat in the atmosphere and hydrosphere

10-SNC2D.D3.7.

Describe, in general terms, the causes and effects of the anthropogenic greenhouse effect, the depletion of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone, and the formation of ground-level ozone and smog

10-SNC2D.D3.8.

Identify and describe indicators of global climate change (e.g., changes in: glacial and polar ice, sea levels, wind patterns, global carbon budget assessments)

10-SNC2D.E1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

10-SNC2D.E1.1.

Analyse a technological device or procedure related to human perception of light (e.g., eyeglasses, contact lenses, infrared or low light vision sensors, laser surgery), and evaluate its effectiveness [AI, C]

10-SNC2D.E1.2.

Analyse a technological device that uses the properties of light (e.g., microscope, retro-reflector, solar oven, camera), and explain how it has enhanced society [AI, C]

10-SNC2D.E2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

10-SNC2D.E2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to light and optics, including, but not limited to: angle of incidence, angle of reflection, angle of refraction, focal point, luminescence, magnification, mirage, and virtual image [C]

10-SNC2D.E2.2.

Use an inquiry process to investigate the laws of reflection, using plane and curved mirrors, and draw ray diagrams to summarize their findings [PR, C]

10-SNC2D.E2.3.

Predict the qualitative characteristics of images formed by plane and curved mirrors (e.g., location, relative distance, orientation, and size in plane mirrors; location, orientation, size, type in curved mirrors), test their predictions through inquiry, and summarize their findings [PR, AI, C]

10-SNC2D.E2.4.

Use an inquiry process to investigate the refraction of light as it passes through media of different refractive indices, compile data on their findings, and analyse the data to determine if there is a trend (e.g., the amount by which the angle of refraction changes as the angle of incidence increases varies for media of different refractive indices) [PR, AI, C]

10-SNC2D.E2.5.

Predict, using ray diagrams and algebraic equations, the position and characteristics of an image produced by a converging lens, and test their predictions through inquiry [PR, AI, C]

10-SNC2D.E2.6.

Calculate, using the indices of refraction, the velocity of light as it passes through a variety of media, and explain the angles of refraction with reference to the variations in velocity [PR, C]

10-SNC2D.E3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

10-SNC2D.E3.1.

Describe and explain various types of light emissions (e.g., chemiluminescence, bioluminescence, incandescence, fluorescence, phosphorescence, triboluminescence; from an electric discharge or light-emitting diode [LED])

10-SNC2D.E3.2.

Identify and label the visible and invisible regions of the electromagnetic spectrum

10-SNC2D.E3.3.

Describe, on the basis of observation, the characteristics and positions of images formed by plane and curved mirrors (e.g., location, orientation, size, type), with the aid of ray diagrams and algebraic equations, where appropriate

10-SNC2D.E3.4.

Explain the conditions required for partial reflection/refraction and for total internal reflection in lenses, and describe the reflection/ refraction using labelled ray diagrams

10-SNC2D.E3.5.

Describe the characteristics and positions of images formed by converging lenses (e.g., orientation, size, type), with the aid of ray diagrams

10-SNC2D.E3.6.

Identify ways in which the properties of mirrors and lenses (both converging and diverging) determine their use in optical instruments (e.g., cameras, telescopes, binoculars, microscopes)

10-SNC2D.E3.7.

Identify the factors, in qualitative and quantitative terms, that affect the refraction of light as it passes from one medium to another

10-SNC2D.E3.8.

Describe properties of light, and use them to explain naturally occurring optical phenomena (e.g., apparent depth, shimmering, a mirage, a rainbow)

10-SNC2P.A1.

Scientific Investigation Skills: Throughout this course, students will:

10-SNC2P.A1.1.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Formulate scientific questions about observed relationships, ideas, problems, and/or issues, make predictions, and/or formulate hypotheses to focus inquiries or research

10-SNC2P.A1.10.

Analysing and Interpreting [AI]: Draw conclusions based on inquiry results and research findings, and justify their conclusions

10-SNC2P.A1.11.

Communicating [C]: Communicate ideas, plans, procedures, results, and conclusions orally, in writing, and/or in electronic presentations, using appropriate language and a variety of formats (e.g., data tables, laboratory reports, presentations, debates, simulations, models)

10-SNC2P.A1.12.

Communicating [C]: Use appropriate numeric, symbolic, and graphic modes of representation, and appropriate units of measurement (e.g., SI and imperial units)

10-SNC2P.A1.13.

Communicating [C]: Express the results of any calculations involving data accurately and precisely

10-SNC2P.A1.2.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Select appropriate instruments (e.g., a microscope, laboratory glassware, an optical bench) and materials (e.g., prepared slides, an aquarium, lenses, acid-base indicators) for particular inquiries

10-SNC2P.A1.3.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Identify and locate print, electronic, and human sources that are relevant to research questions

10-SNC2P.A1.4.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Apply knowledge and understanding of safe practices and procedures when planning investigations (e.g., appropriate techniques for handling, storing, and disposing of laboratory materials [following the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System-WHMIS]; safe operation of optical equipment; safe handling and disposal of biological materials), with the aid of appropriate support materials (e.g., the Reference Manual on the WHMIS website; the Live Safe! Work Smart! website)

10-SNC2P.A1.5.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Conduct inquiries, controlling some variables, adapting or extending procedures as required, and using standard equipment and materials safely, accurately, and effectively, to collect observations and data

10-SNC2P.A1.6.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Gather data from laboratory and other sources, and organize and record the data using appropriate formats, including tables, flow charts, graphs, and/or diagrams

10-SNC2P.A1.7.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Select, organize, and record relevant information on research topics from various sources, including electronic, print, and/or human sources (e.g., a website for a public health organization, federal and provincial government publications, reference books, personal interviews), using recommended formats and an accepted form of academic documentation

10-SNC2P.A1.8.

Analysing and Interpreting [AI]: Analyse and interpret qualitative and/or quantitative data to determine whether the evidence supports or refutes the initial prediction or hypothesis, identifying possible sources of error, bias, or uncertainty

10-SNC2P.A1.9.

Analysing and Interpreting [AI]: Analyse the information gathered from research sources for reliability and bias

10-SNC2P.A2.

Identify and describe a variety of careers related to the fields of science under study, and identify scientists, including Canadians, who have made contributions to those fields.

10-SNC2P.A2.1.

Identify and describe a variety of careers related to the fields of science under study (e.g., veterinarian assistant, quality control technician, conservation officer, sound and light technician) and the education and training necessary for these careers

10-SNC2P.A2.2.

Identify scientists, including Canadians (e.g., Maude Abbott, Paul Kebarle, Reginald Fessenden, James Hillier), who have made a contribution to the fields of science under study

10-SNC2P.B1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

10-SNC2P.B1.1.

Analyse, on the basis of research, medical imaging technologies (e.g., ultrasound, X-rays, computerized axial tomography [CT or CAT] scan, magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], microscopy, biophotonics) used in Canada to explore, diagnose, or treat the human body, and communicate their findings [PR, AI, C]

10-SNC2P.B1.2.

Evaluate the effects that use of or exposure to a technology, substance, or environmental factor (e.g., cell phones, X-rays, UV radiation, personal audio players, cigarette smoke, pesticides, food additives/preservatives, vitamins, gene therapy) may have on the function of human tissues, organs, or systems [AI, C]

10-SNC2P.B2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

10-SNC2P.B2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to human cells, tissues, organs, and systems, including, but not limited to: absorption, anaphase, capillaries, concentration, differentiation, diffusion, interphase, metaphase, osmosis, prophase, red blood cells, regeneration, and telophase [C]

10-SNC2P.B2.2.

Examine cells under a microscope or similar instrument to identify the various stages of mitosis in animals [PR, AI]

10-SNC2P.B2.3.

Investigate, using a microscope or similar instrument, cell specialization in the human body, focusing on different types of human cells (e.g., muscle cells, epithelial cells, nerve cells), and draw labelled biological diagrams of each type of cell [PR, C]

10-SNC2P.B2.4.

Compare, on the basis of observation (e.g., using pictures, videos, or images), the division of cancerous cells and non-cancerous cells, and describe the impact of cancerous cells on the human body [PR, AI]

10-SNC2P.B2.5.

Locate, through a laboratory or computer-simulated dissection, the organs of a specific system of an animal (e.g., a worm, a frog, a fish), and describe their interrelationship [PR, AI, C]

10-SNC2P.B2.6.

Use scientific investigation skills to research health problems related to tissues, organs, or systems in humans (e.g., asthma, sickle-cell anemia, heart disease, Crohn's disease), and communicate their findings [IP, PR, C]

10-SNC2P.B3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

10-SNC2P.B3.1.

Describe the cell cycle in animals, and explain its importance for the growth of cells and repair of tissues

10-SNC2P.B3.2.

Describe the structure, function, and importance of specialized cells and tissues in multi-cellular organisms (e.g., neurons have many branching dendrites and long axons to receive and transmit messages; muscle cells have a higher concentration of mitochondria, which produce energy)

10-SNC2P.B3.3.

Explain cell organization by describing the link between cells, tissues, organs, and systems in the human body

10-SNC2P.B3.4.

Explain the general function of some of the systems in the human body (e.g., the function of the circulatory system is to transport materials through the body; the function of the digestive system is to absorb nutrients; the function of the respiratory system is to bring oxygen into and remove carbon dioxide from the body)

10-SNC2P.B3.5.

Describe the interaction of systems in the human body (e.g., the respiratory system brings oxygen into the body, and the circulatory system transports the oxygen to cells), and explain why these interactions are necessary for survival

10-SNC2P.C1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

10-SNC2P.C1.1.

Analyse, on the basis of research, the function of chemical reactions in the production of selected products and/or in processes commonly encountered at home or in the workplace (e.g., carbonation of soft drinks; rust proofing), and communicate their findings [IP, PR, AI, C]

10-SNC2P.C1.2.

Identify practical applications of chemical reactions in a particular profession (e.g., ceramics, cosmetology, firefighting, heating and cooling system technology, food preparation, plumbing, custodial services), and assess the associated hazards, including hazards associated with the handling and disposal of chemicals [PR, AI, C]

10-SNC2P.C2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

10-SNC2P.C2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to chemical reactions, including, but not limited to: antacid, dilute, neutralization, product, reactant, and word equation [C]

10-SNC2P.C2.2.

Construct molecular models of simple chemical reactions (e.g., C + O2 yields CO2; 2H2 + O2 yields 2H2O), and produce diagrams of these models [PR, C]

10-SNC2P.C2.3.

Conduct and observe inquiries related to simple chemical reactions, including synthesis, decomposition, and displacement reactions, and represent them using a variety of formats (e.g., word equations, balanced chemical equations, molecular models) [PR, AI, C]

10-SNC2P.C2.4.

Use an inquiry process to investigate the law of conservation of mass in a chemical reaction (e.g., compare the values before and after the reaction), and account for any discrepancies [PR, AI]

10-SNC2P.C2.5.

Use an inquiry process to investigate acid- base neutralization reactions (e.g., neutralize a dilute solution of sodium hydroxide with dilute hydrochloric acid and extract the sodium chloride produced) [PR, AI]

10-SNC2P.C2.6.

Conduct an inquiry to classify some common substances as acidic, basic, or neutral (e.g., use acid-base indicators or pH strips to classify common household substances) [PR, AI]

10-SNC2P.C2.7.

Investigate applications of acid-base reactions in common products and processes (e.g., compare the effectiveness of different brands of antacid tablets, using quantitative analysis) [PR, AI]

10-SNC2P.C3.

Demonstrate an understanding of simple chemical reactions and the language and ways to represent them.

10-SNC2P.C3.1.

Describe the relationships between chemical formulae, composition, and names of simple compounds (e.g., carbon dioxide, CO2, has one more oxygen atom than carbon monoxide, CO)

10-SNC2P.C3.2.

Name and write the formulae for simple ionic and molecular compounds (e.g., NaCl, NaOH, H2O, CO2)

10-SNC2P.C3.3.

Write word equations and balanced chemical equations for simple chemical reactions (e.g., 2H2 + O2 yields 2H2O)

10-SNC2P.C3.4.

Describe the process of neutralization for simple acid-base reactions (i.e., an acid reacts with a base to form a salt and often water)

10-SNC2P.C3.5.

Describe how the pH scale is used to identify the concentration of acids and bases

10-SNC2P.D1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

10-SNC2P.D1.1.

Analyse, on the basis of research, various ways in which living things and natural systems have been affected by climate change (e.g., the effect of loss of permafrost on northern roads and housing; the effect of longer growing seasons in some regions on farmers; the effect of warming oceans on coral reefs), and communicate their findings [IP, PR, AI, C]

10-SNC2P.D1.2.

Analyse ways in which human actions (e.g., burning fossil fuels, implementing tree-planting programs) have increased or decreased the production of greenhouse gases [AI, C]

10-SNC2P.D2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

10-SNC2P.D2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to Earth's dynamic climate, including, but not limited to: anthropogenic, atmosphere, carbon footprint, carbon sink, climate, greenhouse gases, hydrosphere, and weather [C]

10-SNC2P.D2.2.

Investigate the principles of the natural greenhouse effect, using simulations, diagrams, and/or models, and compare these principles to those of an actual greenhouse [PR, AI]

10-SNC2P.D2.3.

Use a research process to investigate a source of greenhouse gases (e.g., decaying garbage, animal digestive processes, burning biomass) Grade 10 and its effect on a region of Canada (e.g., melting of the polar ice cap in the Arctic, shrinking of glaciers in the Rockies) [IP, PR, AI]

10-SNC2P.D2.4.

Conduct an inquiry to determine how different factors (e.g., an increase in surface temperature, an increase in water temperature) affect global warming and climate change [PR]

10-SNC2P.D2.5.

Investigate their personal carbon footprint, using a computer simulation or numerical data (e.g., determine carbon emissions that result from their travelling to school, work, and recreation venues; from vacation travelling; from buying products imported from distant countries), and plan a course of action to reduce their footprint (e.g., a plan to increase their use of bicycles or public transit; to eat more local foods) [PR, AI, C]

10-SNC2P.D2.6.

Compare different tools or systems used by scientists to make informed decisions on global climate change (e.g., Ecoregions of Canada, bioclimate profiles) [PR, AI]

10-SNC2P.D2.7.

Compare different perspectives and/or biases evident in discussions of climate change in scientific and non-scientific media (e.g., with reference to knowledge, beliefs, and/or values) [PR, AI]

10-SNC2P.D3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

10-SNC2P.D3.1.

Describe the principal components of Earth's climate system (e.g., the sun, oceans, and the atmosphere; the topography and configuration of land masses)

10-SNC2P.D3.2.

Describe the natural greenhouse effect, its importance for life, and the difference between it and the anthropogenic greenhouse effect

10-SNC2P.D3.3.

Describe how heat is transferred and stored in both hydrospheric and atmospheric heat sinks

10-SNC2P.D3.4.

Identify different greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide, methane, water vapour, nitrous oxide), and explain how they are produced naturally in the environment

10-SNC2P.D3.5.

Describe methods by which greenhouse gases are produced by humans (e.g., burning of biomass, chemical reactions involving pollutants)

10-SNC2P.D3.6.

Identify the natural and human causes of climate change in the world and, in particular, how Canada contributes to climate change

10-SNC2P.D3.7.

Identify indicators of global climate change (e.g., changes in: the mass of glacial and polar ice, sea levels, wind patterns, global carbon budget assessments, migratory patterns of birds)

10-SNC2P.E1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

10-SNC2P.E1.1.

Analyse how additive and/or subtractive colour theory are applied in technologies used in everyday life (e.g., stop lights, high-definition television, colour monitors, coloured spotlights) [AI, C]

10-SNC2P.E1.2.

Describe the role of selected optical technologies in the transmission of information, and analyse their impact on society (e.g., cell phones, optical fibre cables, satellite dishes) [AI, C]

10-SNC2P.E2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

10-SNC2P.E2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to light and optics, including, but not limited to: angle of incidence, angle of reflection, angle of refraction, centre of curvature, focal length, luminescence, magnification, principal axis, radius of curvature, and vertex [C]

10-SNC2P.E2.2.

Use an inquiry process to investigate the laws of reflection; use these laws to explain the characteristics of images formed by plane, converging (concave), and diverging (convex) mirrors; and draw ray diagrams to illustrate their observations [PR, AI, C]

10-SNC2P.E2.3.

Use an inquiry process to investigate the refraction of light as it passes through a variety of media (e.g., the angles of incidence and refraction as light passes through a clear acrylic block) [PR]

10-SNC2P.E2.4.

Predict the qualitative characteristics of images (e.g., location, orientation, size, type) formed by converging lenses, test their predictions through inquiry, and draw ray diagrams to record their observations [IP, PR, AI, C]

10-SNC2P.E2.5.

Investigate how various objects or media (e.g., opaque, translucent, and transparent materials; black-and-white surfaces) reflect, transmit, or absorb light, and record their observations using ray diagrams [PR, C]

10-SNC2P.E2.6.

Predict the effect of shining a coloured light on objects of different colours, and test their predictions through inquiry [IP, PR, AI, C]

10-SNC2P.E2.7.

Construct an optical device (e.g., a funhouse mirror, a device that produces an optical illusion, a solar oven) that uses a variety of mirrors [PR]

10-SNC2P.E3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

10-SNC2P.E3.1.

Describe various types of light emissions (e.g., chemiluminescence, bioluminescence, incandescence, electric discharge) and how they produce light

10-SNC2P.E3.2.

Identify and label the visible and invisible regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and identify the colours that make up visible white light

10-SNC2P.E3.3.

Explain the laws of reflection of light, and identify ways in which light reflects from various types of mirrors (e.g., plane, converging, diverging)

10-SNC2P.E3.4.

Describe qualitatively how visible light is refracted at the interface between two different media

10-SNC2P.E3.5.

Use additive colour theory to predict the results of combining primary and secondary light colours

10-SNC2P.E3.6.

Use subtractive colour theory to describe the effect of colour filters on white light

10-SNC2P.E3.7.

Explain how the colour of an object is determined by reflection, absorption, and transmission of colour

10-SNC2P.E3.8.

Explain how the properties of light or colour are applied in the operation of an optical device (e.g., a reflecting telescope, stop lights, stage lights)

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-A1.1

formulate different types of questions to guide investigations into issues, events, and/or developments of civic importance (e.g., factual questions: What form of government does Canada have? What are my rights and responsibilities as a citizen in my local community?; comparative questions: What are the similarities and differences in the positions of stakeholder groups on an issue related to local transit in Ontario?; causal questions: If I were to implement this plan of action, what impact might it have on my community?)

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-A1.2

select and organize relevant evidence, data, and information on issues, events, and/or developments of civic importance from a variety of primary and secondary sources (e.g., primary sources: interviews, photographs, podcasts, speeches, statistics, surveys; secondary sources: investigative news stories, textbooks, most websites), ensuring that their sources reflect multiple perspectives Sample questions: If you were advocating for recreational space for youth in your community, why would it be important to gather statistics on the number of people in the local community and their ages? Are there people you might interview about the need for such a space? Why might political cartoons be a good source on the ideas of a political leader and the public response to those ideas?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-A1.3

assess the credibility of sources relevant to their investigations (e.g., the reliability of the evidence presented in a source; the purpose, intended audience, and context of a source; the bias, values, and expertise of the speaker/author) Sample questions: Does this author back up his or her position with specific evidence or data, or are the claims unsupported? What criteria might you use to help you determine if a source is credible? Are there reasons to think that this source might be biased in some way? What ideas are presented in this interview or news story? Do your other sources on this issue support these ideas? If not, which source do you think is the most reliable? Why?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-A1.4

interpret and analyse evidence, data, and information relevant to their investigations using various tools, strategies, and approaches appropriate for political inquiry (e.g., use a 5Ws chart to help them begin to analyse the information they have gathered; analyse their evidence for the points of view of different stakeholders and record them on a web chart; assess the validity and rank the importance of the points made in their sources; collaborate with their peers to discuss, clarify, and compare positions on the issue) Sample questions: What type of tool might help you clarify the different positions on an issue? If you were talking to people who were extremely passionate about an issue, what questions might you ask to get them to clarify and build on their ideas about the issue? What approaches might one take to include ideas on an issue from people whose voices are not always heard?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-A1.5

use the concepts of political thinking (i.e., political significance, objectives and results, stability and change, political perspective) when analysing and evaluating evidence, data, and information and formulating conclusions and/or judgments about issues, events, and/or developments of civic importance (e.g., use the concept of political significance when analysing the impact of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms on Canadian society; use the concept of objectives and results when analysing the intended and unintended impact of a community-planning decision; use the concept of stability and change when analysing the results of an election; use the concept of political perspective when evaluating the positions of different stakeholder groups on how best to foster healthy schools and determining the values and beliefs that underpin these positions) Sample questions: What does the term digital footprint mean? Why is your digital footprint significant? Do you think that the information you share on social media with your peers would be interpreted differently by a potential employer? Do you think the employer has a right to access or restrict such information? What are the objectives of the plan of action you are proposing to address an issue in your school or local community? What did your investigation reveal about unintended results of other courses of action that were implemented to address this issue? What criteria can be used to assess the changes that have resulted from this decision taken by a local council? How might you determine whether your student council represents the perspectives of all students in the school?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-A1.6

evaluate and synthesize their findings to formulate conclusions and/or make informed judgements or predictions about the issues, events, and/or developments they are investigating Sample questions: When you assess the information you have gathered, what factor or factors stand out as being particularly important? What influence do these factors have on your judgements with respect to this issue? What have you learned from your investigation of this event? Has your view of it changed over the course of your investigation? If so, why?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-A1.7

communicate their ideas, arguments, and conclusions using various formats and styles, as appropriate for the intended audiences and purpose (e.g., a blog on the results of environmental action in their school; a web page on a social justice issue such as child poverty and links to relevant organizations; a discussion group on how best to foster healthy schools; a poster that highlights peoples civic responsibilities; a news report on a plan to build a big box store in the local community; a presentation on cultural celebrations of various people within the local community; a protest song to commemorate or raise awareness about a violation of human rights; a petition calling for clean, safe water on First Nations reserves; a debate on alternative electoral processes; a work of art on the value of volunteer work)

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-A1.8

use accepted forms of documentation (e.g., footnotes or endnotes, author/date citations, bibliographies, reference lists) to acknowledge different types of sources (e.g., articles, blogs, books, films or videos, songs, websites)

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-A1.9

use appropriate terminology when communicating the results of their investigations (e.g., vocabulary specific to their topics; terms related to civics/citizenship education and to the concepts of political thinking)

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-A2.1

describe some ways in which political inquiry can help them develop skills, including the essential skills in the Ontario Skills Passport (e.g., skills related to reading texts, writing, computer use, oral communication, numeracy, decision making, problem solving) and those related to the citizenship education framework,* that can be transferred to the world of work and/or to everyday life

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-A2.2

demonstrate in everyday contexts attributes, skills, and work habits developed in civics and citizenship education (e.g., listen respectfully to the position of others during conversations; collaborate with peers to organize an event in their school; assess the credibility of information in a news story; voice informed opinions when engaging in discussions) Sample question: What are some ways in which you might demonstrate attributes that are included in the citizenship education framework?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-A2.3

apply the concepts of political thinking when analysing current events and issues involving Canada and the world (e.g., to understand the significance of an issue currently before a human rights commission; to analyse the motives and objectives of a group proposing a course of action in response to a current social, political, or environmental issue; to predict changes that a new government might make; to understand the perspectives of people engaged in a protest currently in the news) Sample questions: Why might it be useful to apply the concept of stability and change when considering what impact the election of a new president of the United States might have on Canada? When analysing the importance of the Olympic Games, why should you consider their political significance? Why might it be useful to apply the concept of political perspective when analysing the purpose of and responses to a political summit such as the G20?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-A2.4

identify some careers in which civics and citizenship education might be useful (e.g., Aboriginal community development worker, civil servant, engineer, fundraiser for a charitable organization, international aid worker, lawyer, municipal councillor, news reporter, researcher for a non-governmental organization [NGO])

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-B1.1

describe some civic issues of local, national, and/or global significance (e.g., bullying in schools; violence in local communities; accessibility of buildings in the local community for people with disabilities; availability of recreational facilities in the local community; casino development; voter turnout; issues related to freedom of information, taxation, water quality; Aboriginal treaty rights; the impact of consumer choices; human rights issues related to racism, child labour, the rights of girls or women, homophobia, or classism; intervention in foreign conflict), and compare the perspectives of different groups on selected issues Sample questions: What are some privacy or safety issues related to the use of social media? Do they have an impact on the way you or your friends use social media? What positions are being voiced in your community with respect to a local transit issue? What are some different views on the privatization of aspects of the health care system in Canada? What are some considerations that affect peoples consumer choices? Why might people who favour free trade and those who favour fair trade differ in the criteria they use when making these choices?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-B1.2

describe fundamental beliefs and values associated with democratic citizenship in Canada (e.g., rule of law; freedom of expression; freedom of religion; equity; respect for human dignity, the rights of others, and the common good; social responsibility), and explain ways in which they are reflected in citizen actions (e.g., voting, various protest movements and/or demonstrations, various ethnic or religious celebrations or observances, organ donation, environmental stewardship, volunteer work) Sample questions: In what ways does volunteering reflect beliefs associated with citizenship in Canada? What is the difference between equity and equality? Why is equity important? What beliefs/values underpin movements initiated by Aboriginal people, such as Idle No More? What is the significance of the actions taken by the people in this movement? Why do some people not vote? What is the significance of their lack of participation for Canadian citizenship? In what ways has Canadas history as a British colony influenced the beliefs/values associated with Canadian citizenship?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-B1.3

explain why it is important for people to engage in civic action, and identify various reasons why individuals and groups engage in such action (e.g., to protect their rights or the rights of others, to advocate for change, to protect existing programs, to protect the environment, to achieve greater power or autonomy, out of a sense of social justice or social responsibility, for ethical reasons, to protect their own interests) Sample questions: What do you think is the most important reason for engaging in civic action? Why? What role would civic action have in your ideal community? What would communities be like if people did not engage in such action?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-B1.4

communicate their own position on some issues of civic importance at the local, national, and/or global level (e.g., equitable availability of extracurricular activities in schools, a local land-use conflict, poverty or violence in the local community, electoral reform, the debate over Sharia law in Ontario, the level of Canadas contribution to international development assistance, food security, Aboriginal land rights), explaining how their position is influenced by their beliefs/values

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-B2.1

identify the political parties in Canada and their position on the political spectrum, and explain how the beliefs/values that underpin them may affect their perspectives on and/or approaches to issues of civic importance (e.g., social programs, taxation, trade, Aboriginal self-government, the status of Quebec, economic development, environmental protection, criminal justice) Sample questions: What are the positions of different political parties on the issue of climate change? How might you account for the differences? Why was the Conservative Party of Canada created? In what ways is it similar to or different from the former Progressive Conservative Party? Where would you place the Green Party on the political spectrum? Why? What are the positions of different political parties on inherent Aboriginal rights? What do these differences tell you about differences in beliefs/values in these parties?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-B2.2

explain, with reference to issues of civic importance, the roles and responsibilities of different levels of government in Canada (e.g., federal, provincial and territorial, municipal, Aboriginal governments) and of key figures at each level (e.g., members of Parliament [MPs], senators, members of provincial Parliament [MPPs], premiers, mayors, municipal councillors, chiefs, band councillors, Mtis Senators) Sample questions: If you were concerned about a social issue in publicly funded schools, would it be more appropriate to contact your MP, your MPP, or your city or band councillor? Why? Given his or her responsibilities, what issues would you like to discuss with your municipal or band councillor? Why might different levels of government have different perspectives on the same issue? In what ways might these diverse perspectives complicate the policy-making process? In what ways might they enhance it? What are the main issues in current debates over Senate reform?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-B2.3

describe, with reference to both the federal and provincial governments, the functions of the three branches of government in Canada (i.e., executive, legislative, judicial) and the roles/responsibilities of key positions within governments (e.g., the governor general, a lieutenant governor, the prime minister, a premier, cabinet ministers, a leader of the opposition, a speaker, the chief justice of the Supreme Court of Canada), and explain how the branches help ensure political and social stability in Canada Sample questions: Who delivers the speech from the throne in federal and/or provincial parliaments? Why? What issues were highlighted in the latest throne speech in Ontario? What responsibilities do cabinet ministers have? Why is it important that the judicial branch operate independently of the other two branches? What roles do the three branches play in the law-making process in Canada? What are some ways in which you could participate in that process? Based on your inquiry, what similarities and differences do you see in the branches of government in Canada and Britain?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-B2.4

explain, with reference to issues of civic importance, how various groups and institutions (e.g., lobby groups, unions, the media, NGOs, international organizations) can influence government policy Sample questions: What is a current issue on which groups are lobbying the government? Whose interests do these groups represent? How important a role do you think the media play in swaying public opinion on social/political issues? Whose opinions do you think the media reflect? Why has Amnesty International been investigating missing and murdered women in Canada? Who are these women? What does this NGO hope to accomplish by drawing attention to their disappearance?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-B2.5

identify Canadas form of government and demonstrate an understanding of the process of electing governments in Canada (e.g., the firstpast-the-post electoral system, riding distribution, voters lists, how elections are called, campaigning, candidates and party leaders debates, advance polls, election day procedures) Sample questions: What is the significance of the queen in Canadas constitutional monarchy? What is the process by which someone becomes premier or prime minister? Why does the popular vote not always give a clear indication of the number of seats won by the parties? What role does Elections Canada play in the election process? What impact can technology have on electoral processes? How and why might a majority government govern differently than a minority government? Given its geographic size and population, do you think your regions ridings are fairly distributed? Do you think that polls published in the media can have an impact on election results? Why or why not?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-B3.1

demonstrate an understanding that Canadas constitution includes different elements, and analyse key rights of citizenship in the constitution, with particular reference to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (e.g., voting rights, mobility rights, language rights, equality rights, right to privacy, rights of Aboriginal people) Sample questions: Besides the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, what other documents are part of the Canadian constitution? What section of the Charter do you value the most? Why? What is the difference between a freedom, a right, and a responsibility? What are some challenges to Canadians right to privacy presented by new technological developments? What rights of citizenship are represented by a passport? Should the government be able to rescind a passport?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-B3.2

analyse key responsibilities associated with Canadian citizenship (e.g., voting, obeying the law, paying taxes, jury duty, protecting Canadas cultural heritage and natural environment, helping others in the community) Sample questions: Should people be fined if they do not vote? Why or why not? At what age do you think people are responsible enough to vote? Why is paying ones taxes an important responsibility? Why do you think that, in order to earn a secondary school diploma in Ontario, students must complete community involvement hours? What are your responsibilities as a Canadian citizen? In what ways will these change or develop as you get older?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-B3.3

explain how the judicial system and other institutions and/or organizations help protect the rights of individuals and the public good in Canada (e.g., with reference to the courts, trials, juries, sentencing circles, human rights tribunals, commissions of inquiry, the media, NGOs and social enterprises) Sample questions: What supports and mechanisms are in place in your school and/or local community to help protect the rights of individuals? What protections does the Canadian legal system offer you? What impact does it have on your everyday life? What responsibility does the community have for integrating offenders back into society? What is the role of the Childrens Aid Society? Are there groups of people that need more support than others to protect their rights? Why or why not?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-B3.4

analyse rights and responsibilities of citizenship within a global context, including those related to international conventions, laws, and/or institutions (e.g., the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights [1948], Convention on the Rights of the Child [1989], Rio Declaration on Environment and Development [1992], or Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples [2007]; the International Criminal Court) Sample questions: What are the main similarities between the rights and responsibilities associated with citizenship in Canada and those associated with citizenship in the global community? What are the main differences? What role or responsibility does an individual have in helping to protect the global commons such as air and water? Does digital technology present a challenge to the rights and/or responsibilities of citizenship in a global context? Why or why not? What was the objective of the UN Declaration of Human Rights? Do all people enjoy the rights embodied in that document? What are the issues surrounding Haudenosaunee passports?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-B3.5

identify examples of human rights violations around the world (e.g., hate crimes, torture, genocide, political imprisonment, recruitment of child soldiers, gender-based violence and discrimination), and assess the effectiveness of responses to such violations (e.g., media scrutiny; government sanctions; military intervention; regional, national, and/or international tribunals; boycotts; pressure from governments and/or NGOs) Sample questions: What legal processes are in place to address human rights issues, both in Canada and globally? What are some of the issues addressed by the Ontario Human Rights Commission? Has the commission dealt with any cases that have a direct impact on you and/or your community? What are some NGOs that deal with human rights abuses? What limitations do they face? Should people be charged with war crimes if they were just following orders? What criteria should be used to determine whether Canadians should actively respond to human rights abuses in other countries?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-C1.1

assess the significance, both in Canada and internationally, of the civic contributions of some individuals (e.g., Shawn Atleo, Maude Barlow, Mohandas K. Gandhi, Elijah Harper, Craig Kielburger, Martin Luther King, Jr., Cardinal Paul mile Lger, Stephen Lewis, Nelson Mandela, Aung San Suu Kyi, David Suzuki) and organizations, including NGOs and social enterprises (e.g., Amnesty International, LArche Canada, Democracy Watch, Free the Children, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Inuit Circumpolar Conference, Mtis Nation of Ontario, Ontario Federation of Indian Friendship Centres, Samara Canada, Spread the Net, SoChange, World Wildlife Federation, Youth in Philanthropy Canada)

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-C1.2

describe a variety of ways in which they could make a civic contribution at the local, national, and/or global level (e.g., by serving on student council or on an organization offering support to students who are being bullied; by reducing the amount of solid waste they generate and by properly disposing of hazardous waste; by volunteering at a food bank, retirement home, hospital, humane society, or recreational facility in the local community; by donating blood; by participating in community clean-up or tree-planting days; by raising funds for a charity or a development NGO; by writing to or speaking with their city or band councillor, MPP, or MP to request action on an issue) Sample questions: When you brainstormed with other students, what are some ways you identified for making a contribution in the community? Which of these appeal to you? Why? Are there food banks and/or community gardens in your community? What are some ways in which you could get involved with them?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-C1.3

explain how various actions can contribute to the common good at the local, national, and/ or global level (e.g., engaging in a non-violent protest can heighten awareness of an issue and pressure for change; buying fair trade products helps ensure that producers are fairly compensated for the products they produce; the organized boycotting of products can pressure corporations to change irresponsible practices; donating to a development NGO can help improve the lives of people affected by a natural disaster or enhance health care in developing countries; canvassing or fundraising for an organization that works for social justice can raise peoples awareness of issues related to inequity or human rights abuses) Sample questions: In what ways does using public transit, biking, or carpooling contribute to the common good? What are some significant changes in your local community that have been brought about as a result of citizen action? What impact can consumers choices have on the natural environment?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-C2.1

analyse ways in which various beliefs, values, and perspectives are represented in their communities (e.g., with reference to different racial, ethnic, and/or religious groups; people with various political beliefs and/or social values; people from different age groups; men and women; First Nations, Inuit, or Mtis people; people in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender [LGBT] communities; environmentalists; people with disabilities; people from different professions and/or economic circumstances; recent immigrants and new Canadians; business people), and assess whether all perspectives are represented or are valued equally Sample questions: What are some ways in which various student perspectives are represented in our school? Do you feel like your voice is heard? What cultural festivals are celebrated in your community? Whose beliefs and values do they reflect? What religious structures are in your community? What do they tell you about respect for diversity in the community? Why might some peoples perspectives be valued more than those of others? What are some ways to address this inequity? What action could be taken to ensure that marginalized voices are heard?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-C2.2

describe ways in which some events, issues, people, and/or symbols are commemorated or recognized in Canada (e.g., by war memorials and Remembrance Day services; through citizenship awards such as the Order of Canada; by depicting them on postage stamps or currency; in museums; on public plaques; by naming streets or public spaces after them; through observances such as Black History Month, Fte nationale du Qubec, Flag Day, Holocaust Day, Holodomor Memorial Day, Human Rights Day, Labour Day, National Aboriginal Day, Persons Day, Pride Week, Victoria Day), and analyse the significance of this recognition Sample questions: What do you think are the most important regional or national symbols in Canada? Who or what do they represent? Do you think there are people in your local community or in Canada whose civic contribution has not been formally recognized but should be? Why and how do you think they should be acknowledged? What criteria do you think should be used when deciding which events or people to formally recognize?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-C2.3

describe various ways in which people can access information about civic matters (e.g., websites of governments, political parties, NGOs, or other groups and/or institutions; social media; meetings organized by elected representatives; newspapers or newscasts), and assess the effectiveness of ways in which individuals can voice their opinions on these matters (e.g., by contacting their elected representatives, being part of a delegation to speak on an issue under consideration by city council, organizing a petition, voting, making a presentation to a commission of inquiry, participating in a political party or interest group; by expressing their views through the media, including social media, or at a town-hall meeting; through court challenges; through art, drama, or music) Sample questions: What are some ways in which a person can communicate his or her position on an environmental issue? What do you think is the most effective way for you to get your ideas heard in our school? What criteria might you use to determine the most effective way to voice your position on a social justice issue?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-C3.1

analyse a civic issue of personal interest, including how it is viewed by different groups Sample questions: What current civic issue is important to you? Who are the people and/or organizations involved in this issue? What views do they have on it? Do you think there might be other perspectives on this issue that are not commonly heard? Which level or levels of government would be responsible for addressing this issue?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-C3.2

propose different courses of action that could be used to address a specific civic issue (e.g., a public awareness campaign, a plan for local action, a campaign to pressure for political action), and assess their merits Sample questions: When you consider the various courses of action proposed to address this issue, how would you rank them from easiest to most difficult to carry out? Which option do you think would have the greatest impact? Would you be able to carry out, or participate in, any of these courses of action?

Civics (Politics)-CHV2O-10-C3.3

develop a plan of action to implement positive change with respect to a specific civic issue, and predict the results of their plan Sample questions: What is the main goal of your plan? How do you intend to accomplish that goal? What changes do you anticipate will result from specific strategies in your plan? Which people, organizations, and/or governments would be most likely to embrace your plan? How might you engage them?

Civics (Politics)-CIE3M-10-C3.4

develop criteria that could be used to assess the effectiveness of their plan of action if it were implemented Sample questions: How would you know if your plan were achieving its objectives? How would you determine if your plan were making a positive difference? How might you respond if things did not go as planned?

History-CHC2D-10-A1.1

formulate different types of questions to guide investigations into issues, events, and/or developments in Canadian history since 1914 (e.g., factual questions: What were the provisions of the Chinese Immigration Act of 1923?; comparative questions: In what ways was the impact of the Great Depression different for people living on the Prairies than for people living in Ontario?; causal questions: What were the key causes of the Quiet Revolution?)

History-CHC2D-10-A1.2

select and organize relevant evidence and information on aspects of Canadian history since 1914 from a variety of primary and secondary sources (e.g., primary sources: art works from the time, diaries, legislation, letters, maps, period newspapers, photographs, political cartoons, statistics, treaties; secondary sources: books and/or articles from the library, current newspaper or magazine articles, documentary and/or feature films or videos, information from websites, textbooks), ensuring that their sources reflect multiple perspectives Sample questions: Why is it important to gather evidence from primary sources when investigating past developments and events? What are some sources you might consult to try to identify voices that may be missing from the official version of an event? If you are trying to determine the position of various groups on the issue of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement, why might you consult newspaper editorials and editorial cartoons? What other sources might you consult? Why would it be useful to consult photographs and news reports from the time in your investigation of Canadas military contribution to the Korean War?

History-CHC2D-10-A1.3

assess the credibility of sources and information relevant to their investigations (e.g., by considering the perspective, bias, accuracy, purpose, and context of the source and the values and expertise of its author) Sample question: If you were consulting various websites for information on the First Nations protests in Caledonia, how would you determine which sites were the most reliable and credible?

History-CHC2D-10-A1.4

interpret and analyse evidence and information relevant to their investigations, using various tools, strategies, and approaches appropriate for historical inquiry (e.g., develop criteria for evaluating the relative importance of consequences of the Great Depression; compare the points of view in two or more primary sources on prohibition; assess the effectiveness of the argument in a secondary source on CanadianAmerican relations under Prime Minister Diefenbaker; use a concept map to help them assess the short- and long-term consequences of residential schools for Aboriginal people) Sample questions: What type of graphic organizer do you think would be most useful in helping you compare World War I and World War II a T-chart, a Venn diagram, or a crossclassification table? Why? What criteria might you use to rank the causes of the Regina Riot?

History-CHC2D-10-A1.5

use the concepts of historical thinking (i.e., historical significance, cause and consequence, continuity and change, and historical perspective) when analysing, evaluating evidence about, and formulating conclusions and/or judgements regarding historical issues, events, and/or developments in Canada since 1914 (e.g., use the concept of historical significance to assess the impact of Vimy Ridge on the evolution of Canadian identity; use the concept of cause and consequence when assessing the social, economic, and political context of the Winnipeg General Strike; use the concept of continuity and change when analysing the evolution of the relationship between Canada and Great Britain; use the concept of historical perspective when assessing the motives of the Womans Christian Temperance Union) Sample questions: What is presentism? How can using the concept of historical perspective help you avoid the trap of presentism? What criteria can you use to determine the historical significance of this event? Was the event significant to everyone at the time? Is it significant to you and/or your community now? Which concept or concepts of historical thinking might help you analyse the Canadian governments decision to forcibly relocate Inuit people in the 1950s?

History-CHC2D-10-A1.6

evaluate and synthesize their findings to formulate conclusions and/or make informed judgements or predictions about the issues, events, and/or developments they are investigating Sample questions: Was the federal government justified in invoking the War Measures Act during the October Crisis? How convincing is the evidence in your sources? Based on your study of its development, as well as changes in Canadian society and politics, what do you think is the future of the Canadian welfare state? Why?

History-CHC2D-10-A1.7

communicate their ideas, arguments, and conclusions using various formats and styles, as appropriate for the audience and purpose (e.g., a seminar on Canadian-U.S. relations; an essay on turning points for Aboriginal people since 1960; a debate on whether Prime Minister Trudeaus policies contributed to a Just Society; a presentation on the changing roles of women in Canada; a video on social conditions during the Great Depression; a role play on negotiations to patriate the constitution; a project to write the text for a wiki on developments in Canadian culture in the second half of the twentieth century; a blog from the perspective of a soldier in Afghanistan)

History-CHC2D-10-A1.8

use accepted forms of documentation (e.g., footnotes or endnotes, author/date citations, reference lists, bibliographies, credits) to acknowledge different types of sources (e.g., archival sources, articles, art works, blogs, books, films or videos, oral evidence, websites)

History-CHC2D-10-A1.9

use appropriate terminology when communicating the results of their investigations (e.g., vocabulary specific to their topics; terminology related to history and to the concepts of historical thinking)

History-CHC2D-10-A2.1

describe several ways in which historical investigation can help them develop skills, including the essential skills in the Ontario Skills Passport (e.g., skills related to reading text, writing, document use, computer use, oral communication, numeracy), that can be transferred to the world of work and to everyday life

History-CHC2D-10-A2.2

apply in everyday contexts skills and work habits developed through historical investigation (e.g., use skills to assess the credibility of sources, understand and appreciate multiple perspectives and engage in informed discussions, detect bias, understand historical context; apply work habits such as collaborating with peers or taking initiative)

History-CHC2D-10-A2.3

apply the knowledge and skills developed in the study of Canadian history when analysing current social, economic, and/or political issues (e.g., to determine perspectives or bias in media reports on a current event; to analyse key causes and/or predict possible consequences of a current political policy; to determine ways in which the current responses of Canadians to a specific social issue are similar to or different from their responses in the past), in order to enhance their understanding of these events and their role as informed citizens Sample question: Which historical events might help you more fully understand the issues involved in current debates over resource development projects in Canada and First Nations treaty rights?

History-CHC2D-10-A2.4

identify some careers in which the skills learned in history might be useful (e.g., editor, journalist, lawyer, mediator, museum curator, politician, teacher)

History-CHC2D-10-B1.1

analyse historical statistics and other primary sources to identify major demographic trends in Canada between 1914 and 1929 (e.g., trends related to immigration to Canada, Aboriginal populations, migration between provinces and to urban centres, the number of women in the labour force and the type of work they performed, birth rates or life expectancy), and assess their significance for different groups in Canada Sample questions: When you analyse the census data, what do you think is the most significant trend in the Canadian population between 1914 and 1929? Why? Did this trend affect all people in Canada? What trends do you see with respect to birth rates among different groups in Canada?

History-CHC2D-10-B1.2

identify some major developments in science and/or technology during this period, and assess their significance for different groups in Canada (e.g., the impact of: new military technologies on Canadian soldiers; developments in mechanization on Canadian farmers; developments in transportation and communication, such as those related to cars, radios, or motion pictures, on the recreational activities of some Canadians; insulin and/or other medical developments on the health of people in Canada) Sample questions: What criteria might you use to determine the significance of a scientific or technological development? Using these criteria, which development during this time period do you think was the most significant? Why?

History-CHC2D-10-B1.3

describe some key economic trends and developments in Canada during this period (e.g., with reference to the wartime economy, new manufacturing sectors, postwar recession, consumerism, buying on credit, unions, rising prices), and assess their impact on various groups in Canada Sample questions: Which regions or groups in Canada benefited the most from the prosperity of the 1920s? Why? When you look at economic conditions in the Maritimes during the 1920s, which development do you think is the most significant in terms of its impact on peoples lives? Why? Who was affected by this development?

History-CHC2D-10-B1.4

explain the impact on Canadian society and politics of some key events and/or developments during World War I (e.g., with reference to shortages on the home front; the internment of enemy aliens; an increase in the number of women in the workforce; the Union government; new laws such as the Military Voters Act, the Wartime Elections Act, the Income Tax Act, and/or the War Measures Act; the Halifax Explosion; the role of veterans in postwar labour unrest) Sample questions: What was the significance of Canadas treatment of enemy aliens during World War I? What was the impact of the conscription crisis on politics in Canada? What criteria would you use to assess the significance of wartime legislation? Who felt the greatest impact from such legislation?

History-CHC2D-10-B2.1

explain the main causes of World War I (e.g., European alliances, rivalries, militarism, and nationalist movements) and of Canadas participation in the war (e.g., imperialist sentiments in English Canada; Canadas status within the British Empire), and analyse some of the consequences of Canadas military participation in the war (e.g., with reference to enlistment; the conscription bill; the development of war industries; the military consequences and the human costs of battles involving Canadian forces; issues facing veterans; Remembrance Day) Sample questions: When recruitment drives were held, were all young people welcome to join the armed forces? What were some of the short- and long-term consequences of Canadians participation in battles such as the Somme, Ypres, Passchendaele, and Vimy Ridge?

History-CHC2D-10-B2.2

analyse, with reference to specific events or issues, the significance of Canadas participation in international relations between 1914 and 1929 (e.g., Canadas position within the British Empire, Canadas military participation in World War I, Canadas separate signing of the Treaty of Versailles, the Halibut Treaty, the Chanak Crisis, the Imperial Conferences) Sample questions: What criteria would you use to determine the significance for Canada of the countrys contributions to World War I? What was the significance of the Halibut Treaty in the history of Canadas relationship with Great Britain?

History-CHC2D-10-B2.3

describe some major instances of social and/or political conflict in Canada during this period, including conflict between French and English Canada (e.g., differing views on the need for conscription; the Ontario Schools Question and the response to Regulation 17; Henri Bourassas nationalism versus the imperialist perspectives of some English Canadians; labour unrest, including the Winnipeg General Strike; the King-Byng affair; the activities of the Ku Klux Klan and the Orange Order of Canada), and analyse some of their causes and consequences Sample questions: What were the intended and unintended consequences of Regulation 17? What were the most significant causes of the Winnipeg General Strike? What were its short- and long-term consequences? What prompted the federal government to amend the Criminal Code to prevent unlawful associations? For what purposes was this law used?

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explain the goals and accomplishments of some groups and/or movements that contributed to social and/or political cooperation during this period (e.g., the Union government; One Big Union or other labour unions; the Maritime Rights movement; the League of Indians; temperance organizations; the United Farmers of Ontario; womens suffrage organizations; the Famous Five) Sample questions: What impact did the League of Indians have on the lives of Aboriginal peoples in Canada? What social and economic conditions motivated the social gospel movement? What impact did the movement have on peoples lives? How much political influence did it have?

History-CHC2D-10-B2.5

describe attitudes towards and significant actions affecting ethnocultural minority groups in Canada during this period (e.g., with reference to racism and antisemitism, segregation, discrimination in jobs and housing, residential schools, restrictions imposed by the Indian Act or the Chinese Immigration Act of 1923, groups helping new immigrants), and explain their impact Sample questions: Who were the British Home Children? Why did Home Children who were sent to Canada during this period later seek an apology from the Canadian government? In what ways was the No. 2 Construction Battalion a reflection of attitudes towards African Canadians?

History-CHC2D-10-B3.1

explain how some individuals, groups, and/ or organizations contributed to Canadian society and politics during this period and to the development of identity, citizenship, and/or heritage in Canada (e.g., with reference to Frederick Banting, Napolon Belcourt, Billy Bishop, Robert Borden, Samuel Bronfman, Arthur Currie, Marie Lacoste Grin-Lajoie, Fred O. Loft, Agnes Macphail, Masumi Mitsui, J. S. Woodsworth; the League of Indians, rum runners, the Trades and Labour Congress of Canada, the Vandoos, the Womans Christian Temperance Union) Sample questions: In what ways did the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) contribute to the development of Canadian heritage and identity? What impact did Henri Bourassa have on the development of French-Canadian identity? In what ways did the work of Nellie McClung and other suffragists challenge notions of citizenship in Canada?

History-CHC2D-10-B3.2

describe some significant changes in the arts and popular culture in Canada during this period (e.g., changes in fashion and popular music; changes in Canadian art, as reflected in the work of the Group of Seven; the increasing popularity of movies; the increasing influence of American culture; the international reputation of Canadians in sports; the introduction of the poppy as a symbol of war and remembrance; prohibition), and explain the contributions of some individuals and/or events to these changes (e.g., Mazo de la Roche, Stephen Leacock, Tom Longboat, John McCrae, Howie Morenz, Mary Pickford; the racing career of the Bluenose; the founding of the National Hockey League and the Ladies Ontario Hockey Association) Sample questions: What were some of the cultural changes that characterized the roaring twenties in Canada? What impact did the work of Tom Thomson have on Canadian art?

History-CHC2D-10-B3.3

describe some significant developments in the rights and lives of women in Canada during this period (e.g., womens contribution to the war effort, their expanding role in the workplace, and the impact of these on their role in the family and in society; womens role in suffrage, temperance, and other social movements; new political rights; changing social mores in the 1920s and their impact on women; the participation of women in organized sports), and explain the impact of these developments on Canadian citizenship and/or heritage Sample questions: What role did World War I play in changing the lives of some Canadian women? Do you think the Persons Case was a turning point for women in Canada? Why or why not? What impact did the final decision in that case have on Canadian citizenship?

History-CHC2D-10-B3.4

describe Canadian immigration policy during this period (e.g., with reference to the 1919 Immigration Act, the Chinese Immigration Act of 1923), and analyse immigration to Canada, with a focus on the different groups that came here and how they contributed to identity and heritage in Canada (e.g., the origin of immigrants, why they came, where they settled, the degree to which they integrated into the dominant culture of the time in Canadian society and/or remained distinct, their cultural contributions) Sample questions: What were some of the push/pull factors that influenced different groups of immigrants coming to Canada during this period? Did emigrating change the lives of all these people for the better? Do you think that these peoples lives in Canada were what they had expected them to be? What are some ways in which groups that came to Canada during this period contributed to Canadian heritage?

History-CHC2D-10-C1.1

describe some key social changes in Canada during this period (e.g., social changes brought about by unemployment or the dustbowl during the Depression; left- and right-wing social movements; the increasing influence of American culture), and explain their main causes as well as their impact on different groups in Canada Sample questions: What were the main social changes that occurred during the Great Depression? How did they affect Canadians in different parts of the country? In urban and rural areas?

History-CHC2D-10-C1.2

identify some major developments in science and/or technology during this period (e.g., inventions such as Pablum, penicillin, Massey-Harriss self-propelled combine harvester; military technologies such as sonar, radar, walkietalkies, or the atomic bomb), and assess their significance for different groups in Canada Sample question: What criteria would you use to determine the significance for Canadians of the development of penicillin? What impact did technological developments have on the lives of farm families during this period?

History-CHC2D-10-C1.3

describe some key economic trends and developments in Canada during this period (e.g., the stock market crash of 1929, pensions for veterans, the impact of the dustbowl on agriculture, the expansion of American branch plants, buying on margin, high unemployment rates, government relief, public works projects, the establishment of the Bank of Canada, the wartime economy, the 1945 Ford strike), and assess their impact on different groups in Canada Sample questions: Did the Great Depression affect all communities in Canada to the same extent? Who faced the greatest challenges? What was the economic impact of the dustbowl? How did it contribute to the creation of the Canadian Wheat Board? What was the significance of the name Royal Twenty Centers? How were these public work camps viewed at the time? Do you think they have influenced attitudes towards the unemployed today?

History-CHC2D-10-C1.4

describe the main causes of some key political developments and/or government policies in Canada during this period (e.g., Mackenzie Kings Five Cent speech; the formation of the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation or Social Credit; the establishment of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation [CBC] or the National Film Board [NFB]; provincial Sexual Sterilization Acts targeting people with disabilities; social welfare policies; the Dominion Elections Act of 1938; Quebec women receiving the vote; wartime propaganda; the decision to intern Japanese Canadians; the 1944 Racial Discrimination Act), and assess their impact on different groups in Canada Sample questions: What social and political values were reflected in the new political parties that were created in Canada during the Great Depression? What amendments were made to the Indian Act in the 1930s? What was their impact? What was the historical context for Maurice Duplessiss Padlock Act? What impact did the act have on the civil liberties of various groups in Quebec during this period?

History-CHC2D-10-C2.1

analyse some significant ways in which Canadians cooperated and/or came into conflict with each other during this period (e.g., the Antigonish movement; the League for Social Reconstruction; the riot at Christie Pits; internment camps for enemy aliens; Christie v. York, 1940), with a focus on explaining key issues that led to those interactions and/or changes that resulted from them Sample questions: What were the goals of the eugenics movement? How effective was the movement in pursuing these goals? What were some of the intended and unintended consequences of the On-to-Ottawa Trek? Why was there an increase in race-based tensions and violence during this time period? What were some of the consequences of these conflicts?

History-CHC2D-10-C2.2

analyse how some key issues and/or developments affected Canadas relationships with Great Britain and the United States during this period (e.g., with reference to trade, tariffs, and investments; the founding of the Commonwealth; the Imperial Conferences; the Lend-Lease Agreement; military involvement in World War II) Sample questions: What changes to Canadas relationship with Great Britain resulted from the Statute of Westminster? What impact did American prohibition have on relations between Canada and the United States?

History-CHC2D-10-C2.3

explain the main causes of World War II (e.g., economic hardship in Germany produced by the Treaty of Versailles and economic depression; invasions by fascist Italy, Nazi Germany, and imperial Japan; the inadequacy of the League of Nations to address international crises), and analyse Canadas contribution to the war effort (e.g., with reference to the Battle of the Atlantic, the Battle of Hong Kong, the Italian campaign, D-Day, the liberation of the Netherlands, the liberation of concentration camps, the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, Camp X; the contribution of individuals such as Paul Triquet and Charles Tompkins; the contributions of women) Sample questions: What was the merchant navy? What contribution did it make to the Allied war effort? What was Camp X? Why was it given that name? In what ways was Canadas contribution to World War II different from its contribution to World War I? In what ways was it similar?

History-CHC2D-10-C2.4

explain some of the ways in which World War II affected Canada and Canadians (e.g., with reference to economic recovery, censorship, rationing), including how the war changed the lives of various groups in this country (e.g., young men who fought and those who did not; farmers; women in the workforce and at home; enemy aliens; veterans, including men who were in the merchant navy) Sample questions: Who is the Bren Gun Girl? What does her image tell you about the role of some Canadian women during the war? In what ways was their role similar to or different from the role of women in World War I? How did the lives of some Japanese Canadians change as a result of the war?

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describe contributions of various individuals, groups, and/or organizations to Canadian society, politics, and/or culture during this period (e.g., R. B. Bennett, Norman Bethune, Therse Casgrain, Moses Coady, Lionel Conacher, the Dionne quintuplets, Maurice Duplessis, Foster Hewitt, Mackenzie King, Dorothy Livesay, Elsie MacGill, Tommy Prince, Sinclair Ross, Kam Len Douglas Sam, Portia May White; the Antigonish movement, the CBC, the Edmonton Grads), and assess the significance of these contributions for the development of identity, citizenship, and/or heritage in Canada Sample questions: What criteria might you use to assess the importance of the NFB to Canadian heritage? Why is there controversy around the contribution of Emily Carr to Canadian identity?

History-CHC2D-10-C3.2

analyse responses of Canada and Canadians to some major international events and/or developments that occurred during this period (e.g., the Red Scare; the Holodomor; the Spanish Civil War; the Nanking Massacre; aggression by fascist Italy, Nazi Germany, and/or imperial Japan; the Holocaust; the Manhattan Project), and assess the significance of these responses, including their significance for Canadian identity and heritage Sample questions: Why did the Canadian government refuse to allow the SS St Louis entry into Canada? How did Canadians view this decision at the time? Why? How do Canadians view it now?

History-CHC2D-10-C3.3

analyse the impact of the Holocaust on Canadian society and on Canadians attitudes towards human rights (e.g., with reference to changes in Canadians responses to minority groups; more open refugee policies, including those affecting Holocaust survivors and other displaced persons; Canadas signing of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights; the evolution of laws against hate crimes)

History-CHC2D-10-D1.1

analyse historical statistics and other primary sources to identify some key demographic trends and developments in Canada during this period (e.g., with reference to the sources and numbers of postwar immigrants and/or refugees, the arrival of war brides, continued urbanization and the growth of suburbs, changes in birth rates and life expectancy, patterns in interprovincial migration, the development of teen subcultures, the changing status of established ethnocultural groups), and assess their consequences Sample questions: What types of sources might you consult to analyse the extent of suburban development during this period? What were the short-term effects of the baby boom? In what ways is the baby boom still affecting Canada and Canadians today?

History-CHC2D-10-D1.2

identify some major developments in science and technology during this period (e.g., developments in aeronautics, including the Avro Arrow; automatic postal sorters; goalie masks; developments in contraception, nuclear energy, plastics; medical developments such as thalidomide and pacemakers; television; developments in space technology such as satellites and the Canadarm), and assess their significance for different groups in Canada Sample questions: What criteria might you use to determine the significance of the invention of safety paint? What was the purpose of thalidomide? What was its unintended effect? What types of societal changes arose from developments in television and other communications technologies during this time period? What impact did innovations in snowmobiles have on different groups during this period? What impact did insecticide use have on different groups during this period?

History-CHC2D-10-D1.3

describe some key trends and developments in the Canadian economy during this period (e.g., the Rand decision and the growth of unions in Canada; the rise of consumerism and the popularization of credit cards; the continuing expansion of branch plants, particularly of American corporations, in Canada and the formation of the Foreign Investment Review Agency; the energy crises of the 1970s; stagflation; recession), and explain their impact Sample questions: In what ways did the Auto Pact change the Canadian auto industry? What were some instances of labour unrest in this period? Why might unions in this period have been more successful in pursuing their goals than they had been earlier in the century?

History-CHC2D-10-D1.4

describe some key political developments and/or government policies in Canada during this period (e.g., government responses to the Red Scare/Cold War; Newfoundlands joining Confederation; social welfare legislation; the establishment of the Massey Commission or the Royal Commission on the Status of Women; the founding of the New Democratic Party; the 1969 White Paper; revisions to the Immigration Act; the decision to invoke the War Measures Act in 1970; the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms; the establishment of Environment Canada), and assess their significance for different groups in Canada Sample questions: Why did Newfoundland become a province of Canada? What factors contributed to the decision to adopt a new flag for Canada? What was the significance of adopting a new flag? What was the significance of its design?

History-CHC2D-10-D1.5

analyse the impact on the lives of Canadians of key social welfare programs that were created or expanded during this period (e.g., unemployment insurance, family allowance, medicare, the Canada and Quebec Pension Plans, old age security, social assistance)

History-CHC2D-10-D2.1

describe some significant instances of social conflict and/or inequality in Canada during this period (e.g., the Asbestos Strike in Quebec; the Richard Riot; racial segregation; the October Crisis and the imposition of the War Measures Act; protests against the war in Vietnam or the James Bay project; conflict over the National Energy Program, Aboriginal title and land claims, or the patriation of the constitution), and analyse them from multiple perspectives Sample questions: What were the positions of Africville residents, municipal politicians in Halifax, and other groups on the expropriation of Africville? How might you explain differences in these points of view? What do you think were the most fundamental points of disagreement between federalists and Quebec nationalists in this period? Why?

History-CHC2D-10-D2.2

describe some significant examples of social and/or political cooperation in Canada during this period, including a variety of social movements (e.g., the civil rights movement; the second-wave womens movement; cultural nationalist and countercultural movements; environmental movements; Aboriginal activism; labour unions; centennial year celebrations, including Expo 67; multicultural policies and organizations), and analyse them from multiple perspectives Sample questions: What do you think was a major turning point for First Nations activism during this period? Why? Why were many womens groups dissatisfied with the initial wording of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms? What action did they take in response? Whose voices were most pronounced in the womens movement during this period? Whose were missing?

History-CHC2D-10-D2.3

analyse key aspects of life for Canadian women, with a focus on what changed during this period and what remained the same (e.g., the participation of women in the labour force; challenges to the ways in which womens unpaid work was valued; changes in the family and family structures, including birth and divorce rates; political participation and representation; the impact of Bill C-150 (196869); challenges facing Native women; the domestic worker scheme and immigration of women to Canada) Sample questions: What types of challenges did women in the labour force face in this period? In what ways were they different from the challenges facing earlier generations of women? In what ways were they similar? How might you explain the differences, with reference to historical context? What was the Murdoch case? Why was it a catalyst for change in the way womens work was perceived?

History-CHC2D-10-D2.4

describe some key developments related to Canadas participation in the international community during this period, with a particular focus on the context of the Cold War (e.g., with reference to the Korean War; the Gouzenko affair; the establishment of the North American Air Defense Command [NORAD] or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization [NATO]; the Suez Crisis; the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty; peacekeeping; membership in La Francophonie; the creation of the Canadian International Development Agency [CIDA]; Canadas response to famine in Biafra or the genocide in East Timor), and assess whether these developments marked a change in Canadas approach to or role in international relations Sample questions: Do you think Canadas involvement in the Korean War is an example of continuity or change in Canadian military history? Do you think Prime Minister Trudeaus visit to China marked a change in international relations? Why or why not?

History-CHC2D-10-D2.5

describe some key developments in Canadas relationship with the United States during this period (e.g., with reference to NORAD, the Dew Line, the St. Lawrence Seaway, the development of the Avro Arrow program and its subsequent cancellation, the Auto Pact, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Vietnam War and the International Commission of Control and Supervision, environmental concerns such as acid rain), and explain how they challenged or reinforced the nature of that relationship Sample questions: What impact did the Cold War have on the relationship between Canada and the United States? What role did the United States play in the Canadian economy during these years? In what ways was it similar to and/or different from the role it had played in earlier years?

History-CHC2D-10-D3.1

describe contributions of various individuals, groups, and/or organizations to Canadian society and politics during this period (e.g., Doris Anderson, Rosemary Brown, Frank Arthur Calder, Harold Cardinal, Matthew Coon Come, Tommy Douglas, Terry Fox, Ren Lvesque, Chief George Manuel, Madeleine Parent, Lester B. Pearson, Joey Smallwood, Pierre Trudeau, Jean Vanier; Greenpeace, the National Action Committee on the Status of Women, the National Indian Brotherhood, the Nova Scotia Association for the Advancement of Coloured People), and explain the significance of these contributions for the development of identity, citizenship, and/or heritage in Canada Sample questions: What was the significance for people with disabilities of the formation of LArche? What was its significance for Canadian identity? Why does Viola Desmond appear on a Canadian postage stamp? What criteria do you think were used in her selection?

History-CHC2D-10-D3.2

explain ways in which various individuals, events, groups, and/or organizations contributed to the arts and popular culture in Canada during this period (e.g., Kenojuak Ashevak, Alex Colville, Chief Dan George, Joy Kogawa, Margaret Laurence, Gordon Lightfoot, Marshall McLuhan, Norval Morrisseau, Daphne Odjig, Oscar Peterson, Bill Reid, Maurice Richard, Gabrielle Roy, Mordecai Richler, Buffy Sainte-Marie, Gilles Vigneault; the Canada Council, the CBC, the Canadian RadioTelevision Commission, Cape Dorset artists, the Guess Who, the Stratford and/or Shaw Festivals; Expo 67, the 1972 Hockey Summit Series), and assess the significance of these contributions for the development of identity and/or heritage in Canada Sample questions: What were the causes and consequences of the Massey Commission? How significant was the commissions contribution to Canadas cultural heritage?

History-CHC2D-10-D3.3

explain some significant events, developments, and/or issues that affected First Nations, Inuit, and/or Mtis people in Canada during this period (e.g., forced relocation of some Inuit communities; the recognition in the constitution of existing Aboriginal and treaty rights; the continuing operation of residential schools; the formation of the National Indian Brotherhood/Assembly of First Nations; the Berger commission; the Calder case; the James Bay project and the resulting protests; the efforts of Mary Two-Axe Early and others to secure equality for First Nations women; the creation of the Inuit Circumpolar Council), and assess the impact of these developments on identity, citizenship, and/or heritage in Canada Sample questions: What was the significance for Canadian citizenship of the enfranchisement of status Indians in 1960? What was the purpose of the 1969 White Paper? How did Aboriginal groups respond to it? What does that response reveal about the identity of First Nations in Canada? Do you think the constitutional recognition of the Mtis as one of the three Aboriginal peoples of Canada was important for Mtis identity? Why or why not?

History-CHC2D-10-D3.4

describe the main causes and consequences of the Quiet Revolution and of some other key events that occurred in or affected Quebec between 1945 and 1982 (e.g., with reference to the leadership of Maurice Duplessis, Jean Lesage, and Ren Lvesque; the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism; Matre Chez Nous; the October Crisis; the formation of the Parti Qubcois; Bill 101; the patriation of the Constitution; the 1980 referendum), and explain the significance of these events for the development of identities in Canada Sample questions: What were the intended and unintended consequences of Charles de Gaulles Vive le Qubec Libre speech in Montreal in 1967? What was the significance of the speech for French Canadians? For English Canadians? For Ottawa? What factors contributed to the failure of the 1980 referendum on Quebec sovereignty?

History-CHC2D-10-D3.6

describe some key developments in immigration and in refugee and immigration policy in Canada during this period, and explain their significance for Canadian heritage and identity (e.g., with reference to the points system; origins and numbers of immigrants and refugees, including displaced persons after World War II; the domestic workers scheme; the growth of ethnic neighbourhoods in Canadas largest cities; the development of various cultural festivals) Sample question: How important was the role of postwar immigration policy in the development of Canada as a multicultural society?

History-CHC2D-10-E1.1

describe various social and cultural trends and developments in Canada since 1982 (e.g., demographic changes, including changes in the family and in immigration; the development of Hollywood North; developments related to multiculturalism, including ethno-cultural festivals; the growth of social and cultural advocacy groups), and assess their significance for people in Canada Sample questions: What was the significance of the deinstitutionalization of people with disabilities in Canada during this period? In what ways was it a change from the treatment of disabled people in the past? Do you think that the practice of deinstitutionalization was related to larger social trends during this period? Why have a number of environmental groups developed in Canada in the past three decades? How significant do you think they have been?

History-CHC2D-10-E1.2

identify some major developments in science and technology since 1982 (e.g., computers, the Internet, cellphones and smartphone technology, digital music, electric and hybrid cars, fossil fuel extraction technologies, cloning, stem cell research, genetically modified foods, developments in alternative energy), and assess their significance for people in Canada Sample questions: What were computers used for in the early 1980s? What are they used for now? How important have these changes been? What impact have social media had on the ways in which Canadians communicate? What impact might they have on how students learn? What impact have recycling technologies had on consumer habits and attitudes?

History-CHC2D-10-E1.3

describe some key trends and/or developments in the Canadian economy since 1982 (e.g., the decline of the manufacturing sector, the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement [FTA] and the North American Free Trade Agreement [NAFTA], the decline of East Coast fish stocks, recessions, the bursting of the tech bubble, consumerism, online shopping, economic growth in western and northern Canada, fluctuations in interest rates), and compare them to earlier trends/developments Sample questions: What impact have trade agreements had on the economies of different regions of Canada during this period? What has changed in these economies? What has remained the same? What are some similarities and differences between the tech bubble of the 1990s and economic developments during the 1920s? How were the role and goals of unions at the end of the twentieth century similar to or different from their role/goals earlier in the century?

History-CHC2D-10-E1.4

describe some key political developments and/or government policies in Canada since 1982 (e.g., the Goods and Services Tax and the Harmonized Sales Tax, the creation of Nunavut, pay equity legislation, Bill C-31 amending the Indian Act, Operation Support following 9/11, the Kyoto Accord, the decision to send troops to Afghanistan, new political parties such as the Reform Party and the Green Party, the Ontario governments recognition of the Franco-Ontarian flag and its creation of French-language school boards, the long gun registry, the Civil Marriage Act of 2005, policies related to Arctic sovereignty), and assess their significance for different people in Canada Sample questions: In what ways did the Reform Party contribute to change in Canadian politics? What is the significance of the 2013 ruling by Justice Michael Phelan for the relationship between the federal government and both the Mtis and non-status Indians in Canada? How have the environmental policies of the federal government changed during this period? How might you account for the changes?

History-CHC2D-10-E2.1

describe some significant ways in which Canadians have cooperated and/or come into conflict with each other since 1982 (e.g., conflict over the 1992 cod moratorium; political protests such as those against the G20 meetings in Toronto or the rise in university tuition in Quebec; strikes; racism and hate crimes; continuing legal conflict and/or political protests over Aboriginal title and land claims; the Idle No More movement; continuing tension between Quebec and the federal government; cooperation in response to natural disasters such as the 1998 ice storm or the Saguenay and/or Red River floods; cooperation among members of social reform movements), and analyse these interactions from various perspectives Sample questions: What were the perspectives of various participants in the APEC summit in Vancouver and the conflicts that accompanied it? Whose perspectives were reflected in debates concerning hate crimes and free speech during this period?

History-CHC2D-10-E2.2

analyse aspects of regionalism in Canada since 1982, including new and ongoing challenges in the relationship between Ottawa and various regions (e.g., with reference to have and have-not provinces, economic development, revenues from natural resources, development of the Alberta oil sands, the cod moratorium, regional political parties, regional cultures) Sample questions: When you examine issues that have affected the relationship between Ottawa and the regions of Canada, why is it important to consider the perspectives of both the federal government and the region or regions involved? Which sources enable you to do so? What are some of the enduring regional cultures of Canada?

History-CHC2D-10-E2.3

identify some key developments and issues that have affected the relationship between the federal/provincial governments and First Nations, Mtis, and Inuit peoples since 1982 (e.g., Bill C-31 [1985]; the Meech Lake Accord; disputes over land at Oka, Ipperwash, and/or Caledonia; land claims by the Lubicon Lake Nation; Delgamuukw v. British Columbia [1997]; the Nisgaa Final Agreement [1988]; the creation of Nunavut; R v. Powley [2003]; the McIvor decision; the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada; the Idle No More movement; Justice Phelans 2013 ruling on the Constitution Act, 1867), and analyse them from various perspectives Sample questions: What were the underlying issues in the Oka crisis? How did the positions of the various parties on these issues lead to the conflict? How has the Supreme Court of Canada interpreted the protection of Aboriginal rights in the Constitution Act, 1982? How has the apology for residential schools been viewed by Aboriginal people? By Canadians in general?

History-CHC2D-10-E2.4

describe some key developments and issues that have affected the relationship between Quebec and the federal government since 1982 (e.g., the Meech Lake and/or Charlottetown Accords; the creation of the Bloc Qubcois; sovereignty association; relations between Canadian prime ministers and Quebec premiers; the 1995 referendum), and analyse them from various perspectives Sample questions: What was the purpose of the Clarity Act? How was it viewed by the Quebec government?

History-CHC2D-10-E2.5

describe some ways in which Canada and Canadians have participated in the international community since 1982, with a focus on Canadas response to international conflict (e.g., with reference to South African apartheid; the Gulf War; events in Bosnia, Somalia, Rwanda; the War on Terror) and Canadians cooperation in humanitarian work (e.g., the International Court of Justice; the Canadian International Development Agency; response to natural disasters such as the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004, earthquakes in Haiti or Japan, famine in Ethiopia; the role of Canadian non-governmental organizations), and explain some key factors that have affected this participation Sample questions: How and why has Canadas spending on official development assistance fluctuated since 1982? Was the decision to send troops to Afghanistan in keeping with Canadas traditional role in world affairs?

History-CHC2D-10-E3.1

describe contributions of various individuals, groups, and/or organizations to Canadian society and politics since 1982 (e.g., Lincoln Alexander, Louise Arbour, Shawn Atleo, Maude Barlow, Lucien Bouchard, Clmont Chartier, Jean Chrtien, Nellie Cournoyea, Romeo Dallaire, Phil Fontaine, Stephen Harper, Audrey McLaughlin, Preston Manning, Judy Rebick, Jeanne Sauv, David Suzuki, Sheila Watt-Cloutier; the Bloc Qubcois, the Green Party, Mtis Nations of Ontario, the Reform Party), and explain the significance of these contributions for the development of identity, citizenship, and/or heritage in Canada Sample questions: What have been the shortand long-term consequences of Elijah Harpers rejection of the Meech Lake Accord? What criteria might you use to assess the political legacy of Brian Mulroney? Would you use the same criteria to assess the political legacy of Jack Layton?

History-CHC2D-10-E3.2

explain ways in which various individuals, groups, organizations, and/or events have contributed to the arts and popular culture in Canada since 1982 (e.g., Susan Aglukark, Denis Arcand, Margaret Atwood, Donovan Bailey, Adam Beach, Edward Burtynsky, Leonard Cohen, Sidney Crosby, Celine Dion, Paul Demers, Drake, Atom Egoyan, Michael J. Fox, Tomson Highway, Lawrence Hill, Clara Hughes, Jarome Iginla, Michalle Jean, Wab Kinew, Zacharias Kunuk, Deepa Mehta, Michael Ondaatje, Robbie Robertson; Afro Connexion, Arcade Fire, Cirque de Soleil, Nickelback; the Calgary or Vancouver Olympics, Caribana [Caribbean Carnival]), and assess the significance of these contributions for the development of identity, citizenship, and/or heritage in Canada Sample questions: Do you think that the political satire of people such as Rick Mercer has had an influence on civic action or youth engagement? Why or why not? For whom is the work of Michel Tremblay significant? Why?

History-CHC2D-10-E3.3

assess the significance of public acknowledgements and/or commemoration in Canada of past human tragedies and human rights violations, both domestic and international (e.g., the Holocaust; the Holodomor; the Armenian, Rwandan, and Srebrenican genocides; the Chinese Head Tax; the Komagata Maru incident; Ukrainian- and Japanese-Canadian internment; residential schools; the arrest of Viola Desmond; the demolition of Africville; forced relocation of Inuit families) Sample questions: Do you think that apologies for past human rights abuses provide adequate redress for past wrongs? Why or why not? What social, economic, and/or political factors might contribute to a decision to commemorate, or to issue an apology for, a violation of human rights?

History-CHC2D-10-E3.4

describe some key developments that have affected Canadas relationship with the United States since 1982 (e.g., the Canada-U.S. FTA and/ or NAFTA; the softwood lumber dispute; policies to protect Canadian culture; the International Joint Commission; Canadas response to 9/11; Canadas refusal to participate in the Second Gulf War; Canadas participation in the mission in Afghanistan; issues related to border control; the Omar Khadr case; Arctic sovereignty), and explain the impact of Canadian-American relations on Canadian identity and heritage Sample questions: What impact did Canadas responses to the Second Gulf War and the military mission in Afghanistan have on our relationship with the United States? What role do you think our relationship with the United States plays in Canadians view of themselves?

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formulate different types of questions to guide investigations into issues, events, and/or developments in Canadian history since 1914 (e.g., factual questions: What was the Persons Case?; comparative questions: What were some similarities and differences in the experiences of soldiers in World War I and World War II?; causal questions: What issues led to the creation of the Canadian Radio-Television Commission [CRTC]?)

History-CHC2P-10-A1.2

select and organize relevant evidence and information on aspects of Canadian history since 1914 from a variety of primary and secondary sources (e.g., primary sources: art works from the time, books and/or articles from the library, diaries, letters, maps, period newspapers, photographs, songs from the time, statistics; secondary sources: current newspaper or magazine articles, information from websites, reenactments of historical events, textbooks, videos), ensuring that their sources reflect different perspectives Sample questions: If you want to study the history of fashion in the twentieth century, what are some visual sources that you might consult? Where would you locate period photographs? What other sources might you consult? Why might diaries and letters of Japanese Canadians living in internment camps be a good source on their experiences and perspectives? What other sources would you need to consult to explore other peoples perspectives on the internment of the Japanese?

History-CHC2P-10-A1.3

assess the credibility of sources and information relevant to their investigations (e.g., by considering the perspective, bias, accuracy, purpose, and/or context of the source and the values and expertise of its author) Sample questions: Can an anonymous website be considered an appropriate historical source? Why or why not? Whose perspectives are represented in the letters written to Prime Minister Bennett during the Great Depression?

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interpret and analyse evidence and information relevant to their investigations, using various tools, strategies, and approaches appropriate for historical inquiry (e.g., use a ranking ladder to help them determine the significance of factors contributing to the Great Depression; critically select significant events for a timeline on Canada-U.S. relations; compare the points of view in different primary sources relating to the same event) Sample questions: What information can you extract from these song lyrics? Is this information supported by your other sources? What type of tool might help you compare the impact of this development on two different groups?

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use the concepts of historical thinking (i.e., historical significance, cause and consequence, continuity and change, and historical perspective) when analysing, evaluating evidence about, and formulating conclusions and/or judgments regarding historical issues, events, and/or developments in Canada since 1914 (e.g., use the concept of historical significance when assessing the impact of technological developments on the everyday lives of Canadians; use the concept of cause and consequence when ranking the importance of factors contributing to the Great Depression; use the concept of continuity and change when determining turning points in relations between Quebec and the rest of Canada; use the concept of historical perspective when evaluating evidence about residential schools) Sample questions: If you had to determine the most significant event in twentieth-century Canadian history, what criteria would you use? Did the event you have chosen have the same significance for all Canadians?

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evaluate and synthesize their findings to formulate conclusions and/or make informed judgements or predictions about the issues, events, and/or developments they are investigating Sample questions: After analysing the evidence you have gathered, do you think that Canada should have cancelled the Avro Arrow project? Why or why not? After analysing the information and evidence you have gathered, what conclusions have you reached about the arguments for and against the demolition of Africville?

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communicate their ideas, arguments, and conclusions using various formats and styles, as appropriate for the audience and purpose (e.g., a photo essay on the history of a large Canadian city in the twentieth century; an oral presentation on racism and/or antisemitism in Canada; a debate on immigration policy; a video on the Winnipeg General Strike; a role play on changing social values in the 1920s; a poem or rap about the war in Afghanistan; a blog about border security since 9/11)

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use accepted forms of documentation (e.g., footnotes or endnotes, author/date citations, reference lists, bibliographies, credits) to acknowledge different types of sources (e.g., articles, art works, blogs, books, films or videos, songs, websites)

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use appropriate terminology when communicating the results of their investigations (e.g., vocabulary specific to their topic; terminology related to history and to the concepts of historical thinking)

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describe some ways in which historical investigation can help them develop skills, including the essential skills in the Ontario Skills Passport (e.g., skills related to reading text, writing, document use, computer use, oral communication, numeracy), that can be transferred to the world of work and/or to everyday life

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apply in everyday contexts skills and work habits developed through historical investigation (e.g., use skills to assess the credibility of a source, use appropriate organizers to manage their evidence and ideas; apply work habits such as creating and following a plan, taking responsibility when collaborating with peers)

History-CHC2P-10-A2.3

apply the knowledge and skills developed in the study of Canadian history when analysing current social, economic, and/or political issues (e.g., to determine perspectives in media reports on a current event; to understand the significance of a new political policy; to understand ways in which a current social trend is similar to or different from past trends), in order to enhance their understanding of these events and their role as informed citizens Sample questions: Why might it be useful to apply the concept of change and continuity and/or cause and consequence to help you to evaluate the promises being made by politicians during this election campaign? If you were asked to evaluate possible names for a new school in your community, which concepts of historical thinking might you apply? Why?

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identify some careers in which the skills learned in history might be useful (e.g., actor, community worker, musician, politician, tour guide)

History-CHC2P-10-B1.1

describe some key social developments in Canada during this period (e.g., changes in immigration, the broadening of citizenship rights for many women, the treatment of enemy aliens during World War I, the challenges facing returning veterans, the rise of the flapper in popular culture), and assess their impact on the lives of different people in Canada Sample questions: Did the victory of the womens suffrage movement during and after World War I mean that all Canadians had the right to vote? What impact did the growth of ethnic neighbourhoods in Canadian cities have on the ways of life of people living in those neighbourhoods?

History-CHC2P-10-B1.2

identify some major developments in science and/or technology during this period, and explain their significance for different people in Canada (e.g., the impact that military technology such as the Ross rifle had on Canadian soldiers in World War I; the significance of developments in transportation such as airplanes and automobiles for rural Canadians or people involved in manufacturing; the impact of the development of insulin on Canadians with diabetes) Sample questions: What impact did the use of chemical weapons have on soldiers in World War I? Did the mass production of automobiles affect all Canadian youth in the same way? What role did radio play in the everyday lives of people during this time?

History-CHC2P-10-B1.3

describe some key economic trends and developments in Canada during this period (e.g., with reference to the wartime economy, postwar recession, consumerism), and explain their impact on the lives of different people in Canada Sample questions: What was the significance of the consumerism of the 1920s? Did it affect all Canadians the same way? What impact did rising prices have on the lives of different people in Canada? Did all Canadians share in the prosperity of the 1920s?

History-CHC2P-10-B1.4

describe the impact that World War I had on Canadian society and politics and the lives of different people in Canada (e.g., with reference to the internment of enemy aliens; the participation of women in the wartime economy; the conscription crisis; the Union government; new legislation such as the Wartime Elections Act, the Income Tax Act, and the War Measures Act) Sample questions: What impact did the Halifax Explosion have on people living in Halifax, Dartmouth, and the Mikmaq settlement in Tufts Cove? What are some of the ways in which the war changed the lives of many women in Canada? Why were some Ukrainian Canadians interned during and after World War I?

History-CHC2P-10-B2.1

identify some of the causes of World War I (e.g., European alliances and rivalries, militarism), and explain some of the consequences of Canadas military participation in the war (e.g., the passing of the conscription bill; the development of war industries; the military consequences and human costs of battles such as Ypres and Vimy Ridge; issues facing veterans; Remembrance Day) Sample questions: Why did young men enlist in the armed services at the beginning of World War I? Who tended to enlist? Who did not? Given the values and circumstances at the time, would you have enlisted to fight in the war? Why or why not?

History-CHC2P-10-B2.2

describe some significant ways in which Canadians cooperated and/or came into conflict with each other at home during this period (e.g., with reference to the social gospel movement, the womens suffrage movement, labour unions, the Winnipeg General Strike, the Ku Klux Klan), and explain the reasons for these interactions as well as some of their consequences Sample questions: What were the ideas behind the Coloured Womens Club of Montreal? Was it successful in meeting its goals? Why was the League of Indians founded? What impact did it have? Why did some groups not feel welcome in the labour movement? Which groups were excluded? Why? How did they respond? Why was it mandatory for status Indians to attend residential schools? What were the goals of these schools?

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describe some significant challenges facing immigrants and other ethnocultural minorities in Canada during this period (e.g., racism and antisemitism; segregation and discrimination in jobs and housing; immigration policy, including the 1919 Immigration Act; the quality of life on reserves; restrictions imposed by amendments to the Indian Act in 1920; residential schools), and explain some of their consequences Sample questions: What challenges did African-Canadian and First Nations men face when trying to enlist in the Canadian armed forces during World War I? What changes were made to the Chinese Immigration Act in 1923? What attitudes are reflected in these changes? What effects did the changes have?

History-CHC2P-10-B2.4

describe how some specific events, developments, and/or attitudes affected the relationship between French and English Canada during this period (e.g., conscription during World War I, the Ontario Schools Question and the response to Regulation 17, the nationalism of figures such as Henri Bourassa and Abb Lionel Groulx, the ideas of groups such as the Orange Order) Sample questions: What was the message of Quebec nationalists such as Henri Bourassa? How did English Canadians tend to view this message?

History-CHC2P-10-B3.1

describe how some individuals and organizations during this period contributed to the development of identity, citizenship, and/or heritage in Canada (e.g., Billy Bishop, J. Armand Bombardier, Robert Borden, Henri Bourassa, Lionel Connacher, Fred O. Loft, Tom Longboat, Nellie McClung, Mary Pickford; the No. 2 Construction Battalion, One Big Union, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the Womans Christian Temperance Union) Sample questions: What contribution has the National Hockey League (NHL) made to Canadian heritage and identity? How have the actions of labour activists during this period contributed to labour rights then and now? What impact did the art of Tom Thomson and members of the Group of Seven have on Canadian culture and identity? Why are their images still iconic today?

History-CHC2P-10-B3.2

identify some significant developments in the rights and lives of women in Canada during this period (e.g., womens contribution to the war effort, womens suffrage, access to employment, changing social mores in the 1920s, the participation of women in sports), and describe the impact of these developments on Canadian citizenship and/or heritage Sample questions: What effect did the Wartime Elections Act have on Canadian womens right to vote? What effect did the final decision in the Persons Case have on the citizenship rights of women in Canada? What was significant about the participation of Canadian women in the 1928 Olympics?

History-CHC2P-10-B3.3

explain the significance for the development of Canadian identity, citizenship, and/or heritage of some key international events and/or developments in which Canada participated in this period (e.g., the battle of Vimy Ridge; Canadas attending the Paris Peace Conference and signing the Treaty of Versailles; membership in the League of Nations and the Commonwealth of Nations; Canadians participation in international sporting events such as the Olympics; the success of Canadian actors in Hollywood) Sample questions: Why did the poppy come to be associated with Canadians in World War I and then adopted as an international symbol of remembrance? Why is the Bluenose on the Canadian dime? Do you think it is an appropriate symbol for Canada? Why or why not? Why is the Halibut Treaty seen as a turning point in the development of Canadas political autonomy?

History-CHC2P-10-C1.1

identify some key social developments in Canada during this period (e.g., increasing levels of poverty, the dislocation of farm families on the Prairies, the increasing influence of American culture), and explain their main causes as well as their impact on the lives of people in Canada Sample questions: Why did immigration rates and birth rates decline in the 1930s? What impact did high unemployment and poverty rates have on people in Canadian cities?

History-CHC2P-10-C1.2

identify some major developments in science and/or technology during this period, and assess their impact on the lives of Canadians (e.g., the impact of Pablum on childrens health, of developments in aeronautics and radar on Canadas armed forces during World War II) Sample question: What impact did medical advances such as the development of penicillin and improvements in blood transfusions have on Canadian forces during World War II?

History-CHC2P-10-C1.3

describe some key economic trends and developments in Canada during this period (e.g., individuals and corporations buying on margin, the stock market crash of 1929, job losses and high unemployment, the creation of public work camps and government relief), and explain how they affected the lives of people in Canada Sample questions: What do the high unemployment rates of the 1930s tell you about life in Canada during this period? What were Bennett buggies? What do they tell you about the impact of the economic crisis of the 1930s on some Canadians? What impact did World War II have on the Canadian economy?

History-CHC2P-10-C1.4

describe the main causes of some key political developments and/or government policies in Canada during this period (e.g., the development of new political parties; R. B. Bennetts social welfare policies; the passing of the Padlock Act in Quebec; victory bonds; government policies on wartime rationing, propaganda, and censorship; the decision to intern Japanese Canadians during World War II), and explain how they affected the lives of people in Canada Sample questions: Why did the government invoke the War Measures Act during World War II? What effect did it have on the lives of people in Canada? Why did the Alberta government force some people with disabilities to undergo sterilization?

History-CHC2P-10-C2.1

identify some significant ways in which Canadians cooperated and/or came into conflict with each other during this period (e.g., the founding of the Canadian Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; the On-to-Ottawa Trek; antisemitic and racial conflicts such as the riot in Christie Pits or those related to the ruling by the Supreme Court in the Christie case [1940]; the hostility towards some ethnocultural minorities during World War II), and explain their impact on different people in Canada Sample questions: Why did the Great Depression increase race-based tensions in Canada? What were the major concerns of people involved in the Antigonish movement? How did they address these concerns? What changes did they bring about? Which had the greatest impact on Canadians?

History-CHC2P-10-C2.2

explain how some key issues and/or developments affected Canadas relationships with Great Britain and the United States during this period (e.g., with reference to prohibition and rum running; the Statute of Westminster, 1931; placing high tariffs on American magazines; trade and other economic ties; military involvement in World War II) Sample questions: Why did prohibition in the United States strain the relationship between Canada and the United States? Why did Canada train Commonwealth pilots during World War II? What does the air training program tell you about the relationship between Canada and Great Britain?

History-CHC2P-10-C2.3

describe some ways in which World War II changed the lives of different groups in Canada (e.g., with reference to economic recovery, rationing; the experiences of young men enlisting in the armed services, munitions workers, farmers, men in the merchant marine, women, Japanese Canadians) Sample questions: Which groups were interned in Canada during the war? How did this treatment change their lives? What opportunities opened to women in Canada as a result of the war?

History-CHC2P-10-C3.1

describe how some individuals, organizations, and symbols contributed to the development of identity, citizenship, and/or heritage in Canada during this period (e.g., individuals: R. B. Bennett, Norman Bethune, Emily Carr, the Dionne quintuplets, Maurice Duplessis, Foster Hewitt, Mackenzie King, Guy Lombardo, Elsie MacGill, Tommy Prince; organizations: the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation [CBC], the Edmonton Grads, the National Film Board; symbols: the Bennett buggy, the Bren Gun Girl) Sample questions: How has the CBC contributed to Canadian heritage and identity? Why is the Bennett buggy a symbol of the Great Depression? Do you think it is an appropriate symbol? Why or why not?

History-CHC2P-10-C3.2

describe responses of Canada and Canadians to some major international events and/or developments that occurred between 1929 and 1945, including their military response to World War II (e.g., the Red Scare, the Holodomor, the Nanking Massacre, aggression by Nazi Germany, the Battle of Hong Kong, the Holocaust, D-Day, the Manhattan Project, the liberation of the Netherlands, the contributions of individuals such as Norman Bethune or Paul Triquet), and explain the significance of these responses for Canadian identity and/or heritage Sample questions: How did different groups in Canada respond to the rise of the Nazis? What social attitudes and values are reflected in those responses? Why did the Canadian government refuse to allow the SS St Louis entry into Canada? Why does the Netherlands send thousands of tulip bulbs to Canada every year?

History-CHC2P-10-C3.3

explain the significance of the Holocaust for Canada and Canadians (e.g., with reference to antisemitism in Canada in the 1930s and 1940s, Canadas reaction to anti-Jewish persecution in Nazi Germany, the role of Canadians in liberating Nazi concentration and death camps, postwar refugee policy and attitudes towards survivors, the evolution of human rights and antihate crime legislation) Sample question: When you look at the paintings of Canadian war artists made during the liberation of Nazi concentration and death camps, what impact do you think they would have had on people in Canada?

History-CHC2P-10-D1.1

describe some key demographic trends and developments in Canada during this period (e.g., origins of immigrants and refugees, the arrival of war brides, the baby boom, the growth of suburbs, increased urbanization, the changing status of established ethnocultural groups), and compare them to trends/developments earlier in the century Sample questions: What was new about the teen subcultures that developed after World War II? In what ways were the lives of youth in the 1950s and 1960s different from those who lived in the 1920s?

History-CHC2P-10-D1.2

identify some major developments in science and/or technology during this period, and explain how they changed the lives of people in Canada (e.g., the popularization of television changed recreational habits; developments in medicine contributed to increased life expectancy; the development and use of satellites expanded communications across the country; innovations in the design of the snowmobile changed the way many people in rural and northern Canada travelled in the winter; the advent of commercial fertilizers and pesticides helped farmers but also had consequences for the environment) Sample questions: What types of changes arose from developments in computers in this period? How did developments in plastics during this time affect peoples lives?

History-CHC2P-10-D1.3

describe some key trends and developments in the Canadian economy during this period (e.g., postwar consumerism, branch plants, the Auto Pact, the energy crises of the 1970s, labour unrest), and assess how they affected the lives of people in Canada Sample questions: What impact did the energy crisis have on the auto industry in Canada? How did it change the lives of Canadians?

History-CHC2P-10-D1.4

describe some key political developments and/or government policies in Canada during this period (e.g., the response to the Cold War, including joining the North Atlantic Treaty Organization [NATO]; Newfoundlands joining Confederation; the Massey Commission; the creation of the CRTC; the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism; social welfare legislation; the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms), and assess how they affected the lives of people in Canada Sample questions: In what ways were government social programs from this period different from those created during the Depression? Do you think the Royal Commission on the Status of Women was a turning point for women in Canada? Why or why not?

History-CHC2P-10-D2.1

describe some key factors that affected the relationship between French and English Canada during this period (e.g., with reference to the Quiet Revolution, bilingualism and biculturalism, the flag debate, Expo 67, the formation of the Parti Qubcois, the October Crisis, the Montreal Olympics, Bill 101, negotiations to patriate the Constitution), and assess their significance for both French and English Canadians Sample questions: What was the significance of the Asbestos Strike for French-English relations? How did language rights affect the relationship between French and English Canada? Why might language rights be more important to French Canadians than to English Canadians?

History-CHC2P-10-D2.2

identify some major social movements in Canada during this period (e.g., civil rights, womens, Aboriginal, environmental, peace, sovereignty, labour, or youth movements), and explain their goals and perspectives Sample questions: What were some of the issues that motivated the early environmental movement in Canada? What were some of the main goals of the womens movement in this period? Whose perspectives did these goals reflect? What impact did the civil rights movement in the United States have on African Canadians? What were some of the issues around which Aboriginal people organized during this period?

History-CHC2P-10-D2.3

describe some key developments related to Canadas participation in the international community during this period, with a particular focus on the context of the Cold War (e.g., with reference to membership in the United Nations, the North American Air Defense Command [NORAD], and/or NATO; the Gouzenko Affair; the Korean War; the Suez Crisis; the arms race and the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty; peacekeeping), and assess their significance Sample question: How significant was the Cold War in influencing Canadas participation in the international community during this period?

History-CHC2P-10-D2.4

describe some key developments in Canadas relationship with the United States during this period (e.g., with reference to NORAD and the Dew Line, the St. Lawrence Seaway, the influence of American cultural industries, the Vietnam War, environmental concerns such as acid rain), and explain their significance Sample questions: Which development in Canadian-American relations in this period do you think had the most significance for Canadians? Why? Why has the Avro Arrow become a symbol for Canadas changing relations with the United States?

History-CHC2P-10-D3.1

describe ways in which some individuals, symbols, and/or events during this period contributed to the development of identity, citizenship, and/or heritage in Canada (e.g., individuals: Doris Anderson, Kenojuak Ashevak, Rosemary Brown, Frank Arthur Calder, Leonard Cohen, Tommy Douglas, Terry Fox, Chief Dan George, Daniel G. Hill, Ren Lvesque, Norval Morrisseau, Madeleine Parent, Lester B. Pearson, Maurice Richard, Buffy Sainte-Marie, David Suzuki, Pierre Trudeau, Jean Vanier, Gilles Vigneault; events: the convening of the Massey Commission, the demolition of Africville, the 1972 Hockey Summit Series; symbols: the Canadian flag, the Ontario flag) Sample questions: What was the significance of Expo 67 for Canadian heritage and identity? In what ways did Viola Desmond contribute to the development of Canadian citizenship? Why has Paul Hendersons goal during the 1972 Hockey Summit Series become an enduring symbol for Canadians? Why do you think that certain people or events from this period have become national symbols?

History-CHC2P-10-D3.2

describe some significant developments and/or issues that affected First Nations, Mtis, and Inuit people in Canada during this period (e.g., the continuing existence of residential schools; enfranchisement in 1960; Aboriginal title and land claims; the White Paper and the Red Paper; the founding of the Assembly of First Nations; the Calder case; the James Bay project; efforts to secure equality for First Nations women), and explain the impact of these developments/ issues on identity, citizenship, and/or heritage in Canada Sample questions: When did status Indians in Canada gain the right to vote? What was the significance of this development for First Nations people? For citizenship in Canada? What impact did First Nations and Inuit art from this period have on Aboriginal and Canadian heritage and identity? What impact did the recognition of Mtis in the 1982 constitution have on Mtis and Canadian heritage and identity?

History-CHC2P-10-D3.3

identify some key social welfare programs in Canada that were created or expanded during this period (e.g., unemployment insurance, family allowance, medicare, old age security), and explain some of their effects, with reference to the everyday lives of Canadians and to Canadian identity Sample questions: What factors led to the creation of the Canada/Quebec Pension Plan? What was the significance of this program for Canadians? How important do you think medicare is for Canadian identity?

History-CHC2P-10-D3.4

describe some key developments in immigration and immigration policy in Canada during this period, and assess their significance for Canadian heritage and identity (e.g., with reference to the points system, origins of immigrants and refugees, the development of Canada as a multicultural society, cultural festivals) Sample questions: What impact did the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 have on immigrants to Canada? What changes in policy were reflected in the Immigration Act of 1978? What impact did they have on Canadian heritage?

History-CHC2P-10-E1.1

describe some key social trends and/or developments in Canada since 1982 (e.g., changes in families, such as higher divorce rates, lower birth rates, same-sex marriage; changes in immigration; an increasingly multicultural society; continuing movement from rural to urban areas; the growth of social advocacy groups, including environmental and human rights groups), and assess their significance for the lives of different people in Canada Sample questions: What impact has the decline in the birth rate in this period had on Canadian society? What impact is it likely to have on Canadians in the future?

History-CHC2P-10-E1.2

identify some major developments in science and/or technology since 1982 (e.g., personal computers, the Internet, cellphones, electric and hybrid cars, recycling technologies, cloning, genetically modified foods, new fossil fuel extraction technologies, developments in alternative energy, artificial hearts), and assess their impact of the lives of different people in Canada Sample questions: Which scientific or technological development during this period do you think has had the greatest impact on the lives of Canadians? Why? How has the development of social media affected the lives of different people in Canada? What are some of the issues that surround the use of social media?

History-CHC2P-10-E1.3

describe some key trends and developments in the Canadian economy since 1982 (e.g., the decline of the manufacturing sector and fisheries, developments in the information economy, free trade, recessions, the development of the energy sector in western and Atlantic Canada), and explain their impact on different people in Canada Sample questions: What impact has the decline of the manufacturing sector had on workers in Canada? How has the development of online retail and resulting competition affected different groups of Canadians? Which industries and personal practices are changing as a result of this development?

History-CHC2P-10-E1.4

describe some key political developments and/or government policies in Canada since 1982 (e.g., the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement and/or the North American Free Trade Agreement, new political parties such as the Reform Party and the Green Party, the introduction of the Goods and Services Tax and/or the Harmonized Sales Tax, Aboriginal rights in section 25 of the Constitution Act, fishing moratoria, the Montreal Protocol, the Kyoto Accord, the Civil Marriage Act), and assess their impact on the lives of different people in Canada Sample questions: How has the moratorium on cod fishing affected the lives people in Atlantic Canada? How has the Marshall decision affected how Canadians view Aboriginal rights?

History-CHC2P-10-E2.1

describe some significant issues and/or developments that have affected the relationship between Quebec and the federal government since 1982 (e.g., the Meech Lake and/or Charlottetown Accords, the creation of the Bloc Qubcois, the 1995 referendum, the Clarity Act, the Calgary Declaration), and explain some changes have resulted from them Sample questions: What was the purpose of the Charlottetown Accord? How did its defeat change the relationship between Quebec and Ottawa?

History-CHC2P-10-E2.2

describe some significant issues and/or developments that have affected relations between governments and First Nations, Inuit, and Mtis peoples in Canada since 1982 (e.g., the Meech Lake Accord; disputes over land at Oka, Ipperwash, and/or Caledonia; the Nisgaa Final Agreement (1998); Ottawas apology for the residential school system; the creation of Nunavut; the New Credit Settlement; the Idle No More movement), and explain some changes that have resulted from them Sample question: What progress has been made with respect to Aboriginal land claims since 1982?

History-CHC2P-10-E2.3

describe some significant issues and/or developments that have affected the relationship between Canada and the United States since 1982 (e.g., cruise missile testing, the softwood lumber conflict, free trade agreements, Canadian cultural nationalism, American branch plants, Arctic sovereignty, 9/11, border security, the Omar Khadr case), and explain some changes that have resulted from them Sample question: What changes in the relationship between Canada and the United States resulted from 9/11?

History-CHC2P-10-E3.1

describe ways in which some individuals and organizations have contributed to society and politics and to the development of identity, citizenship, and/or heritage in Canada since 1982 (e.g., Lincoln Alexander, Louise Arbour, Shawn Atleo, Maude Barlow, Lucien Bouchard, June Callwood, Jean Chrtien, Matthew Coon Come, Romeo Dallaire, Phil Fontaine, Stephen Harper, Michalle Jean, Craig Kielburger, Brian Mulroney, Jeanne Sauv, Jean Vanier; the Assembly of First Nations, the Reform Party, the Romanow Commission) Sample question: What criteria would you use to assess the contribution of Stephen Lewis to Canadian society and politics and to Canadian identity?

History-CHC2P-10-E3.2

describe ways in which individuals, organizations, and/or events have contributed to the arts and/or popular culture in Canada since 1982 (e.g., Susan Aglukark, Donovan Bailey, Adam Beach, Edward Burtynsky, Austin Clarke, Sidney Crosby, Celine Dion, Drake, Michael J. Fox, Nelly Furtado, Karen Kain, Wab Kinew, Knaan, Avril Lavigne, Rick Mercer, Michael Ondaatje, Shania Twain, Hayley Wickenheiser; Arcade Fire, the NHL, Nickleback; the Calgary Stampede, Caribana [Caribbean Carnival], the Calgary and Vancouver Olympics, Cirque du Soleil), and explain their significance for cultural identity, including multiculturalism, in Canada Sample question: What did the opening and closing ceremonies at the Vancouver Olympics reveal about Canadian identity?

History-CHC2P-10-E3.3

explain the significance of responses by Canada and Canadians to some key international events and/or developments since 1982 (e.g., the Gulf War; events in Bosnia, Somalia, Rwanda; the War on Terror and the mission in Afghanistan; famine in Ethiopia; the AIDS crisis; the refugee crisis in Darfur; natural disasters such as the Indian Ocean tsunami or the earthquake in Haiti; climate change) Sample questions: What was Canadas involvement in Rwanda during the time of the genocide? What effect did this involvement have in Rwanda, Canada, and internationally?

History-CHC2P-10-E3.4

describe some of the ways in which Canada and Canadians have, since 1982, acknowledged the consequences of and/or commemorated past events, with a focus on human tragedies and human rights violations that occurred in Canada or elsewhere in the world (e.g., apologies for the Chinese Head Tax, the internment of Japanese Canadians, and/or residential schools; memorial days such as Remembrance Day, Persons Day; government recognition of the Holocaust and Holodomor and of genocide in Armenia, Rwanda, and/or Srebrenica; plans to build a human rights museum and/or a memorial to Africville; Black History or Aboriginal History Month), and explain the significance of these commemorations for identity and/or heritage in Canada Sample questions: When you review various types of commemorations, what criteria do you think have determined whether an event is commemorated by Canadians? What do these criteria tell you about Canadian identity and/or heritage?