# Ontario Curriculum — Grade 9

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#### 9-MFM1P.4.1.

Determine values of a linear relation by using a table of values, by using the equation of the relation, and by interpolating or extrapolating from the graph of the relation

#### 9-MFM1P.4.2.

Describe a situation that would explain the events illustrated by a given graph of a relationship between two variables

#### 9-MFM1P.4.3.

Determine other representations of a linear relation arising from a realistic situation, given one representation (e.g., given a numeric model, determine a graphical model and an algebraic model; given a graph, determine some points on the graph and determine an algebraic model);

#### 9-MFM1P.4.4.

Solve problems that can be modelled with first-degree equations, and compare the algebraic method to other solution methods (e.g., graphing)

#### 9-MFM1P.4.5.

Describe the effects on a linear graph and make the corresponding changes to the linear equation when the conditions of the situation they represent are varied (e.g., given a partial variation graph and an equation representing the cost of producing a yearbook, describe how the graph changes if the cost per book is altered, describe how the graph changes if the fixed costs are altered, and make the corresponding changes to the equation);

#### 9-MFM1P.4.6.

Determine graphically the point of intersection of two linear relations, and interpret the intersection point in the context of an application

#### 9-MFM1P.4.7.

Select a topic involving a two-variable relationship (e.g., the amount of your pay cheque and the number of hours you work; trends in sports salaries over time; the time required to cool a cup of coffee), pose a question on the topic, collect data to answer the question, and present its solution using appropriate representations of the data

#### 9-MFM1P.A.1.

Solving Problems Involving Proportional Reasoning: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MFM1P.A.1.1.

Illustrate equivalent ratios, using a variety of tools (e.g., concrete materials, diagrams, dynamic geometry software) (e.g., show that 4:6 represents the same ratio as 2:3 by showing that a ramp with a height of 4 m and a base of 6 m and a ramp with a height of 2 m and a base of 3 m are equally steep);

#### 9-MFM1P.A.1.2.

Represent, using equivalent ratios and proportions, directly proportional relationships arising from realistic situations

#### 9-MFM1P.A.1.3.

Solve for the unknown value in a proportion, using a variety of methods (e.g., concrete materials, algebraic reasoning, equivalent ratios, constant of proportionality)

#### 9-MFM1P.A.1.4.

Make comparisons using unit rates (e.g., if 500 mL of juice costs \$2.29, the unit rate is 0.458 cents/mL; this unit rate is less than for 750 mL of juice at \$3.59, which has a unit rate of 0.479 cents/mL);

#### 9-MFM1P.A.1.5.

Solve problems involving ratios, rates, and directly proportional relationships in various contexts (e.g., currency conversions, scale drawings, measurement), using a variety of methods (e.g., using algebraic reasoning, equivalent ratios, a constant of proportionality; using dynamic geometry software to construct and measure scale drawings)

#### 9-MFM1P.A.1.6.

Solve problems requiring the expression of percents, fractions, and decimals in their equivalent forms (e.g., calculating simple interest and sales tax; analysing data)

#### 9-MFM1P.A.2.

Simplifying Expressions and Solving Equations: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MFM1P.A.2.1.

Simplify numerical expressions involving integers and rational numbers, with and without the use of technology;*

#### 9-MFM1P.A.2.3.

Describe the relationship between the algebraic and geometric representations of a single-variable term up to degree three [i.e., length, which is one dimensional, can be represented by x; area, which is two dimensional, can be represented by (x)(x) or x ^ 2; volume, which is three dimensional, can be represented by (x)(x)(x), (x ^ 2)(x), or x ^ 3];

#### 9-MFM1P.A.2.4.

Substitute into and evaluate algebraic expressions involving exponents (i.e., evaluate expressions involving natural-number exponents with rational-number bases) [e.g., evaluate ( 3/2) ^ 3 by hand and 9.8 ^ 3 by using a calculator])

#### 9-MFM1P.A.2.5.

Add and subtract polynomials involving the same variable up to degree three [e.g., (2x + 1) + (x ^ 2 - 3x + 4)], using a variety of tools (e.g., algebra tiles, computer algebra systems, paper and pencil);

#### 9-MFM1P.A.2.6.

Multiply a polynomial by a monomial involving the same variable to give results up to degree three [e.g., (2x)(3x), 2x(x + 3)], using a variety of tools (e.g., algebra tiles, drawings, computer algebra systems, paper and pencil);

#### 9-MFM1P.A.2.7.

Solve first-degree equations with nonfractional coefficients, using a variety of tools (e.g., computer algebra systems, paper and pencil) and strategies (e.g., the balance analogy, algebraic strategies)

#### 9-MFM1P.A.2.8.

Substitute into algebraic equations and solve for one variable in the first degree (e.g., in relationships, in measurement)

#### 9-MFM1P.A1.

Solve problems involving proportional reasoning;

#### 9-MFM1P.B.1.

Using Data Management to Investigate Relationships: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MFM1P.B.1.1.

Interpret the meanings of points on scatterplots or graphs that represent linear relations, including scatter plots or graphs in more than one quadrant [e.g., on a scatter plot of height versus age, interpret the point (13, 150) as representing a student who is 13 years old and 150 cm tall; identify points on the graph that represent students who are taller and younger than this student]

#### 9-MFM1P.B.1.2.

Pose problems, identify variables, and formulate hypotheses associated with = relationships between two variables

#### 9-MFM1P.B.1.3.

Carry out an investigation or experiment involving relationships between two variables, including the collection and organization of data, using appropriate methods, equipment, and/or technology (e.g., surveying; using measuring tools, scientific probes, the Internet) and techniques (e.g.,making tables, drawing graphs

#### 9-MFM1P.B.1.4.

Describe trends and relationships observed in data, make inferences from data, compare the inferences with hypotheses about the data, and explain any differences between the inferences and the hypotheses (e.g., describe the trend observed in the data. Does a relationship seem to exist? Of what sort? Is the outcome consistent with your hypothesis? Identify and explain any outlying pieces of data. Suggest a formula that relates the variables. How might you vary this experiment to examine other relationships?)

#### 9-MFM1P.B.2..

Determining Characteristics of LinearRelations: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MFM1P.B.2.1.

Construct tables of values and graphs, using a variety of tools (e.g., graphing calculators, spreadsheets, graphing software, paper and pencil), to represent linear relations derived from descriptions of realistic situations

#### 9-MFM1P.B.2.2.

Construct tables of values, scatter plots, and lines or curves of best fit as appropriate, using a variety of tools (e.g., spreadsheets, graphing software, graphing calculators, paper and pencil), for linearly related and non-linearly related data collected from a variety of sources (e.g., experiments, electronic secondary sources, patterning with concrete materials)

#### 9-MFM1P.B.2.3.

Identify, through investigation, some properties of linear relations (i.e., numerically, the first difference is a constant, which represents a constant rate of change; graphically, a straight line represents the relation), and apply these properties to determine whether a relation is linear or non-linear.

#### 9-MFM1P.B.3.

Investigating Constant Rate of Change: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MFM1P.B.3.1.

Determine, through investigation, that the rate of change of a linear relation can be found by choosing any two points on the line that represents the relation, finding the vertical change between the points (i.e., the rise) and the horizontal change between the points (i.e., the run), and writing the ratio rise /run (i.e., rate of change = rise / run);

#### 9-MFM1P.B.3.2.

Determine, through investigation, connections among the representations of a constant rate of change of a linear relation (e.g., the cost of producing a book of photographs is \$50, plus \$5 per book, so an equation is C = 50 + 5p; a table of values provides the first difference of 5; the rate of change has a value of 5; and 5 is the coefficient of the independent variable, p, in this equation);

#### 9-MFM1P.B.3.3.

Compare the properties of direct variation and partial variation in applications, and identify the initial value (e.g., for a relation described in words, or represented as a graph or an equation)

#### 9-MFM1P.B.3.4.

Express a linear relation as an equation in two variables, using the rate of change and the initial value (e.g., Mei is raising funds in a charity walkathon; the course measures 25 km, and Mei walks at a steady pace of 4 km/h; the distance she has left to walk can be expressed as d = 25 - 4t, where t is the number of hours since she started the walk);

#### 9-MFM1P.B.3.5.

Describe the meaning of the rate of change and the initial value for a linear relation arising from a realistic situation (e.g., the cost to rent the community gym is \$40 per evening, plus \$2 per person for equipment rental; the vertical intercept, 40, represents the \$40 cost of renting the gym; the value of the rate of change, 2, represents the \$2 cost per person), and describe a situation that could be modeled by a given linear equation (e.g., the linear equation M = 50 + 6d could model the mass of a shipping package, including 50 g for the packaging material, plus 6 g per flyer added to the package).

#### 9-MFM1P.B.4.

Connecting Various Representations of Linear Relations and Solving Problems Using the Representations: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MFM1P.C.1.

Investigating the Optimal Values of Measurements of Rectangles: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MFM1P.C.1.1.

Determine the maximum area of a rectangle with a given perimeter by constructing a variety of rectangles, using a variety of tools (e.g., geoboards, graph paper, toothpicks, a pre-made dynamic geometry sketch), and by examining various values of the area as the side lengths change and the perimeter remains constant;

#### 9-MFM1P.C.1.2.

Determine the minimum perimeter of a rectangle with a given area by constructing a variety of rectangles, using a variety of tools (e.g., geoboards, graph paper, a premade dynamic geometry sketch), and by examining various values of the side lengths and the perimeter as the area stays constant;

#### 9-MFM1P.C.1.3.

Solve problems that require maximizing the area of a rectangle for a fixed perimeter or minimizing the perimeter of a rectangle for a fixed area

#### 9-MFM1P.C.2.

Solving Problems Involving Perimeter, Area, and Volume: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MFM1P.C.2.1.

Relate the geometric representation of the Pythagorean theorem to the algebraic representation a ^ 2 + b ^ 2 = c ^ 2;

#### 9-MFM1P.C.2.2.

Solve problems using the Pythagorean theorem, as required in applications (e.g., calculate the height of a cone, given the radius and the slant height, in order to determine the volume of the cone);

#### 9-MFM1P.C.2.3.

Solve problems involving the areas and perimeters of composite two-dimensional shapes (i.e., combinations of rectangles, triangles, parallelograms, trapezoids, and circles)

#### 9-MFM1P.C.2.4.

Develop, through investigation (e.g., using concrete materials), the formulas for the volume of a pyramid, a cone, and a sphere (e.g., use three-dimensional figures to show that the volume of a pyramid [or cone] is 1/3 the volume of a prism [or cylinder] with the same base and height, and therefore that Vpyramid = Vprism/3 or Vpyramid = (area of base)(height)/3);

#### 9-MFM1P.C.2.5.

Solve problems involving the volumes of prisms, pyramids, cylinders, cones, and spheres

#### 9-MFM1P.C.3.

Investigating and Applying Geometric Relationships: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MFM1P.C.3.1.

Determine, through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., dynamic geometry software, concrete materials), and describe the properties and relationships of the interior and exterior angles of triangles, quadrilaterals, and other polygons, and apply the results to problems involving the angles of polygons

#### 9-MFM1P.C.3.2.

Determine, through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., dynamic geometry software, concrete materials), and describe the properties and relationships of the angles formed by parallel lines cut by a transversal, and apply the results to problems involving parallel lines (e.g., given a diagram of a rectangular gate with a supporting diagonal beam, and given the measure of one angle in the diagram, use the angle properties of triangles and parallel lines to determine the measures of the other angles in the diagram);

#### 9-MFM1P.C.3.3.

Create an original dynamic sketch, paper folding design, or other illustration that incorporates some of the geometric properties from this section, or find and report on some real-life application(s) (e.g., in carpentry, sports, architecture) of the geometric properties.

#### 9-MPM1D.A.1.

Operating with Exponents: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MPM1D.A.1.1.

Substitute into and evaluate algebraic expressions involving exponents (i.e., evaluate expressions involving natural-number exponents with rational-number bases [e.g., evaluate 3/2 ^ 3 by hand and 9.8 ^ 3 by using a calculator])

#### 9-MPM1D.A.1.2.

Describe the relationship between the algebraic and geometric representations of a single-variable term up to degree three [i.e., length, which is one dimensional, can be represented by x; area, which is two dimensional, can be represented by (x)(x) or x ^ 2; volume, which is three dimensional, can be represented by (x)(x)(x), (x ^ 2)(x), or x ^ 3];

#### 9-MPM1D.A.1.3.

Derive, through the investigation and examination of patterns, the exponent rules for multiplying and dividing monomials, and apply these rules in expressions involving one and two variables with positive exponents; extend the multiplication rule to derive and understand the power of a power rule, and apply it to simplify expressions involving one and two variables with positive exponents.

#### 9-MPM1D.A.2.

Manipulating Expressions and Solving Equations: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MPM1D.A.2.1.

Simplify numerical expressions involving integers and rational numbers, with and without the use of technology;*

#### 9-MPM1D.A.2.2.

Solve problems requiring the manipulation of expressions arising from applications of percent, ratio, rate, and proportion;*

#### 9-MPM1D.A.2.4.

Add and subtract polynomials with up to two variables [e.g., (2x - 5) + (3x + 1), (3x ^ 2y + 2xy ^ 2) + (4x ^ 2y - 6xy ^ 2)], using a variety of tools (e.g., algebra tiles, computer algebra systems, paper and pencil);

#### 9-MPM1D.A.2.5.

Multiply a polynomial by a monomial involving the same variable [e.g., 2x(x + 4), 2x ^ 2(3x ^ 2 - 2x + 1)], using a variety of tools (e.g., algebra tiles, diagrams, computer algebra systems, paper and pencil);

#### 9-MPM1D.A.2.6.

Expand and simplify polynomial expressions involving one variable [e.g., 2x(4x + 1) - 3x(x + 2)], using a variety of tools (e.g., algebra tiles, computer algebra systems, paper and pencil);

#### 9-MPM1D.A.2.7.

Solve first-degree equations, including equations with fractional coefficients, using a variety of tools (e.g., computer algebra systems, paper and pencil) and strategies (e.g., the balance analogy, algebraic strategies);

#### 9-MPM1D.A.2.8.

Rearrange formulas involving variables in the first degree, with and without substitution (e.g., in analytic geometry, in measurement)

#### 9-MPM1D.A.2.9.

Solve problems that can be modelled with first-degree equations, and compare algebraic methods to other solution methods

#### 9-MPM1D.B.1.

Using Data Management to Investigate Relationships: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MPM1D.B.1.1.

Interpret the meanings of points on scatter plots or graphs that represent linear relations, including scatter plots or graphs in more than one quadrant [e.g., on a scatter plot of height versus age, interpret the point (13, 150) as representing a student who is 13 years old and 150 cm tall; identify points on the graph that represent students who are taller and younger than this student]

#### 9-MPM1D.B.1.2.

Pose problems, identify variables, and formulate hypotheses associated with = relationships between two variables

#### 9-MPM1D.B.1.3.

Design and carry out an investigation or experiment involving relationships between two variables, including the collection and organization of data, using appropriate methods, equipment, and/or technology (e.g., surveying; using measuring tools, scientific probes, the Internet) and techniques (e.g., making tables, drawing graphs)

#### 9-MPM1D.B.1.4.

Describe trends and relationships observed in data, make inferences from data, compare the inferences with hypotheses about the data, and explain any differences between the inferences and the hypotheses (e.g., describe the trend observed in the data. Does a relationship seem to exist? Of what sort? Is the outcome consistent with your hypothesis? Identify and explain any outlying pieces of data. Suggest a formula that relates the variables. How might you vary this experiment to examine other relationships?)

#### 9-MPM1D.B.2.

Understanding Characteristics of Linear Relations: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MPM1D.B.2.1.

Construct tables of values, graphs, and equations, using a variety of tools (e.g., graphing calculators, spreadsheets, graphing software, paper and pencil), to represent linear relations derived from descriptions of realistic situations

#### 9-MPM1D.B.2.2.

Construct tables of values, scatter plots, and lines or curves of best fit as appropriate, using a variety of tools (e.g., spreadsheets, graphing software, graphing calculators, paper and pencil), for linearly related and non-linearly related data collected from a variety of sources (e.g., experiments, electronic secondary sources, patterning with concrete materials)

#### 9-MPM1D.B.2.3.

Identify, through investigation, some properties of linear relations (i.e., numerically, the first difference is a constant, which represents a constant rate of change; graphically, a straight line represents the relation), and apply these properties to determine whether a relation is linear or non-linear;

#### 9-MPM1D.B.2.4.

Compare the properties of direct variation and partial variation in applications, and identify the initial value (e.g., for a relation described in words, or represented as a graph or an equation)

#### 9-MPM1D.B.2.5.

Determine the equation of a line of best fit for a scatter plot, using an informal process (e.g., using a movable line in dynamic statistical software; using a process of trial and error on a graphing calculator; determining the equation of the line joining two carefully chosen points on the scatterplot).

#### 9-MPM1D.B.3.

Connecting Various Representations of Linear Relations: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MPM1D.B.3.1.

Determine values of a linear relation by using a table of values, by using the equation of the relation, and by interpolating or extrapolating from the graph of the relation

#### 9-MPM1D.B.3.2.

Describe a situation that would explain the events illustrated by a given graph of a relationship between two variables

#### 9-MPM1D.B.3.3.

Determine other representations of a linear relation, given one representation (e.g., given a numeric model, determine a graphical model and an algebraic model; given a graph, determine some points on the graph and determine an algebraic model);

#### 9-MPM1D.B.3.4.

Describe the effects on a linear graph and make the corresponding changes to the linear equation when the conditions of the situation they represent are varied (e.g., given a partial variation graph and an equation representing the cost of producing a yearbook, describe how the graph changes if the cost per book is altered, describe how the graph changes if the fixed costs are altered, and make the corresponding changes to the equation).

#### 9-MPM1D.C.1.

Investigating the Relationship Between the Equation of a Relation and the Shape of Its Graph: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MPM1D.C.1.1.

Determine, through investigation, the characteristics that distinguish the equation of a straight line from the equations of nonlinear relations (e.g., use a graphing calculator or graphing software to graph a variety of linear and non-linear relations from their equations; classify the relations according to the shapes of their graphs; connect an equation of degree one to a linear relation);

#### 9-MPM1D.C.1.2.

Identify, through investigation, the equation of a line in any of the forms y = mx + b, Ax + By + C = 0, x = a, y = b;

#### 9-MPM1D.C.1.3.

Express the equation of a line in the form y = mx + b, given the form Ax + By + C = 0.

#### 9-MPM1D.C.2.

Investigating the Properties of Slope: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MPM1D.C.2.1.

Determine, through investigation, various formulas for the slope of a line segment or a line (e.g., m = rise / run , m = the change in y / the change in x or m = delta y / delta x ,m = (y2 - y1) /( x2 - x1)), and use the formulas to determine the slope of a line segment or a line;

#### 9-MPM1D.C.2.2.

Identify, through investigation with technology, the geometric significance of m and b in the equation y = mx + b;

#### 9-MPM1D.C.2.3.

Determine, through investigation, connections among the representations of a constant rate of change of a linear relation (e.g., the cost of producing a book of photographs is \$50, plus \$5 per book, so an equation is C = 50 + 5p; a table of values provides the first difference of 5; the rate of change has a value of 5, which is also the slope of the corresponding line; and 5 is the coefficient of the independent variable, p, in this equation);

#### 9-MPM1D.C.2.4.

Identify, through investigation, properties of the slopes of lines and line segments (e.g., direction, positive or negative rate of change, steepness, parallelism, perpendicularity), using graphing technology to facilitate investigations, where appropriate.

#### 9-MPM1D.C.3.

Using the Properties of Linear Relations to Solve Problems: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MPM1D.C.3.1.

Graph lines by hand, using a variety of techniques (e.g., graph y = 2/3x - 4 using the y-intercept and slope; graph 2x + 3y = 6 using the x- and y-intercepts);

#### 9-MPM1D.C.3.2.

Determine the equation of a line from information about the line (e.g., the slope and y-intercept; the slope and a point; two points);

#### 9-MPM1D.C.3.3.

Describe the meaning of the slope and y-intercept for a linear relation arising from a realistic situation (e.g., the cost to rent the community gym is \$40 per evening, plus \$2 per person for equipment rental; the vertical intercept, 40, represents the \$40 cost of renting the gym; the value of the rate of change, 2, represents the \$2 cost per person), and describe a situation that could be modelled by a given linear equation (e.g., the linear equation M = 50 + 6d could model the mass of a shipping package, including 50g for the packaging material, plus 6g per er added to the package);

#### 9-MPM1D.C.3.4.

Identify and explain any restrictions on the variables in a linear relation arising from a realistic situation (e.g., in the relation C = 50 + 25n, C is the cost of holding a party in a hall and n is the number of guests; n is restricted to whole numbers of 100 or less, because of the size of the hall, and C is consequently restricted to \$50 to \$2550);

#### 9-MPM1D.C.3.5.

Determine graphically the point of intersection of two linear relations, and interpret the intersection point in the context of an application.

#### 9-MPM1D.D.1.

Investigating the Optimal Values of Measurements: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MPM1D.D.1.1.

Determine the maximum area of a rectangle with a given perimeter by constructing a variety of rectangles, using a variety of tools (e.g., geoboards, graph paper, toothpicks, pre-made dynamic geometry ketch), and by examining various values of the area as the side lengths change and he perimeter remains constant;

#### 9-MPM1D.D.1.2.

Determine the minimum perimeter of a rectangle with a given area by constructing a variety of rectangles, using a variety of tools (e.g., geoboards, graph paper, a premade dynamic geometry sketch), and by examining various values of the side lengths and the perimeter as the area stays constant;

#### 9-MPM1D.D.1.4.

Explain the significance of optimal area, surface area, or volume in various applications (e.g., the minimum amount of packaging material; the relationship between surface area and heat loss);

#### 9-MPM1D.D.1.5.

Pose and solve problems involving maximization and minimization of measurements of geometric shapes and figures (e.g., determine the dimensions of the rectangular field with the maximum area that can be enclosed by a fixed amount of fencing, if the fencing is required on only three sides)

#### 9-MPM1D.D.2.

Solving Problems Involving Perimeter, Area, Surface Area, and Volume: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MPM1D.D.2.1.

Relate the geometric representation of the Pythagorean theorem and the algebraic representation a ^ 2 + b ^ 2 = c ^ 2;

#### 9-MPM1D.D.2.2.

Solve problems using the Pythagorean theorem, as required in applications (e.g., calculate the height of a cone, given the radius and the slant height, in order to determine the volume of the cone);

#### 9-MPM1D.D.2.3.

Solve problems involving the areas and perimeters of composite two-dimensional shapes (i.e., combinations of rectangles, triangles, parallelograms, trapezoids, and circles)

#### 9-MPM1D.D.2.4.

Develop, through investigation (e.g., using concrete materials), the formulas for the volume of a pyramid, a cone, and a sphere (e.g., use three-dimensional figures to show that the volume of a pyramid [or cone] is1 / 3 the volume of a prism [or cylinder] with the same base and height, and therefore that Vpyramid = Vprism / 3 or Vpyramid = (area of base)(height) / 3);

#### 9-MPM1D.D.2.5.

Determine, through investigation, the relationship for calculating the surface area of a pyramid (e.g., use the net of a square-based pyramid to determine that the surface area is the area of the square base plus the areas of the four congruent triangles);

#### 9-MPM1D.D.2.6.

Solve problems involving the surface areas and volumes of prisms, pyramids, cylinders, cones, and spheres, including composite figures

#### 9-MPM1D.D.3.

Investigating and Applying Geometric Relationships: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MPM1D.D.3.1.

Determine, through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., dynamic geometry software, concrete materials), and describe the properties and relationships of the interior and exterior angles of triangles, quadrilaterals, and other polygons, and Vprism apply the results to problems involving the angles of polygons

#### 9-MPM1D.D.3.2.

Determine, through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., dynamic geometry software, paper folding), and describe some properties of polygons (e.g., the figure that results from joining the midpoints of the sides of a quadrilateral is a parallelogram; the diagonals of a rectangle bisect each other; the line segment joining the midpoints of two sides of a triangle is half the length f the third side), and apply the results in problem solving (e.g., given the width of the base of an A-frame tree house, determine the length of a horizontal support beam that is attached half way up the sloping sides);

#### 9-MPM1H.2.1.

Add and subtract polynomials with up to two variables [e.g., (3x ^ 2y + 2xy ^ 2) + (4x ^ 2y - 6xy ^ 2)], using a variety of tools (e.g., computer algebra systems, paper and pencil);

#### 9-MPM1H.2.2.

Multiply a polynomial by a monomial involving the same variable [e.g., 2x ^ 2(3x ^ 2 - 2x + 1)], using a variety of tools (e.g., computer algebra systems, paper and pencil);

#### 9-MPM1H.2.3.

Expand and simplify polynomial expressions involving one variable [e.g., 2x(4x + 1) - 3x(x + 2)], using a variety of tools (e.g., algebra tiles, computer algebra systems, paper and pencil);

#### 9-MPM1H.2.4.

Solve first-degree equations, including equations with fractional coefficients, using a variety of tools (e.g., computer algebra systems, paper and pencil) and strategies (e.g., the balance analogy, algebraic strategies);

#### 9-MPM1H.2.5.

Rearrange formulas involving variables in the first degree, with and without substitution (e.g., in analytic geometry, in measurement)

#### 9-MPM1H.2.6.

Solve problems that can be modelled with first-degree equations, and compare algebraic methods to other solution methods

#### 9-MPM1H.A.1.

Operating with Exponents: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MPM1H.A.1.1.

Derive, through the investigation and examination of patterns, the exponent rules for multiplying and dividing monomials, and apply these rules in expressions involving one and two variables with positive exponents;

#### 9-MPM1H.A.1.2.

Extend the multiplication rule to derive and understand the power of a power rule, and apply it to simplify expressions involving one and two variables with positive exponents.

#### 9-MPM1H.A.2.

Manipulating Expressions and Solving Equations: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MPM1H.C.1.

Understanding Characteristics of Linear Relations: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MPM1H.C.1.1.

Design and carry out an investigation or experiment involving relationships between two variables, including the collection and organization of data, using appropriate methods, equipment, and/or technology (e.g., surveying; using measuring tools, scientific probes, the Internet) and techniques (e.g., making tables, drawing graphs)

#### 9-MPM1H.C.1.2.

Construct equations to represent linear relations derived from descriptions of realistic situations, and connect the equations to tables of values and graphs, using a variety of tools (e.g., graphing calculators, spreadsheets, graphing software, paper and pencil)

#### 9-MPM1H.C.1.3.

Determine the equation of a line of best fit for a scatter plot, using an informal process (e.g., using a movable line in dynamic statistical software; using a process of trial and error on a graphing calculator; determining the equation of the line joining two carefully chosen points on the scatter plot).

#### 9-MPM1H.C.2.

Investigating the Relationship Between the Equation of a Relation and the Shape of Its Graph: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MPM1H.C.2.1.

Determine, through investigation, the characteristics that distinguish the equation of a straight line from the equations of nonlinear relations (e.g., use a graphing calculator or graphing software to graph a variety of linear and non-linear relations from their equations; classify the relations according to the shapes of their graphs; connect an equation of degree one to a linear relation);

#### 9-MPM1H.C.2.2.

Identify, through investigation, the equation of a line in any of the forms y = mx + b, Ax + By + C = 0, x = a, y = b;

#### 9-MPM1H.C.2.3.

Express the equation of a line in the form y = mx + b, given the form Ax + By + C = 0.

#### 9-MPM1H.C.3.

Investigating the Properties of Slope: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MPM1H.C.3.1.

Determine, through investigation, various formulas for the slope of a line segment or a line (e.g., m = rise / run , m = the change in y / the change in x or m = delta y / delta x , m = (y2 - y)/( x2 - x1) , and use the formulas to determine the slope of a line segment or a line;

#### 9-MPM1H.C.3.2.

Identify, through investigation with technology, the geometric significance of m and b in the equation y = mx + b;

#### 9-MPM1H.C.3.3.

Determine, through investigation, connections between slope and other representations of a constant rate of change of a linear relation (e.g., if the cost of producing a book of photographs is \$50, plus \$5 per book, then the slope of the line that represents the cost versus the number of books produced has a value of 5, which is also the rate of change; the value of the slope is the value of the coefficient of the independent variable in the equation of the line, C = 50 + 5p, and the value of the first difference in a table of values);

#### 9-MPM1H.C.3.4.

Identify, through investigation, properties of the slopes of lines and line segments (e.g., direction, positive or negative rate of change, steepness, parallelism, perpendicularity), using graphing technology to facilitate investigations, where appropriate.

#### 9-MPM1H.C.4.

Using the Properties of Linear Relations to Solve Problems: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MPM1H.C.4.1.

Graph lines by hand, using a variety of techniques (e.g., graph y = 2/3 x - 4 using the y-intercept and slope; graph 2x + 3y = 6 using the x- and y-intercepts);

#### 9-MPM1H.C.4.2.

Determine the equation of a line from information about the line (e.g., the slope and y-intercept; the slope and a point; two points)

#### 9-MPM1H.C.4.3.

Describe the meaning of the slope and y-intercept for a linear relation arising from a realistic situation (e.g., the cost to rent the community gym is \$40 per evening, plus \$2 per person for equipment rental; the y-intercept, 40, represents the \$40 cost of renting the gym; the value of the slope, 2, represents the \$2 cost per person);

#### 9-MPM1H.C.4.4.

Identify and explain any restrictions on the variables in a linear relation arising from a realistic situation (e.g., in the relation C = 50 + 25n, C is the cost of holding a party in a hall and n is the number of guests; n is restricted to whole numbers of 100 or less, because of the size of the hall, and C is consequently restricted to \$50 to \$2550).

#### 9-MPM1H.D.1.

Solving Problems Involving Surface Area and Volume: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MPM1H.D.1.1.

Solve problems involving the volumes of composite figures composed of prisms, pyramids, cylinders, cones, and spheres;

#### 9-MPM1H.D.1.2.

Determine, through investigation, the relationship for calculating the surface area of a pyramid (e.g., use the net of a square based pyramid to determine that the surface area is the area of the square base plus the areas of the four congruent triangles);

#### 9-MPM1H.D.1.3.

Solve problems involving the surface areas of prisms, pyramids, cylinders, cones, and spheres, including composite figures

#### 9-MPM1H.D.1.5.

Explain the significance of optimal surface area or volume in various applications (e.g., the minimum amount of packaging material; the relationship between surface area and heat loss);

#### 9-MPM1H.D.1.6.

Pose and solve problems involving maximization and minimization of measurements of geometric figures (i.e., square based prisms or cylinders)

#### 9-MPM1H.D.2.

Investigating and Applying Geometric Relationships: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-MPM1H.D.2.1.

Determine, through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., dynamic geometry software, paper folding), and describe some properties of polygons (e.g., the figure that results from joining the midpoints of the sides of a quadrilateral is a parallelogram; the diagonals of a rectangle bisect each other; the line segment joining the midpoints of two sides of a triangle is half the length of the third side), and apply the results in problem solving (e.g., given the width of the base of an A-frame tree house, determine the length of a horizontal support beam that is attached half way up the sloping sides);

#### 9-SNC1D.A1.

Scientific Investigation Skills: Throughout this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1D.A1.1.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Formulate scientific questions about observed relationships, ideas, problems, and/or issues, make predictions, and/or formulate hypotheses to focus inquiries or research

#### 9-SNC1D.A1.10.

Analysing and Interpreting [AI]: Draw conclusions based on inquiry results and research findings, and justify their conclusions

#### 9-SNC1D.A1.11.

Communicating [C]: Communicate ideas, plans, procedures, results, and conclusions orally, in writing, and/or in electronic presentations, using appropriate language and a variety of formats (e.g., data tables, laboratory reports, presentations, debates, simulations, models)

#### 9-SNC1D.A1.12.

Communicating [C]: Use appropriate numeric, symbolic, and graphic modes of representation, and appropriate units of measurement (e.g., SI and imperial units)

#### 9-SNC1D.A1.13.

Communicating [C]: Express the results of any calculations involving data accurately and precisely

#### 9-SNC1D.A1.2.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Select appropriate instruments (e.g., sampling instruments, laboratory glassware, magnifying lenses, an electroscope) and materials (e.g., ebonite rods, star charts, a ball and spring apparatus, pH paper) for particular inquiries

#### 9-SNC1D.A1.3.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Identify and locate print, electronic, and human sources that are relevant to research questions

#### 9-SNC1D.A1.4.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Apply knowledge and understanding of safe practices and procedures when planning investigations (e.g., appropriate techniques for handling, storing, and disposing of laboratory materials [following the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System-WHMIS]; safe operation of electrical equipment; safe handling of biological materials), with the aid of appropriate support materials (e.g., the Reference Manual on the WHMIS website; the Live Safe! Work Smart! website)

#### 9-SNC1D.A1.5.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Conduct inquiries, controlling some variables, adapting or extending procedures as required, and using standard equipment and materials safely, accurately, and effectively, to collect observations and data

#### 9-SNC1D.A1.6.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Gather data from laboratory and other sources, and organize and record the data using appropriate formats, including tables, flow charts, graphs, and/or diagrams

#### 9-SNC1D.A1.7.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Select, organize, and record relevant information on research topics from various sources, including electronic, print, and/or human sources (e.g., Statistics Canada publications, NASA or EnerGuide websites, personal interviews), using recommended formats and an accepted form of academic documentation

#### 9-SNC1D.A1.8.

Analysing and Interpreting [AI]: Analyse and interpret qualitative and/or quantitative data to determine whether the evidence supports or refutes the initial prediction or hypothesis, identifying possible sources of error, bias, or uncertainty

#### 9-SNC1D.A1.9.

Analysing and Interpreting [AI]: Analyse the information gathered from research sources for reliability and bias

#### 9-SNC1D.A2.

Career Exploration: Throughout this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1D.A2.1.

Identify and describe a variety of careers related to the fields of science under study (e.g., astrophysicist, geophysicist, conservation officer, park warden, fire protection engineer, hydrologist, electrician) and the education and training necessary for these careers

#### 9-SNC1D.A2.2.

Identify scientists, including Canadians (e.g., David Suzuki, Howard Alper, Roberta Bondar, Kenneth Hill), who have made a contribution to the fields of science under study

#### 9-SNC1D.B1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1D.B1.1.

Assess, on the basis of research, the impact of a factor related to human activity (e.g., urban sprawl, introduction of invasive species, overhunting/overfishing) that threatens the sustainability of a terrestrial or aquatic ecosystem [IP, PR, AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1D.B1.2.

Evaluate the effectiveness of government initiatives in Canada (federal, provincial, municipal), and/or the efforts of societal groups or non-governmental organizations, such as Aboriginal communities, environmental groups, or student organizations, with respect to an environmental issue that affects the sustainability of terrestrial or aquatic ecosystems (e.g., wetland restoration, recycling programs, Canada- Ontario Environmental Farm Plans, stewardship of national and provincial parks) [AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1D.B2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1D.B2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to sustainable ecosystems, including, but not limited to: bioaccumulation, biosphere, diversity, ecosystem, equilibrium, sustainability, sustainable use, protection, and watershed [C]

#### 9-SNC1D.B2.2.

Interpret qualitative and quantitative data from undisturbed and disturbed ecosystems (terrestrial and/or aquatic), communicate the results graphically, and, extrapolating from the data, explain the importance of biodiversity for all sustainable ecosystems [PR, AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1D.B2.3.

Plan and conduct an investigation, involving both inquiry and research, into how a human activity affects soil composition or soil fertility (e.g., changes to soil composition resulting from the use of different compostable materials, organic or inorganic fertilizers, or pesticides), and, extrapolating from the data and information gathered, explain the impact of this activity on the sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems [IP, PR, AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1D.B2.4.

Plan and conduct an investigation, involving both inquiry and research, into how a human activity affects water quality (e.g., leaching of organic or inorganic fertilizers or pesticides into water systems, changes to watersheds resulting from deforestation or land development, diversion of ground water for industrial uses), and, extrapolating from the data and information gathered, explain the impact of this activity on the sustainability of aquatic ecosystems [IP, PR, AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1D.B2.5.

Analyse the effect of human activity on the populations of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems by interpreting data and generating graphs (e.g., data from Statistics Canada, Parks Canada, and other websites on: the concentration in water of chemicals from fertilizer run-off and their effect on the growth of algae; stressors associated with human use of natural areas, such as trampled vegetation, wildlife mortality from motor vehicles, and the removal of plants, animals, and/or natural objects; suburban developments and their impact on the food supply for animals such as foxes and racoons) [PR, AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1D.B3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1D.B3.1.

Compare and contrast biotic and abiotic characteristics of sustainable and unsustainable terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

#### 9-SNC1D.B3.2.

Describe the complementary processes of cellular respiration and photosynthesis with respect to the flow of energy and the cycling of matter within ecosystems (i.e., carbon dioxide is a by-product of cellular respiration and is used for photosynthesis, which produces oxygen needed for cellular respiration), and explain how human activities can disrupt the balance achieved by these processes (e.g., automobile use increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; planting more trees decreases the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere)

#### 9-SNC1D.B3.3.

Describe the limiting factors of ecosystems (e.g., nutrients, space, water, energy, predators), and explain how these factors affect the carrying capacity of an ecosystem (e.g., the effect of an increase in the moose population on the wolf population in the same ecosystem)

#### 9-SNC1D.B3.4.

Identify the earth's four spheres (biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere), and describe the relationship that must exist between these spheres if diversity and sustainability are to be maintained

#### 9-SNC1D.B3.5.

Identify various factors related to human activity that have an impact on ecosystems (e.g., the introduction of invasive species; shoreline development; industrial emissions that result in acid rain), and explain how these factors affect the equilibrium and survival of ecosystems (e.g., invasive species push out native species and upset the equilibrium in an ecosystem; shoreline development affects the types of terrestrial and aquatic life that can live near lake shores or river banks; acid rain changes the pH of water, which affects the type of aquatic life that can survive in a lake)

#### 9-SNC1D.C1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1D.C1.1.

Assess the usefulness of and/or the hazards associated with common elements or compounds in terms of their physical and chemical properties [AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1D.C1.2.

Assess social, environmental, and economic impacts of the use of common elements or compounds [AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1D.C2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1D.C2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to atoms, elements, and compounds, including, but not limited to: boiling point, mixtures, particle theory, pure substances, and viscosity [C]

#### 9-SNC1D.C2.2.

Conduct an inquiry to identify the physical and chemical properties of common elements and compounds (e.g., magnesium sulfate, water, carbon, copper II) [PR]

#### 9-SNC1D.C2.3.

Plan and conduct an inquiry into the properties of common substances found in the laboratory or used in everyday life (e.g., starch, table salt, wax, toothpaste), and distinguish the substances by their physical and chemical properties (e.g., physical properties: hardness, conductivity, colour, melting point, solubility, density; chemical properties: combustibility, reaction with water) [IP, PR, AI]

#### 9-SNC1D.C2.4.

Conduct appropriate chemical tests to identify some common gases (e.g., oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide) on the basis of their chemical properties, and record their observations [PR, C]

#### 9-SNC1D.C2.5.

Construct molecular models to represent simple molecules (e.g., O2, CO2, H2O, NH3, CH4) [PR]

#### 9-SNC1D.C3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1D.C3.1.

Explain how different atomic models evolved as a result of experimental evidence (e.g., how the Thomson model of the atom changed as a result of the Rutherford gold-foil experiment)

#### 9-SNC1D.C3.2.

Describe the characteristics of neutrons, protons, and electrons, including charge, location, and relative mass

#### 9-SNC1D.C3.3.

Distinguish between elements and compounds (e.g., compounds are pure substances that can be broken down into elements by chemical means)

#### 9-SNC1D.C3.4.

Describe the characteristic physical and chemical properties of common elements and compounds (e.g., aluminum is a good conductor of heat; copper reacts to moist air by developing a greenish surface of copper carbonate; sodium carbonate is a white, odourless powder that dissolves in water; water has unique physical properties that allow it to support life)

#### 9-SNC1D.C3.5.

Describe patterns in the arrangements of electrons in the first 20 elements of the periodic table, using the Bohr-Rutherford model

#### 9-SNC1D.C3.6.

Explain the relationship between the atomic structure of an element and the position of that element in the periodic table

#### 9-SNC1D.C3.7.

Compare and contrast the physical properties of elements within a group (e.g., alkali metals) and between groups (e.g., the carbon group and noble gases) in the periodic table

#### 9-SNC1D.C3.8.

Identify and use the symbols for common elements (e.g., C, Cl, S, N) and the formulae for common compounds (e.g., H2O, CO2, NaCl, O2)

#### 9-SNC1D.D1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1D.D1.2.

Assess some of the costs, hazards, and benefits of space exploration (e.g., the expense of developing new technologies, accidents resulting in loss of life, contributions to our knowledge of the universe), taking into account the benefits of technologies that were developed for the space program but that can be used to address environmental and other practical challenges on Earth (e.g., radiation monitors and barriers, sensors to monitor air and water quality, remote sensing technology, fire-resistant materials) [AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1D.D2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1D.D2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to the study of the universe, including, but not limited to: celestial objects, orbital radius, retrograde motion, and satellite [C]

#### 9-SNC1D.D2.2.

Use direct observation, computer simulation, or star charts to determine the location, appearance, and motion of well-known stars and other celestial objects that are visible in the night sky (e.g., the stars Polaris, Sirius, Betelgeuse; the planet Venus) [PR, AI]

#### 9-SNC1D.D2.3.

Plan and conduct a simulation that illustrates the interrelationships between various properties of celestial objects visible in the night sky (e.g., set up flashlights of various intensities at different distances from an observation point to help illustrate why the brightness of a star viewed from Earth is a function of both its actual brightness and its distance from Earth) [IP, PR, AI]

#### 9-SNC1D.D2.4.

Gather and record data, using an inquiry or research process, on the properties of specific celestial objects within the solar system (e.g., the composition of their atmosphere, if any; the composition of their surface; the strength of their gravitational pull) [IP, PR, C]

#### 9-SNC1D.D2.5.

Compare and contrast properties of celestial objects visible in the night sky, drawing on information gathered through research and using an appropriate format (e.g., compare the size of planets; represent the distance of stars from Earth using scientific notation; compare star temperatures and colour) [PR, AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1D.D3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1D.D3.1.

Describe observational and theoretical evidence relating to the origin and evolution of the universe (e.g., evidence supporting the big bang theory)

#### 9-SNC1D.D3.2.

Describe observational and theoretical evidence relating to the formation of the solar system (e.g., evidence that supports the theory that the solar system was formed from a contracting, spinning disc of dust and gas)

#### 9-SNC1D.D3.3.

Describe the major components of the solar system and the universe (e.g., planets, stars, galaxies), using appropriate scientific terminology and units (e.g., astronomical units, scientific notation, light years)

#### 9-SNC1D.D3.4.

Describe the sun's composition and energy source, and explain how its energy warms Earth and supports life on the planet (e.g., with reference to the types of radiation the sun emits and the interaction of the sun's energy with Earth's atmosphere)

#### 9-SNC1D.D3.5.

Explain the causes of astronomical phenomena (e.g., the aurora borealis, solar eclipses, phases of the moon, comets) and how various phenomena can best be observed from Earth (e.g., solar eclipses should be viewed through a suitable solar filter or by projection, not with the naked eye)

#### 9-SNC1D.D3.6.

Describe various reasons that humankind has had for studying space (e.g., to develop calendars for agricultural purposes, to forecast weather, for celestial navigation, for religious inspiration) and the conceptions of the universe held by various cultures and civilizations (e.g., Aboriginal peoples; ancient Greek, Mayan civilizations)

#### 9-SNC1D.E1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1D.E1.1.

Analyse the design of a technological device that improves its electrical efficiency or protects other devices by using or controlling static electricity (e.g., paint sprayers, photocopiers, lightning rods, grounding wires) [AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1D.E1.2.

Assess some of the social, economic, and environmental implications of the production of electrical energy in Canada from renewable and non-renewable sources (e.g., wind, solar, hydro, coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear) [AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1D.E1.3.

Produce a plan of action to reduce electrical energy consumption at home (e.g., using EnerGuide information when purchasing appliances), and outline the roles and responsibilities of various groups (e.g., government, business, family members) in this endeavour [IP, AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1D.E2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1D.E2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to electricity, including, but not limited to: ammeter, amperes, battery, current, fuse, kilowatt hours, load, ohms, potential difference, resistance, switch, voltmeter, and volts [C]

#### 9-SNC1D.E2.10.

Calculate the efficiency of an energy converter, using the following equation: percent efficiency = (Eout /Ein) x 100% [AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1D.E2.2.

Conduct investigations into the transfer of static electric charges by friction, contact, and induction, and produce labelled diagrams to explain the results [PR, AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1D.E2.3.

Predict the ability of different materials to hold or transfer electric charges (i.e., to act as insulators or conductors), and test their predictions through inquiry [IP, PR]

#### 9-SNC1D.E2.4.

Plan and carry out inquiries to determine and compare the conductivity of various materials (e.g., metals, plastics, glass, water) [IP, PR, AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1D.E2.5.

Design, draw circuit diagrams of, and construct series and parallel circuits (e.g., a circuit where all light bulbs go out when one light bulb is removed; a circuit that allows one of several light bulbs to be switched on and off independently of the others), and measure electric current I, potential difference V, and resistance R at various points in the circuits, using appropriate instruments and SI units [IP, PR, AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1D.E2.6.

Analyse and interpret the effects of adding an identical load in series and in parallel in a simple circuit [AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1D.E2.7.

Investigate the quantitative relationships between current, potential difference, and resistance in a simple series circuit [PR, AI]

#### 9-SNC1D.E2.8.

Solve simple problems involving potential difference V, electric current I, and resistance R, using the quantitative relationship V = IR [AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1D.E2.9.

Determine the energy consumption of various appliances, and calculate their operating costs (e.g., using the kilowatt hour rate from a utility bill) [AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1D.E3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1D.E3.1.

Identify electrical quantities (i.e., current, potential difference, resistance, and electrical energy), and list their symbols and their corresponding SI units (e.g., electric current: I, ampere)

#### 9-SNC1D.E3.2.

Explain the characteristics of conductors and insulators and how materials allow static charge to build up or be discharged

#### 9-SNC1D.E3.3.

Compare and contrast static electricity with alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) (e.g., the charge on a charged electroscope, the charge in a functioning circuit)

#### 9-SNC1D.E3.4.

Identify the components of a simple DC circuit (e.g., electrical source, load, connecting wires, switch, fuse), and explain their functions

#### 9-SNC1D.E3.5.

Explain the characteristics of electric current, potential difference, and resistance in simple series and parallel circuits, noting how the quantities differ in the two circuits

#### 9-SNC1D.E3.6.

Describe, qualitatively, the interrelationships between resistance, potential difference, and electric current (e.g., the effect on current when potential difference is changed and resistance is constant)

#### 9-SNC1D.E3.7.

Explain what different meters (e.g., ammeters, voltmeters, multimeters) measure and how they are connected within an electrical circuit to measure electrical quantities

#### 9-SNC1D.E3.8.

Explain how various factors (e.g., wire length, wire material, cross-sectional area of wire) influence the resistance of an electrical circuit

#### 9-SNC1P.A1.

Scientific Investigation Skills: Throughout this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1P.A1.1.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Formulate scientific questions about observed relationships, ideas, problems, and/or issues, make predictions, and/or formulate hypotheses to focus inquiries or research

#### 9-SNC1P.A1.10.

Analysing and Interpreting [AI]: Draw conclusions based on inquiry results and research findings, and justify their conclusions

#### 9-SNC1P.A1.11.

Communicating [C]: Communicate ideas, plans, procedures, results, and conclusions orally, in writing, and/or in electronic presentations, using appropriate language and a variety of formats (e.g., data tables, laboratory reports, presentations, debates, simulations, models)

#### 9-SNC1P.A1.12.

Communicating [C]: Use appropriate numeric, symbolic, and graphic modes of representation, and appropriate units of measurement (e.g., SI and imperial units)

#### 9-SNC1P.A1.13.

Communicating [C]: Express the results of any calculations involving data accurately and precisely

#### 9-SNC1P.A1.2.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Select appropriate instruments (e.g., soil sampling instruments, a pneumatic trough and test tubes, magnifying lenses, an electroscope) and materials (e.g., ebonite rods, star charts, oxygen testing splints, pH paper) for particular inquiries

#### 9-SNC1P.A1.3.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Identify and locate print, electronic, and human sources that are relevant to research questions

#### 9-SNC1P.A1.4.

Initiating and Planning [IP]: Apply knowledge and understanding of safe practices and procedures when planning investigations (e.g., appropriate techniques for handling, storing, and disposing of laboratory materials [following the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System-WHMIS]; safe operation of electrical equipment; safe handling of biological materials), with the aid of appropriate support materials (e.g., the Reference Manual on the WHMIS website; the Live Safe! Work Smart! website)

#### 9-SNC1P.A1.5.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Conduct inquiries, controlling some variables, adapting or extending procedures as required, and using standard equipment and materials safely, accurately, and effectively, to collect observations and data

#### 9-SNC1P.A1.6.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Gather data from laboratory and other sources, and organize and record the data using appropriate formats, including tables, flow charts, graphs, and/or diagrams

#### 9-SNC1P.A1.7.

Performing and Recording [PR]: Select, organize, and record relevant information on research topics from various sources, including electronic, print, and/or human sources (e.g., Statistics Canada publications, NASA or EnerGuide websites, personal interviews), using recommended formats and an accepted form of academic documentation

#### 9-SNC1P.A1.8.

Analysing and Interpreting [AI]: Analyse and interpret qualitative and/or quantitative data to determine whether the evidence supports or refutes the initial prediction or hypothesis, identifying possible sources of error, bias, or uncertainty

#### 9-SNC1P.A1.9.

Analysing and Interpreting [AI]: Analyse the information gathered from research sources for reliability and bias

#### 9-SNC1P.A2.

Career Exploration: Throughout this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1P.A2.1.

Identify and describe a variety of careers related to the fields of science under study (e.g., radar satellite technician, fish and wildlife technologist, ceramicist, electrician) and the education and training necessary for these careers

#### 9-SNC1P.A2.2.

Identify scientists, including Canadians (e.g., Kim Fernie, Robert Ackman, Helen Hogg, Kenneth Hill), who have made a contribution to the fields of science under study

#### 9-SNC1P.B1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1P.B1.1.

Analyse, on the basis of research, how a human activity (e.g., urban sprawl, use of pesticides and fertilizers, creation of pollution, human interaction with wildlife) threatens the sustainability of a terrestrial or aquatic ecosystem [IP, PR, AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1P.B1.2.

Assess the effectiveness of a local initiative of personal interest that seeks to ensure the sustainability of a terrestrial or aquatic ecosystem (e.g., greening their school grounds; conservation efforts of local Aboriginal communities; naturalizing banks of local rivers or ponds with native vegetation; adoption of an integrated pest management strategy to combat pests in a local garden), and explain why the initiative is important to the sustainability of the ecosystem [AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1P.B2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1P.B2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to sustainable ecosystems and human activity, including, but not limited to: biodiversity, biotic, ecosystem, equilibrium, species diversity, sustainability, and watershed [C]

#### 9-SNC1P.B2.2.

Investigate the characteristics and interactions of biotic and abiotic components of a terrestrial or aquatic ecosystem, and describe the importance of these components in a sustainable ecosystem [PR, AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1P.B2.3.

Compile and graph qualitative and quantitative data on organisms within an undisturbed or disturbed ecosystem (terrestrial or aquatic) (e.g., nematode and earthworm populations in soil or compost; bird populations during migration or winter feeding; tadpole and mosquito larvae populations in a local pond) [PR, AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1P.B2.4.

Plan and conduct an inquiry into how a factor related to human activity affects a terrestrial or aquatic ecosystem (e.g., how changes to soil composition from the use of different compostable materials or organic or inorganic fertilizers affect the types of plants that can be grown; how lower water levels resulting from water diversion affect waterfowl nesting areas and fish reproduction), and describe the consequences that this factor has for the sustainability of the ecosystem [IP, PR, AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1P.B2.5.

Analyse the effect of factors related to human activity on terrestrial or aquatic ecosystems by interpreting data and generating graphs (e.g., data on the concentration in water of chemicals from fertilizer run-off and their effect on the growth of algae) [AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1P.B3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1P.B3.1.

Identify similarities and differences between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and describe these similarities and differences using diagrams

#### 9-SNC1P.B3.2.

Describe the interdependence of the components within a terrestrial and an aquatic ecosystem, and explain how the components of both systems work together to ensure the sustainability of a larger ecosystem

#### 9-SNC1P.B3.3.

Describe the complementary processes of cellular respiration and photosynthesis with respect to the flow of energy and the cycling of matter within ecosystems (e.g., carbon dioxide is a by-product of cellular respiration and is used for photosynthesis, which produces oxygen needed for cellular respiration), and explain how human activities can disrupt the balance achieved by these processes (e.g., automobile use increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; planting trees reduces the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere)

#### 9-SNC1P.B3.4.

Identify the major limiting factors of ecosystems (e.g., nutrients, space, water, predators), and explain how these factors are related to the carrying capacity of an ecosystem (e.g., how an increase in the moose population in an ecosystem affects the wolf population in the same ecosystem)

#### 9-SNC1P.B3.5.

Identify some factors related to human activity that have an impact on ecosystems (e.g., the use of fertilizers and pesticides; altered shorelines; organic and conventional farming; urban sprawl), and explain how these factors affect the equilibrium and survival of populations in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems (e.g., fertilizers change the fertility of soil, affecting what types of plants can grow in it; pesticides leach into water systems, affecting water quality and aquatic life; shoreline development affects the types of aquatic life and terrestrial vegetation that can live by lake shores or river banks; urban sprawl wipes out fields and woods, destroying wildlife habitats)

#### 9-SNC1P.C1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1P.C1.1.

Analyse how the chemical and physical properties of common elements and/or simple compounds affect the use of everyday materials that contain those elements and/or compounds [AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1P.C1.2.

Assess the social and environmental impact of the production or use of a common element or simple compound [AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1P.C2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1P.C2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to the exploration of matter, including, but not limited to: combustion, conductor, decomposition, lustrous, precipitate, reaction, and soluble [C]

#### 9-SNC1P.C2.2.

Use an inquiry process to identify the physical and chemical properties of common elements and simple common compounds, including gaseous substances (e.g., sulfur is a yellow solid; sodium chloride is water soluble; nitrogen gas is colourless, odourless, and very unreactive) [PR, AI]

#### 9-SNC1P.C2.3.

Plan and conduct an investigation to compare and contrast characteristic physical properties of metals with those of non-metals (e.g., most metals are lustrous or shiny and are good conductors of heat; most non-metals in solid form are brittle and are not good conductors of heat) [IP, PR, AI]

#### 9-SNC1P.C2.4.

Investigate and distinguish between the physical and chemical properties of household substances (e.g., starch, table salt, wax, toothpaste) [PR, AI]

#### 9-SNC1P.C2.5.

Investigate and compare the chemical properties (e.g., combustibility, reaction with water) of representative elements within groups in the periodic table families of elements (e.g., Mg and Ca; N and P) [PR, AI]

#### 9-SNC1P.C2.6.

Construct and draw models of simple molecules (e.g., H2, NH3, CO2, CH4) [PR, C]

#### 9-SNC1P.C2.7.

Conduct chemical tests to identify common gases (e.g., oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide) on the basis of their chemical properties, and record their observations [PR, AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1P.C3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1P.C3.1.

Identify the characteristics of neutrons, protons, and electrons, including charge, location, and relative mass

#### 9-SNC1P.C3.2.

Describe the characteristics that distinguish elements from compounds (e.g., elements are pure substances made up of only one kind of atom; compounds are pure substances made up of more than one kind of element)

#### 9-SNC1P.C3.3.

Identify general features of the periodic table (e.g., metals appear on the left of the periodic table; non-metals appear on the right; elements within the same group have similar properties)

#### 9-SNC1P.C3.4.

Explain the relationships between the properties of elements and their position in the periodic table (e.g., with reference to atomic structure, group, and period)

#### 9-SNC1P.C3.5.

Describe the characteristic physical and chemical properties of common elements (e.g., density, texture, odour, combustibility, solubility, ability to conduct or absorb heat)

#### 9-SNC1P.C3.6.

Use symbols and chemical formulae to represent common elements and simple compounds (e.g., C, O, H, H2O, CO2)

#### 9-SNC1P.C3.7.

Identify the elements and compounds in common household products (e.g., hydrogen peroxide, lye, salt)

#### 9-SNC1P.D1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1P.D1.1.

Research the challenges associated with space exploration, and explain the purpose of materials and technologies that were developed to address these challenges and how these materials and technologies are now used in other fields of endeavour (e.g., robotic arm technology developed for the space program is used in industry to handle hazardous chemicals; synthetic materials developed to protect astronauts are used in fire-fighting equipment) [IP, PR, AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1P.D1.2.

Assess the contributions of Canadians to space exploration (e.g., as astronauts; in research and development) [AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1P.D2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1P.D2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to space exploration, including, but not limited to: astronomical units, gravitational pull, and universe [C]

#### 9-SNC1P.D2.2.

Investigate patterns in the night sky (e.g., constellations) and the motion of celestial objects (e.g., the sun, our moon, planets, stars, galaxies), using direct observation, computer simulations, and/or star charts, and record the information using a graphic organizer or other format [PR, AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1P.D2.3.

Use a research process to compile and analyse information on the characteristics of various objects in the universe (e.g., planets, stars, constellations, galaxies) [PR, AI]

#### 9-SNC1P.D2.4.

Investigate a technological challenge related to the exploration of celestial objects that arises from the objects' specific properties, and identify the solution that has been devised (e.g., multiple booster rockets power spacecraft travelling to distant planets; heat shields protect the space shuttle from extreme temperatures when re-entering Earth's atmosphere) [PR, AI]

#### 9-SNC1P.D3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1P.D3.1.

Describe the major components of the universe (e.g., planets, moons, stars, galaxies), the motion of the different types of celestial objects, and the distances between certain objects, using appropriate scientific terminology and units (e.g., astronomical units, light years)

#### 9-SNC1P.D3.2.

Compare the characteristics and properties of celestial objects that constitute the solar system, including their motion and their distance from other celestial objects in the solar system (e.g., composition, size, rotation, presence and composition of atmosphere, gravitational pull, magnetic field)

#### 9-SNC1P.D3.3.

Identify the factors that make Earth well suited for the existence of life (e.g., a magnetosphere that protects the planet from solar wind; Earth's distance from the sun; the ability of Earth's atmosphere to trap heat, preventing extreme fluctuations in temperature)

#### 9-SNC1P.D3.4.

Describe the characteristics of the sun and the effects of its energy on Earth and Earth's atmosphere

#### 9-SNC1P.D3.5.

Describe the causes of major astronomical phenomena (e.g., the aurora borealis, solar/lunar eclipses) and how various phenomena can best be observed from Earth (e.g., solar eclipses should be viewed through a telescope equipped with a solar filter, not with the naked eye)

#### 9-SNC1P.D3.6.

Describe the role of celestial objects in the traditions and beliefs of selected cultures and civilizations (e.g., Aboriginal peoples; ancient Greek, Mayan civilizations)

#### 9-SNC1P.E1.

Relating Science to Technology, Society, and the Environment: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1P.E1.1.

Assess social, economic, and environmental costs and benefits of using a renewable and a non-renewable source of electrical energy (e.g., solar, wind, hydro, nuclear, coal, oil, natural gas), taking the issue of sustainability into account [AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1P.E1.2.

Propose a plan of action to decrease household energy costs by applying their knowledge of the energy consumption of different types of appliances (e.g., front-load and top-load washing machines; cathode ray tube [CRT] and liquid crystal display [LCD] computer monitors) [PR, AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1P.E2.

Developing Skills of Investigation and Communication: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1P.E2.1.

Use appropriate terminology related to static and current electricity, including, but not limited to: ammeter, ampere, battery, conductivity, current, energy consumption, fuse, kilowatt hours, load, ohm, potential difference, resistance, switch, voltmeter, and volts [C]

#### 9-SNC1P.E2.2.

Use an inquiry process to determine and compare the conductivity of various materials (e.g., metals, plastic, glass, water) [PR, AI]

#### 9-SNC1P.E2.3.

Conduct inquiries involving conduction and induction to investigate the law of electric charges [PR, AI]

#### 9-SNC1P.E2.4.

Design, draw circuit diagrams of, and construct simple series and parallel circuits (e.g., circuits with: one light bulb; two light bulbs of the same brightness; one light bulb on and the other light bulb off) [IP, PR, C]

#### 9-SNC1P.E2.5.

Compare, on the basis of observation, the differences between series and parallel circuits [PR, AI]

#### 9-SNC1P.E2.6.

Use an inquiry process to investigate the effects that changing resistance and changing potential difference have on current in a simple series circuit [PR, AI]

#### 9-SNC1P.E2.7.

Calculate the costs of running common household electrical devices, and compare their efficiency (e.g., using EnerGuide information) [AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1P.E2.8.

Graph and interpret electricity consumption data collected over a period of time from electrical meters at home or in the community (e.g., their school, a local community centre) [PR, AI, C]

#### 9-SNC1P.E3.

Understanding Basic Concepts: By the end of this course, students will:

#### 9-SNC1P.E3.1.

Compare conductors and insulators, and explain how materials allow static charge to build up or be discharged

#### 9-SNC1P.E3.2.

Explain the law of electric charges with reference to common electrostatic phenomena (e.g., charging by contact or by induction)

#### 9-SNC1P.E3.3.

Identify the components of a simple direct current (DC) electrical circuit (e.g., electrical source, electrical load, switch, fuse), and describe their functions

#### 9-SNC1P.E3.4.

Identify electrical quantities and their symbols (e.g., electric current I, potential difference V, resistance R), and explain how they are measured using an ammeter, a voltmeter, and a multimeter

#### 9-SNC1P.E3.5.

Explain the characteristics of electric current, potential difference, and resistance, in simple series and parallel circuits

#### 9-SNC1P.E3.6.

Describe, qualitatively, the interrelationships between resistance, potential difference, and electric current, in a series circuit (e.g., the effect on current when potential difference is changed)

#### 9-SNC1P.E3.7.

Explain the practical use of resistance in a common household product (e.g., a toaster or hair dryer)

#### EBT4O.A.1.

Understanding Business and Technological Communications and Culture

#### EBT4O.A.1.1.

Building Document Literacy: Students will read and demonstrate understanding of a variety of current examples of business and technological communications

#### EBT4O.A.1.2.

Identifying Purpose and Audience: Students will identify the purpose and audience of a variety of business and technological communications

#### EBT4O.A.1.3.

Exploring Opportunities and Careers: Students will research and demonstrate an understanding of a variety of opportunities and careers related to communications in business and technology and the skills needed to pursue them

#### EBT4O.A.1.4.

Understanding the Impact of Technology: Students will research and demonstrate an understanding of the ways in which communications technologies influence business practices

#### EBT4O.A.1.5.

Understanding Business Culture and Issues: Students will read and demonstrate an understanding of a variety of articles and interviews related to business and technology issues, innovations, individuals, organizations, perspectives, and practices

#### EBT4O.A.2.1.

Text Forms and Patterns: Students will identify key elements of text forms and common organizational patterns used in business and technological communications, and explain how they help clarify the message and/or make information easier to find

#### EBT4O.A.2.2.

Text Features: Students will identify a variety of text features and explain how they are used to enhance the effectiveness of business and technological communications

#### EBT4O.A.2.3.

Audio-Visual Features: Students will identify audio-visual features used in business and technological communications and evaluate their contribution to the clarity and effectiveness of the text

#### EBT4O.A.2.4.

Oral Presentation Techniques: Students will explain how volume, pace, pitch, tone of voice, eye contact, facial expression, posture, dress, movement, and gesture enhance or weaken the effectiveness of oral business communications

#### EBT4O.A.2.5.

Language Choice: Students will evaluate the language, including any specialized vocabulary, used in business and technological communications to determine whether it is appropriate to the topic, the purpose, and the audience's level of knowledge about the

#### EBT4O.B.1.1.

Purpose and Audience: Students will explain how the identified purpose and audience influence their choices of content, organization, and style for the business and technological communications they produce

#### EBT4O.B.1.2.

Text Features: Students will use text features appropriate to the form and purpose to enhance the effectiveness of the business and technological communications they produce

#### EBT4O.B.1.3.

Oral Presentation Techniques: Students will use oral presentation techniques appropriate to the form, purpose, and audience to enhance the effectiveness of the oral business and technological communications they produce

#### EBT4O.B.1.4.

Audio-Visual Aids: Students will use a variety of appropriate audio-visual aids to enhance the effectiveness of the business and technological communications they produce

#### EBT4O.B.1.5.

Quality Enhancement: Students will revise, edit, and proofread drafts of business and technological communications they produce to achieve a professional standard of quality in content, organization, style, clarity, and design

#### EBT4O.C.1.

Reflecting on Learning

#### EBT4O.C.1.1.

Reflecting on Personal Strengths and Areas for Improvement: Students will identify their strengths and areas for improvement in understanding, analysing, and producing business and technological communications

#### EBT4O.C.1.2.

Explaining Creative Choices: Students will explain and justify the creative choices they have made to enhance the effectiveness of their business and technological communications

#### EBT4O.C.1.3.

Commenting on the Work of Peers: Students will comment constructively on the work of peers, identifying and praising effective aspects and noting possible areas for improvement

#### ELS2O.A.1.1.: Variety of Texts

Variety of Texts: Students will read a variety of self-selected and teacher-assigned literary, graphic, and informational texts representing a variety of cultures and perspectives

#### ELS2O.A.1.2.: Reading for Different Purposes

Reading for Different Purposes: Students will identify a variety of purposes for reading texts commonly used in everyday life

#### ELS2O.A.1.3.: Using Reading Comprehension Strategi

Using Reading Comprehension Strategies: Students will identify and use appropriate reading comprehension strategies before, during, and after reading to understand teacher-assigned and self-selected texts

#### ELS2O.A.1.4.: Demonstrating Understanding of Conte

Demonstrating Understanding of Content: Students will identify and record important ideas and supporting details in literary, graphic, and informational texts

#### ELS2O.A.1.5.: Interpreting Texts

Interpreting Texts: Students will interpret texts, identifying and explaining the overt and implied ideas and information they convey

#### ELS2O.A.1.6.: Extending Understanding of Texts

Extending Understanding of Texts: Students will extend understanding of texts by connecting and comparing the ideas in them to their own knowledge, experience, and insights; to other texts; and to the world around them

#### ELS2O.A.1.7.: Analysing Texts

Analysing Texts: Students will analyse texts in terms of the information, ideas, issues, or themes they explore, examining how various aspects of the texts contribute to the presentation or development of these elements

#### ELS2O.A.1.8.: Evaluating Texts

Evaluating Texts: Students will evaluate the effectiveness of texts using evidence taken from the text to support the evaluation

#### ELS2O.A.1.9.: Critical Literacy

Critical Literacy: Students will identify the perspectives and/or biases evident in texts and comment on any questions they may raise about beliefs, values, identity, and power

#### ELS2O.A.2.1.: Text Forms

Text Forms: Students will identify a variety of characteristics of literary, informational, and graphic text forms and explain how they help communicate meaning

#### ELS2O.A.2.2.: Text Features

Text Features: Students will identify a variety of text features and explain how they help communicate meaning

#### ELS2O.A.2.3.: Elements of Style

Elements of Style: Students will identify a variety of elements of style in texts and explain how they help communicate meaning and enhance the effectiveness of the text

Reading Familiar Words: Students will read and automatically understand most words in a variety of reading contexts

Reading Unfamiliar Words: Students will predict and/or determine the meaning of unfamiliar words using different types of decoding strategies, including context cues, visual aids, and reference materials

#### ELS2O.B.1.1.: Identifying Topic, Purpose, and Audi

Identifying Topic, Purpose, and Audience: Students will identify the topic, purpose, audience, and appropriate writing form for specific writing tasks

#### ELS2O.B.1.2.: Generating and Developing Ideas

Generating and Developing Ideas: Students will generate and focus ideas for potential writing tasks, using a variety of strategies and resources

#### ELS2O.B.1.3.: Research

Research: Students will locate and select information to support ideas for writing, using a variety of strategies and print and electronic sources

#### ELS2O.B.1.5.: Organizing Ideas

Organizing Ideas: Students will identify and order main ideas and supporting details and group them into units that could be used to develop a multi-paragraph piece of writing, using a variety of strategies and organizational patterns

#### ELS2O.B.1.6.: Reviewing Content

Reviewing Content: Students will determine whether the ideas and information gathered are relevant to the topic and sufficient for the purpose, and do more planning and research if necessary

#### ELS2O.B.2.1.: Form

Form: Students will write texts of different lengths and for different purposes and audiences using a variety of forms

#### ELS2O.B.2.3.: Word Choice

Word Choice: Students will use appropriate descriptive and evocative words, phrases, and expressions to make their writing clear, vivid, and engaging for the reader

#### ELS2O.B.2.4.: Sentence Craft and Fluency

Sentence Craft and Fluency: Students will write complete sentences that communicate their meaning clearly and accurately, varying sentence type, structure, and length to suit different purposes and making logical transitions between ideas

#### ELS2O.B.2.6.: Preparing for Revision

Preparing for Revision: Students will identify the strengths of their writing and elements that need improvement, selectively using feedback from the teacher and peers, with a focus on teacher-specified criteria

#### ELS2O.B.2.7.: Revision

Revision: Students will make revisions to improve the content, clarity, and interest of their written work, using a variety of teacher-modelled strategies

#### ELS2O.B.3.1.: Spelling Familiar Words

Spelling Familiar Words: Students will use knowledge of spelling patterns and rules, a variety of resources, and appropriate strategies to spell familiar words correctly

#### ELS2O.B.3.2.: Spelling Unfamiliar Words

Spelling Unfamiliar Words: Students will use available print and electronic resources and a variety of strategies that involve understanding sound-symbol relationships, word structures, word meanings, and generalizations about spelling to spell unfamiliar

#### ELS2O.B.3.3.: Vocabulary

Vocabulary: Students will build vocabulary for writing by confirming word meanings and reviewing word choice using a variety of resources and strategies, as appropriate for the purpose

#### ELS2O.B.3.4.: Punctuation

Punctuation: Students will use punctuation correctly and appropriately to communicate their intended meaning

#### ELS2O.B.3.5.: Grammar

Grammar: Students will observe accepted grammar conventions, using parts of speech and word order correctly to communicate their meaning clearly

Proofreading: Students will proofread and correct their writing using guidelines developed with peers and the teacher

#### ELS2O.B.3.7.: Publishing

Publishing: Students will use a wide range of appropriate presentation features, including print and script, fonts, graphics, and layout, to improve the clarity and coherence of their written work and to engage their audience

#### ELS2O.B.3.8.: Producing Finished Works

Producing Finished Works: Students will produce pieces of published work to meet criteria identified by the teacher, based on the curriculum expectations

#### ELS2O.B.4.1.: Metacognition

Metacognition: Students will describe a variety of strategies they used before, during, and after writing; explain which ones they found most helpful; and identify specific steps they can take to improve as writers

#### EMS3O.A.1.

Understanding and Responding to Media Texts

#### EMS3O.A.1.1.

Purpose and Audience: Students will identify and explain the purpose and audience of a variety of media texts

#### EMS3O.A.1.2.

Message and Meaning: Students will identify and explain the messages in and meanings of media texts

#### EMS3O.A.1.3.

Audience Responses: Students will compare their own and others' responses to a variety of media texts and explain how audiences' backgrounds affect the ways in which they negotiate meaning

#### EMS3O.A.2.

Deconstructing Media Texts

#### EMS3O.A.2.1.

Codes and Conventions: Students will identify the codes and conventions used in media texts and explain how they help to create meaning

#### EMS3O.A.2.2.

Language and Point of View: Students will analyse how the language, tone, and point of view used in media texts work to influence the interpretation of messages

#### EMS3O.A.2.3.

Genre and Form: Students will describe the characteristics of particular media genres and forms, and explain how they help to convey meaning and influence the audience

#### EMS3O.B.1.

Understanding Media Perspectives

#### EMS3O.B.1.1.

Individuals and Groups: Students will analyse the representation of groups and individuals in media texts and comment on the perspectives, beliefs, or biases that are evident in the texts

#### EMS3O.B.1.2.

Current Issues: Students will analyse media representations of current social, political, and cultural issues and events, and explain how the representations might affect the audience's interpretation of the issues

#### EMS3O.B.1.3.

Behaviours and Attitudes: Students will analyse the representation of behaviours and attitudes in media texts and comment on how they influence the behaviours and attitudes of the audience

#### EMS3O.B.2.

Understanding the Impact of Media on Society

#### EMS3O.B.2.1.

Canadian Identity: Students will evaluate the impact of mass media on perceptions of Canadian identity

#### EMS3O.B.2.2.

Health and Relationships: Students will analyse the impact of the media and of communication technologies on health, relationships, and interpersonal communications

#### EMS3O.B.2.3.

Global Awareness and Globalization: Students will assess the impact of the media on countries, cultures, and economies around the world and/or the relationships among them, focusing on globalization

#### EMS3O.B.2.4.

Privacy: Students will examine the ways in which the media and communication technologies can infringe on the privacy rights of individuals, and how consideration of those rights affects the behaviour of the media industry

#### EMS3O.B.2.5.

Effects of Using Media Technology: Students will explain how people use media and communication technologies in their personal and working lives and identify some of the effects of those technologies

#### EMS3O.C.1.

Industry and Audience

#### EMS3O.C.1.1.

Targeting Audiences and Assessing Responses: Students will analyse how and why media companies, sponsors, and advertisers identify and target audiences based on socio-economic factors and how they assess and react to audience response

#### EMS3O.C.1.2.

New Technologies and Content Delivery: Students will identify some of the ways in which the delivery of content to audiences has changed as a result of new technologies and describe the effects of those changes

#### EMS3O.C.1.3.

Marketing Across Platforms: Students will explore how a media product or personality is marketed to an audience across a range of media platforms

#### EMS3O.C.2.

Ownership and Control

#### EMS3O.C.2.1.

Regulation: Students will explain how government regulations and industry codes affect the way in which media companies operate

#### EMS3O.C.2.2.

Concentration of Ownership and Its Effects: Students will research the current patterns of media ownership and explain the impact of these patterns on access, choice, and range of expression

#### EMS3O.C.2.3.

Technology and Perspectives: Students will explain the impact of technology on the perspectives and voices available to media audiences

#### EMS3O.C.2.4.

Gatekeepers: Students will analyse the factors that determine what media texts will or will not be made available to the public

#### EMS3O.C.2.5.

Impact of New Technology on Industry: Students will analyse the effects of new technologies on the media industry

#### EMS3O.D.1.

Producing Media Texts

#### EMS3O.D.1.1.

Purpose and Audience: Students will create media texts for different purposes and audiences

#### EMS3O.D.1.2.

Form: Students will select an appropriate form for a media text they plan to create, and explain why they made that choice

#### EMS3O.D.1.3.

Using Media Conventions and Techniques: Students will select and use the conventions and techniques of a particular form to produce media texts

#### EMS3O.D.1.4.

Language and Point of View: Students will select and use the appropriate level of language, tone, and point of view when creating media texts for specific purposes and audiences

#### EMS3O.D.1.5.

Production Process: Students will employ planning strategies for pre-production, production, and post-production

#### EMS3O.D.1.6.

Credits and Permissions: Students will research and obtain the necessary credits and permissions for the media texts they create, and explain the importance of doing so

#### EMS3O.D.2.

Careers in Media Production

#### EMS3O.D.2.1.

Definition of Roles: Students will identify and distinguish between the various positions involved in the production of a variety of media texts

#### EMS3O.D.2.2.

Career Opportunities: Students will research careers in the media and in related industries

#### EMS3O.D.3.1.

Media Consumer: Students will reflect on how their behaviours as consumers of media have changed in response to their study of media

#### EMS3O.D.3.2.

Media Analyst: Students will reflect on the strategies they used to evaluate media representations

#### EMS3O.D.3.3.

Media Producer: Students will select and present work that reflects their growth and competence as media creators, and explain the reasons for their choices

#### ENG1D.A.1.1.: Purpose

Purpose: Students will identify the purpose of several different listening tasks and set goals for specific tasks

#### ENG1D.A.1.2.: Using Active Listening Strategies

Using Active Listening Strategies: Students will identify and use several different active listening strategies when participating in a variety of classroom interactions

#### ENG1D.A.1.3.: Using Listening Comprehension Strate

Using Listening Comprehension Strategies: Students will identify and use several different listening comprehension strategies before, during, and after listening to understand both simple and complex oral texts

#### ENG1D.A.1.4.: Demonstrating Understanding of Conte

Demonstrating Understanding of Content: Students will identify the important information and ideas in both simple and complex oral texts in several different ways

#### ENG1D.A.1.5.: Interpreting Texts

Interpreting Texts: Students will develop and explain interpretations of both simple and complex oral texts, using evidence from the text and the oral and visual cues used in it to support their interpretations

#### ENG1D.A.1.6.: Extending Understanding of Texts

Extending Understanding of Texts: Students will extend understanding of both simple and complex oral texts by making connections between the ideas in them and personal knowledge, experience, and insights; other texts; and the world around them

#### ENG1D.A.1.7.: Analysing Texts

Analysing Texts: Students will analyse both simple and complex oral texts, focusing on the ways in which they communicate information, ideas, issues, and themes and influence the listener's/viewer's response

#### ENG1D.A.1.8.: Critical Literacy

Critical Literacy: Students will identify the perspectives and/or biases evident in both simple and complex oral texts and comment on any questions they may raise about beliefs, values, and identity

#### ENG1D.A.1.9.: Understanding Presentation Strategie

Understanding Presentation Strategies: Students will explain how several different presentation strategies are used in oral texts to inform, persuade, or entertain

#### ENG1D.A.2.1.: Purpose

Purpose: Students will communicate orally for several different purposes, using language suitable for the intended audience

#### ENG1D.A.2.2.: Interpersonal Speaking Strategies

Interpersonal Speaking Strategies: Students will demonstrate an understanding of several different interpersonal speaking strategies and adapt them to suit the purpose, situation, and audience, exhibiting sensitivity to cultural differences

#### ENG1D.A.2.3.: Clarity and Coherence

Clarity and Coherence: Students will communicate in a clear, coherent manner appropriate to the purpose, subject matter, and intended audience

#### ENG1D.A.2.4.: Diction and Devices

Diction and Devices: Students will use appropriate words, phrases, and terminology, and several different stylistic devices, to communicate their meaning and engage their intended audience

#### ENG1D.A.2.5.: Vocal Strategies

Vocal Strategies: Students will identify several different vocal strategies and use them selectively and with sensitivity to audience needs

#### ENG1D.A.2.6.: Non-Verbal Cues

Non-Verbal Cues: Students will identify several different non-verbal cues and use them, with sensitivity to audience needs, to help convey their meaning

#### ENG1D.A.2.7.: Audio-Visual Aids

Audio-Visual Aids: Students will use several different audio-visual aids to support and enhance oral presentations

#### ENG1D.B.1.1.: Variety of Texts

Variety of Texts: Students will read student- and teacher-selected texts from diverse cultures and historical periods, identifying specific purposes for reading

#### ENG1D.B.1.2.: Using Reading Comprehension Strategi

Using Reading Comprehension Strategies: Students will use several different reading comprehension strategies before, during, and after reading to understand both simple and complex texts

#### ENG1D.B.1.3.: Demonstrating Understanding of Conte

Demonstrating Understanding of Content: Students will identify the important ideas and supporting details in both simple and complex texts

#### ENG1D.B.1.4.: Making Inferences

Making Inferences: Students will make and explain inferences about both simple and complex texts, supporting their explanations with stated and implied ideas from the texts

#### ENG1D.B.1.5.: Extending Understanding of Texts

Extending Understanding of Texts: Students will extend understanding of both simple and complex texts by making connections between the ideas in them and personal knowledge, experience, and insights; other texts; and the world around them

#### ENG1D.B.1.6.: Analysing Texts

Analysing Texts: Students will analyse texts in terms of the information, ideas, issues, or themes they explore, examining how various aspects of the texts contribute to the presentation or development of these elements

#### ENG1D.B.1.7.: Evaluating Texts

Evaluating Texts: Students will evaluate the effectiveness of both simple and complex texts, using evidence from the text to support their opinions

#### ENG1D.B.1.8.: Critical Literacy

Critical Literacy: Students will identify the perspectives and/or biases evident in both simple and complex texts and comment on any questions they may raise about beliefs, values, and identity

#### ENG1D.B.2.1.: Text Forms

Text Forms: Students will identify several different characteristics of literary, informational, and graphic text forms and explain how they help communicate meaning

#### ENG1D.B.2.2.: Text Features

Text Features: Students will identify several different text features and explain how they help communicate meaning

#### ENG1D.B.2.3.: Elements of Style

Elements of Style: Students will identify several different elements of style in texts and explain how they help communicate meaning and enhance the effectiveness of the text

Reading Familiar Words: Students will automatically understand most words in several different reading contexts

Reading Unfamiliar Words: Students will use appropriate decoding strategies to read and understand unfamiliar words

#### ENG1D.B.3.3.: Developing Vocabulary

Developing Vocabulary: Students will identify and use several different strategies to expand vocabulary

#### ENG1D.C.1.1.: Identifying Topic, Purpose, and Audi

Identifying Topic, Purpose, and Audience: Students will identify the topic, purpose, and audience for several different types of writing tasks

#### ENG1D.C.1.2.: Generating and Developing Ideas

Generating and Developing Ideas: Students will generate and focus ideas for potential writing tasks, using several different strategies and print, electronic, and other resources, as appropriate

#### ENG1D.C.1.3.: Research

Research: Students will locate and select information to support ideas for writing, using several different strategies and print, electronic, and other resources, as appropriate

#### ENG1D.C.1.4.: Organizing Ideas

Organizing Ideas: Students will identify, sort, and order main ideas and supporting details for writing tasks, using several different strategies and organizational patterns suited to the content and purpose for writing

#### ENG1D.C.2.1.: Form

Form: Students will write for different purposes and audiences using several different literary, informational, and graphic forms

#### ENG1D.C.2.3.: Diction

Diction: Students will use appropriate descriptive and evocative words, phrases, and expressions to make their writing clear and vivid for their intended audience

#### ENG1D.C.2.4.: Sentence Craft and Fluency

Sentence Craft and Fluency: Students will write complete sentences that communicate their meaning clearly and accurately, varying sentence type, structure, and length for different purposes and making logical transitions between ideas

#### ENG1D.C.2.6.: Revision

Revision: Students will revise drafts to improve the content, organization, clarity, and style of their written work, using a variety of teacher-modelled strategies

#### ENG1D.C.2.7.: Producing Drafts

Producing Drafts: Students will produce revised drafts of both simple and complex texts written to meet criteria identified by the teacher, based on the curriculum expectations

#### ENG1D.C.3.1.: Spelling

Spelling: Students will use knowledge of spelling rules and patterns, several different types of resources, and appropriate strategies to spell familiar and new words correctly

#### ENG1D.C.3.2.: Vocabulary

Vocabulary: Students will build vocabulary for writing by confirming word meaning(s) and reviewing word choice, using several different types of resources and strategies, as appropriate for the purpose

#### ENG1D.C.3.3.: Punctuation

Punctuation: Students will use punctuation correctly to communicate their intended meaning

#### ENG1D.C.3.4.: Grammar

Grammar: Students will use grammar conventions correctly to communicate their intended meaning clearly

Proofreading: Students will proofread and correct their writing, using guidelines developed with the teacher and peers

#### ENG1D.C.3.6.: Publishing

Publishing: Students will use several different presentation features, including print and script, fonts, graphics, and layout, to improve the clarity and coherence of their written work and to engage their audience

#### ENG1D.C.3.7.: Producing Finished Works

Producing Finished Works: Students will produce pieces of published work to meet criteria identified by the teacher, based on the curriculum expectations

#### ENG1D.D.1.1.: Purpose and Audience

Purpose and Audience: Students will explain how both simple and complex media texts are created to suit particular purposes and audiences

#### ENG1D.D.1.2.: Interpreting Messages

Interpreting Messages: Students will interpret simple and complex media texts, identifying and explaining the overt and implied messages they convey

#### ENG1D.D.1.3.: Evaluating Texts

Evaluating Texts: Students will evaluate how effectively information, ideas, issues, and opinions are communicated in both simple and complex media texts and decide whether the texts achieve their intended purpose

#### ENG1D.D.1.4.: Audience Responses

Audience Responses: Students will identify and explain different audience responses to selected media texts

#### ENG1D.D.1.5.: Critical Literacy

Critical Literacy: Students will identify the perspectives and/or biases evident in both simple and complex media texts and comment on any questions they may raise about beliefs, values, and identity

#### ENG1D.D.1.6.: Production Perspectives

Production Perspectives: Students will explain how several different production, marketing, and distribution factors influence the media industry

#### ENG1D.D.2.: Understanding Media Forms, Conventions

Understanding Media Forms, Conventions, and Techniques

#### ENG1D.D.2.1.: Form

Form: Students will identify general characteristics of several different media forms and explain how they shape content and create meaning

#### ENG1D.D.2.2.: Conventions and Techniques

Conventions and Techniques: Students will identify several different conventions and/or techniques used in familiar media forms and explain how they convey meaning and influence their audience

#### ENG1D.D.3.1.: Purpose and Audience

Purpose and Audience: Students will describe the topic, purpose, and audience for media texts they plan to create

#### ENG1D.D.3.2.: Form

Form: Students will select a media form to suit the topic, purpose, and audience for a media text they plan to create, and explain why it is an appropriate choice

#### ENG1D.D.3.3.: Conventions and Techniques

Conventions and Techniques: Students will identify several different conventions and/or techniques appropriate to a media form they plan to use, and explain how these will help them communicate meaning

#### ENG1D.D.3.4.: Producing Media Texts

Producing Media Texts: Students will produce media texts for several different purposes and audiences, using appropriate forms, conventions, and techniques

#### ENG1P.A.1.1.: Purpose

Purpose: Students will identify the purpose of a few different listening tasks

#### ENG1P.A.1.2.: Using Active Listening Strategies

Using Active Listening Strategies: Students will identify and use a few different active listening strategies when participating in classroom interactions

#### ENG1P.A.1.3.: Using Listening Comprehension Strate

Using Listening Comprehension Strategies: Students will identify and use a few different listening comprehension strategies before, during, and after listening to understand simple oral texts and some teacher-selected complex texts

#### ENG1P.A.1.4.: Demonstrating Understanding of Conte

Demonstrating Understanding of Content: Students will identify the important information and ideas in simple oral texts and some teacher-selected complex texts

#### ENG1P.A.1.5.: Interpreting Texts

Interpreting Texts: Students will develop and explain interpretations of simple oral texts and some teacher-selected complex texts, using evidence from the text and the oral and visual cues used in it to support their interpretations

#### ENG1P.A.1.6.: Extending Understanding of Texts

Extending Understanding of Texts: Students will extend understanding of simple oral texts and some teacher-selected complex texts by making connections between the ideas in them and personal knowledge, experience, and insights; other texts; and the world

#### ENG1P.A.1.7.: Analysing Texts

Analysing Texts: Students will analyse oral texts, focusing on the ways in which they communicate information, ideas, issues, and themes and influence the listener's/viewer's response

#### ENG1P.A.1.8.: Critical Literacy

Critical Literacy: Students will identify the perspectives and/or biases evident in simple oral texts and some teacher-selected complex texts and comment on any questions they may raise about beliefs, values, and identity

#### ENG1P.A.1.9.: Understanding Presentation Strategie

Understanding Presentation Strategies: Students will identify how a few different presentation strategies are used in oral texts to inform, persuade, or entertain

#### ENG1P.A.2.1.: Purpose

Purpose: Students will communicate orally for a few different purposes and audiences

#### ENG1P.A.2.2.: Interpersonal Speaking Strategies

Interpersonal Speaking Strategies: Students will demonstrate an understanding of a few different interpersonal speaking strategies and adapt them to suit the purpose, situation, and audience, exhibiting sensitivity to cultural differences

#### ENG1P.A.2.3.: Clarity and Coherence

Clarity and Coherence: Students will communicate in a clear, coherent manner for a few different purposes

#### ENG1P.A.2.4.: Diction and Devices

Diction and Devices: Students will use appropriate words, phrases, and terminology, and a few different stylistic devices, to communicate their meaning clearly to their intended audience

#### ENG1P.A.2.5.: Vocal Strategies

Vocal Strategies: Students will identify a few different vocal strategies and use them selectively and with sensitivity to audience needs

#### ENG1P.A.2.6.: Non-Verbal Cues

Non-Verbal Cues: Students will identify a few different non-verbal cues and use them, with sensitivity to audience needs, to help convey their meaning

#### ENG1P.A.2.7.: Audio-Visual Aids

Audio-Visual Aids: Students will use a few different audio-visual aids to support oral presentations

#### ENG1P.B.1.1.: Variety of Texts

Variety of Texts: Students will read a few different short, contemporary, student- and teacher-selected texts from diverse cultures, identifying purposes for reading

#### ENG1P.B.1.2.: Using Reading Comprehension Strategi

Using Reading Comprehension Strategies: Students will identify and use a few different reading comprehension strategies before, during, and after reading to understand simple texts and some teacher-selected complex texts

#### ENG1P.B.1.3.: Demonstrating Understanding of Conte

Demonstrating Understanding of Content: Students will identify the important ideas and supporting details in a few different types of texts

#### ENG1P.B.1.4.: Making Inferences

Making Inferences: Students will make inferences about simple texts and some teacher-selected complex texts, using stated and implied ideas from the texts

#### ENG1P.B.1.5.: Extending Understanding of Texts

Extending Understanding of Texts: Students will extend understanding of simple texts and some teacher-selected complex texts by making basic connections between the ideas in them and personal knowledge, experience, and insights; other texts; and the world

#### ENG1P.B.1.6.: Analysing Texts

Analysing Texts: Students will analyse texts in terms of the information, ideas, issues, or themes they explore, examining how various aspects of the texts contribute to the presentation or development of these elements

#### ENG1P.B.1.7.: Evaluating Texts

Evaluating Texts: Students will evaluate the effectiveness of simple texts and some teacher-selected complex texts, using evidence from the text to support their opinions

#### ENG1P.B.1.8.: Critical Literacy

Critical Literacy: Students will identify the perspectives and/or biases evident in simple texts and some teacher-selected complex texts and comment on any questions they may raise about beliefs, values, and identity

#### ENG1P.B.2.1.: Text Forms

Text Forms: Students will identify a few different characteristics of informational, literary, and graphic text forms and explain how they help communicate meaning

#### ENG1P.B.2.2.: Text Features

Text Features: Students will identify a few different text features and explain how they help communicate meaning

#### ENG1P.B.2.3.: Elements of Style

Elements of Style: Students will identify a few different elements of style in texts and explain how they help communicate meaning and enhance the effectiveness of the text

Reading Familiar Words: Students will automatically understand most words in classroom and everyday reading contexts

Reading Unfamiliar Words: Students will use a few different decoding strategies to read and understand unfamiliar words

#### ENG1P.B.3.3.: Developing Vocabulary

Developing Vocabulary: Students will identify and use a few different strategies to expand vocabulary

#### ENG1P.C.1.1.: Identifying Topic, Purpose, and Audi

Identifying Topic, Purpose, and Audience: Students will identify the topic, purpose, and audience for a few different types of writing tasks

#### ENG1P.C.1.2.: Generating and Developing Ideas

Generating and Developing Ideas: Students will generate and focus ideas for potential writing tasks, using a few different strategies and print, electronic, and other resources, as appropriate

#### ENG1P.C.1.3.: Research

Research: Students will locate and select information to support ideas for writing, using a few different strategies and print, electronic, and other resources, as appropriate

#### ENG1P.C.1.4.: Organizing Ideas

Organizing Ideas: Students will identify, sort, and order main ideas and supporting details for writing tasks, using a few different strategies and organizational patterns suited to the content and the purpose for writing

#### ENG1P.C.2.1.: Form

Form: Students will write for different purposes and audiences using a few different informational, graphic, and literary forms

#### ENG1P.C.2.3.: Diction

Diction: Students will use appropriate descriptive words, phrases, and expressions to make their writing clear for their intended audience

#### ENG1P.C.2.4.: Sentence Craft and Fluency

Sentence Craft and Fluency: Students will write complete sentences that communicate their meaning accurately, varying sentence type, structure, and length for different purposes and making logical transitions between ideas

#### ENG1P.C.2.6.: Revision

Revision: Students will revise drafts to improve the content, organization, and clarity of their written work, using a variety of teacher-modelled strategies

#### ENG1P.C.2.7.: Producing Drafts

Producing Drafts: Students will produce revised drafts of texts written to meet criteria identified by the teacher, based on the curriculum expectations

#### ENG1P.C.3.1.: Spelling

Spelling: Students will use knowledge of basic spelling rules and patterns, a few different resources, and appropriate strategies to spell familiar and new words correctly

#### ENG1P.C.3.2.: Vocabulary

Vocabulary: Students will build vocabulary for writing by confirming word meaning(s) and reviewing word choice, using a few different types of resources and strategies

#### ENG1P.C.3.3.: Punctuation

Punctuation: Students will use punctuation correctly to communicate their intended meaning

#### ENG1P.C.3.4.: Grammar

Grammar: Students will use grammar conventions correctly to communicate their intended meaning clearly

Proofreading: Students will proofread and correct their writing, using guidelines developed with the teacher and peers

#### ENG1P.C.3.6.: Publishing

Publishing: Students will use a few different presentation features, including print and script, fonts, graphics, and layout, to improve the clarity of their written work

#### ENG1P.C.3.7.: Producing Finished Works

Producing Finished Works: Students will produce pieces of published work to meet criteria identified by the teacher, based on the curriculum expectations

#### ENG1P.D.1.1.: Purpose and Audience

Purpose and Audience: Students will explain how simple media texts and some teacher-selected complex media texts are created to suit particular purposes and audiences

#### ENG1P.D.1.2.: Interpreting Messages

Interpreting Messages: Students will interpret simple media texts and some teacher- selected complex media texts, identifying some of the overt and implied messages they convey

#### ENG1P.D.1.3.: Evaluating Texts

Evaluating Texts: Students will evaluate how effectively information and ideas are communicated in simple media texts and some teacher-selected complex media texts, and decide whether the texts achieve their intended purpose

#### ENG1P.D.1.4.: Audience Responses

Audience Responses: Students will identify how different audiences might respond to selected media texts

#### ENG1P.D.1.5.: Critical Literacy

Critical Literacy: Students will identify the perspectives and/or biases evident in a few simple media texts and teacher-selected complex media texts and comment on any questions they may raise about beliefs, values, and identity

#### ENG1P.D.1.6.: Production Perspectives

Production Perspectives: Students will explain how a few different production, marketing, and distribution factors influence the media industry

#### ENG1P.D.2.: Understanding Media Forms, Conventions

Understanding Media Forms, Conventions, and Techniques

#### ENG1P.D.2.1.: Form

Form: Students will identify general characteristics of a few different media forms and explain how they shape content and create meaning

#### ENG1P.D.2.2.: Conventions and Techniques

Conventions and Techniques: Students will identify a few different conventions and/or techniques used in familiar media forms and explain how they convey meaning

#### ENG1P.D.3.1.: Purpose and Audience

Purpose and Audience: Students will describe the topic, purpose, and audience for media texts they plan to create

#### ENG1P.D.3.2.: Form

Form: Students will select a media form to suit the topic, purpose, and audience for a media text they plan to create, and explain why it is an appropriate choice

#### ENG1P.D.3.3.: Conventions and Techniques

Conventions and Techniques: Students will identify a few different conventions and/or techniques appropriate to a media form they plan to use, and explain how these will help them communicate meaning

#### ENG1P.D.3.4.: Producing Media Texts

Producing Media Texts: Students will produce media texts for a few different purposes and audiences, using appropriate forms, conventions, and techniques

#### ENG2D.A.1.1.: Purpose

Purpose: Students will identify the purpose of a variety of listening tasks and set goals for specific tasks

#### ENG2D.A.1.2.: Using Active Listening Strategies

Using Active Listening Strategies: Students will select and use appropriate active listening strategies when participating in a variety of classroom interactions

#### ENG2D.A.1.3.: Using Listening Comprehension Strate

Using Listening Comprehension Strategies: Students will select and use appropriate listening comprehension strategies before, during, and after listening to understand oral texts, including increasingly complex texts

#### ENG2D.A.1.4.: Demonstrating Understanding of Conte

Demonstrating Understanding of Content: Students will identify the important information and ideas in oral texts, including increasingly complex texts, in a variety of ways

#### ENG2D.A.1.5.: Interpreting Texts

Interpreting Texts: Students will develop and explain interpretations of oral texts, including increasingly complex texts, using evidence from the text and the oral and visual cues used in it to support their interpretations

#### ENG2D.A.1.6.: Extending Understanding of Texts

Extending Understanding of Texts: Students will extend understanding of oral texts, including increasingly complex texts, by making connections between the ideas in them and personal knowledge, experience, and insights; other texts; and the world around t

#### ENG2D.A.1.7.: Analysing Texts

Analysing Texts: Students will analyse oral texts, including increasingly complex texts, focusing on the ways in which they communicate information, ideas, issues, and themes and influence the listener's/viewer's response

#### ENG2D.A.1.8.: Critical Literacy

Critical Literacy: Students will identify and analyse the perspectives and/or biases evident in oral texts, including increasingly complex texts, and comment on any questions they may raise about beliefs, values, identity, and power

#### ENG2D.A.1.9.: Understanding Presentation Strategie

Understanding Presentation Strategies: Students will evaluate the effectiveness of a variety of presentation strategies used in oral texts, including increasingly complex texts, and suggest other strategies that could be used effectively

#### ENG2D.A.2.1.: Purpose

Purpose: Students will communicate orally for a variety of purposes, using language appropriate for the intended audience

#### ENG2D.A.2.2.: Interpersonal Speaking Strategies

Interpersonal Speaking Strategies: Students will demonstrate an understanding of a variety of interpersonal speaking strategies and adapt them to suit the purpose, situation, and audience, exhibiting sensitivity to cultural differences

#### ENG2D.A.2.3.: Clarity and Coherence

Clarity and Coherence: Students will communicate in a clear, coherent manner, using a structure and style appropriate to the purpose, subject matter, and intended audience

#### ENG2D.A.2.4.: Diction and Devices

Diction and Devices: Students will use appropriate words, phrases, and terminology, and several different stylistic devices, to communicate their meaning and engage their intended audience

#### ENG2D.A.2.5.: Vocal Strategies

Vocal Strategies: Students will identify a variety of vocal strategies, including tone, pace, pitch, and volume, and use them appropriately and with sensitivity to audience needs and cultural differences

#### ENG2D.A.2.6.: Non-Verbal Cues

Non-Verbal Cues: Students will identify a variety of non-verbal cues, including facial expressions, gestures, and eye contact, and use them appropriately to help convey their meaning and with sensitivity to audience needs and cultural differences

#### ENG2D.A.2.7.: Audio-Visual Aids

Audio-Visual Aids: Students will use a variety of audio-visual aids appropriately to support and enhance oral presentations and to engage an audience

#### ENG2D.B.1.1.: Variety of Texts

Variety of Texts: Students will read a variety of student- and teacher-selected texts from diverse cultures and historical periods, identifying specific purposes for reading

#### ENG2D.B.1.2.: Using Reading Comprehension Strategi

Using Reading Comprehension Strategies: Students will select and use appropriate reading comprehension strategies before, during, and after reading to understand texts, including increasingly complex texts

#### ENG2D.B.1.3.: Demonstrating Understanding of Conte

Demonstrating Understanding of Content: Students will identify the most important ideas and supporting details in texts, including increasingly complex texts

#### ENG2D.B.1.4.: Making Inferences

Making Inferences: Students will make and explain inferences about texts, including increasingly complex texts, supporting their explanations with well-chosen stated and implied ideas from the texts

#### ENG2D.B.1.5.: Extending Understanding of Texts

Extending Understanding of Texts: Students will extend understanding of texts, including increasingly complex texts, by making appropriate connections between the ideas in them and personal knowledge, experience, and insights; other texts; and the world a

#### ENG2D.B.1.6.: Analysing Texts

Analysing Texts: Students will analyse texts in terms of the information, ideas, issues, or themes they explore, examining how various aspects of the texts contribute to the presentation or development of these elements

#### ENG2D.B.1.7.: Evaluating Texts

Evaluating Texts: Students will evaluate the effectiveness of texts, including increasingly complex texts, using evidence from the text to support their opinions

#### ENG2D.B.1.8.: Critical Literacy

Critical Literacy: Students will identify and analyse the perspectives and/or biases evident in texts, including increasingly complex texts, and comment on any questions they may raise about beliefs, values, identity, and power

#### ENG2D.B.2.1.: Text Forms

Text Forms: Students will identify a variety of characteristics of literary, informational, and graphic text forms and explain how they help communicate meaning

#### ENG2D.B.2.2.: Text Features

Text Features: Students will identify a variety of text features and explain how they help communicate meaning

#### ENG2D.B.2.3.: Elements of Style

Elements of Style: Students will identify a variety of elements of style in texts and explain how they help communicate meaning and enhance the effectiveness of the texts

Reading Familiar Words: Students will automatically understand most words in a variety of reading contexts

Reading Unfamiliar Words: Students will use appropriate decoding strategies to read and understand unfamiliar words

#### ENG2D.B.3.3.: Developing Vocabulary

Developing Vocabulary: Students will identify and use a variety of strategies to expand vocabulary

#### ENG2D.C.1.1.: Identifying Topic, Purpose, and Audi

Identifying Topic, Purpose, and Audience: Students will identify the topic, purpose, and audience for a variety of writing tasks

#### ENG2D.C.1.2.: Generating and Developing Ideas

Generating and Developing Ideas: Students will generate, expand, explore, and focus ideas for potential writing tasks, using a variety of strategies and print, electronic, and other resources, as appropriate

#### ENG2D.C.1.3.: Research

Research: Students will locate and select information to appropriately support ideas for writing, using a variety of strategies and print, electronic, and other resources, as appropriate

#### ENG2D.C.1.4.: Organizing Ideas

Organizing Ideas: Students will identify, sort, and order main ideas and supporting details for writing tasks, using a variety of strategies and organizational patterns suited to the content and the purpose for writing

#### ENG2D.C.2.1.: Form

Form: Students will write for different purposes and audiences using a variety of literary, graphic, and informational forms

#### ENG2D.C.2.3.: Diction

Diction: Students will use appropriate descriptive and evocative words, phrases, and expressions to make their writing clear, vivid, and interesting for their intended audience

#### ENG2D.C.2.4.: Sentence Craft and Fluency

Sentence Craft and Fluency: Students will write complete sentences that communicate their meaning clearly and accurately, varying sentence type, structure, and length to suit different purposes and making smooth and logical transitions between ideas

#### ENG2D.C.2.6.: Revision

Revision: Students will revise drafts to improve the content, organization, clarity, and style of their written work, using a variety of teacher-modelled strategies

#### ENG2D.C.2.7.: Producing Drafts

Producing Drafts: Students will produce revised drafts of texts, including increasingly complex texts, written to meet criteria identified by the teacher, based on the curriculum expectations

#### ENG2D.C.3.1.: Spelling

Spelling: Students will use knowledge of spelling rules and patterns, a variety of resources, and appropriate strategies to recognize and correct their own and others' spelling errors

#### ENG2D.C.3.2.: Vocabulary

Vocabulary: Students will build vocabulary for writing by confirming word meaning(s) and reviewing and refining word choice, using a variety of resources and strategies, as appropriate for the purpose

#### ENG2D.C.3.3.: Punctuation

Punctuation: Students will use punctuation correctly and appropriately to communicate their intended meaning

#### ENG2D.C.3.4.: Grammar

Grammar: Students will use grammar conventions correctly and appropriately to communicate their intended meaning clearly and fluently

Proofreading: Students will proofread and correct their writing, using guidelines developed with the teacher and peers

#### ENG2D.C.3.6.: Publishing

Publishing: Students will use a variety of presentation features, including print and script, fonts, graphics, and layout, to improve the clarity and coherence of their work and to heighten its appeal for their audience

#### ENG2D.C.3.7.: Producing Finished Works

Producing Finished Works: Students will produce pieces of published work to meet criteria identified by the teacher, based on the curriculum expectations

#### ENG2D.D.1.1.: Purpose and Audience

Purpose and Audience: Students will explain how media texts, including increasingly complex texts, are created to suit particular purposes and audiences

#### ENG2D.D.1.2.: Interpreting Messages

Interpreting Messages: Students will interpret media texts, including increasingly complex texts, identifying and explaining the overt and implied messages they convey

#### ENG2D.D.1.3.: Evaluating Texts

Evaluating Texts: Students will evaluate how effectively information, ideas, issues, and opinions, are communicated in media texts, including increasingly complex texts, and decide whether the texts achieve their intended purpose

#### ENG2D.D.1.4.: Audience Responses

Audience Responses: Students will explain why the same media text might prompt different responses from different audiences

#### ENG2D.D.1.5.: Critical Literacy

Critical Literacy: Students will identify the perspectives and/or biases evident in media texts, including increasingly complex texts, and comment on any questions they may raise about beliefs, values, identity, and power

#### ENG2D.D.1.6.: Production Perspectives

Production Perspectives: Students will explain how a variety of production, marketing, and distribution factors influence the media industry

#### ENG2D.D.2.: Understanding Media Forms, Conventions

Understanding Media Forms, Conventions, and Techniques

#### ENG2D.D.2.1.: Form

Form: Students will identify general and specific characteristics of a variety of media forms and explain how they shape content and create meaning

#### ENG2D.D.2.2.: Conventions and Techniques

Conventions and Techniques: Students will identify conventions and/or techniques used in a variety of media forms and explain how they convey meaning and influence their audience

#### ENG2D.D.3.1.: Purpose and Audience

Purpose and Audience: Students will describe the topic, purpose, and audience for media texts they plan to create

#### ENG2D.D.3.2.: Form

Form: Students will select a media form to suit the topic, purpose, and audience for a media text they plan to create, and explain why it is an appropriate choice

#### ENG2D.D.3.3.: Conventions and Techniques

Conventions and Techniques: Students will identify a variety of conventions and/or techniques appropriate to a media form they plan to use, and explain how these will help them communicate specific aspects of their intended meaning

#### ENG2D.D.3.4.: Producing Media Texts

Producing Media Texts: Students will produce media texts for a variety of purposes and audiences, using appropriate forms, conventions, and techniques

#### ENG2P.A.1.1.: Purpose

Purpose: Students will identify the purpose of several different listening tasks and set goals for specific tasks

#### ENG2P.A.1.2.: Using Active Listening Strategies

Using Active Listening Strategies: Students will identify and use several different active listening strategies when participating in a variety of classroom interactions

#### ENG2P.A.1.3.: Using Listening Comprehension Strate

Using Listening Comprehension Strategies: Students will identify and use several different listening comprehension strategies before, during, and after listening to understand both simple and complex oral texts

#### ENG2P.A.1.4.: Demonstrating Understanding of Conte

Demonstrating Understanding of Content: Students will identify the important information and ideas in both simple and complex oral texts in several different ways

#### ENG2P.A.1.5.: Interpreting Texts

Interpreting Texts: Students will develop and explain interpretations of both simple and complex oral texts, using evidence from the text and the oral and visual cues used in it to support their interpretations

#### ENG2P.A.1.6.: Extending Understanding of Texts

Extending Understanding of Texts: Students will extend understanding of both simple and complex oral texts by making connections between the ideas in them and personal knowledge, experience, and insights; other texts; and the world around them

#### ENG2P.A.1.7.: Analysing Texts

Analysing Texts: Students will analyse both simple and complex oral texts, focusing on the ways in which they communicate information, ideas, issues, and themes and influence the listener's/viewer's response

#### ENG2P.A.1.8.: Critical Literacy

Critical Literacy: Students will identify the perspectives and/or biases evident in both simple and complex oral texts and comment on any questions they may raise about beliefs, values, identity, and power

#### ENG2P.A.1.9.: Understanding Presentation Strategie

Understanding Presentation Strategies: Students will explain how several different presentation strategies are used in oral texts to inform, persuade, or entertain

#### ENG2P.A.2.1.: Purpose

Purpose: Students will communicate orally for several different purposes, using language suitable for the intended audience

#### ENG2P.A.2.2.: Interpersonal Speaking Strategies

Interpersonal Speaking Strategies: Students will demonstrate an understanding of several different interpersonal speaking strategies and adapt them to suit the purpose, situation, and audience, exhibiting sensitivity to cultural differences

#### ENG2P.A.2.3.: Clarity and Coherence

Clarity and Coherence: Students will communicate in a clear, coherent manner appropriate to the purpose, subject matter, and intended audience

#### ENG2P.A.2.4.: Diction and Devices

Diction and Devices: Students will use appropriate words, phrases, and terminology, and several different stylistic devices, to communicate their meaning and engage their intended audience

#### ENG2P.A.2.5.: Vocal Strategies

Vocal Strategies: Students will identify several different vocal strategies and use them selectively and with sensitivity to audience needs

#### ENG2P.A.2.6.: Non-Verbal Cues

Non-Verbal Cues: Students will identify several different non-verbal cues and use them, with sensitivity to audience needs, to help convey their meaning

#### ENG2P.A.2.7.: Audio-Visual Aids

Audio-Visual Aids: Students will use several different audio-visual aids to support and enhance oral presentations

#### ENG2P.B.1.1.: Variety of Texts

Variety of Texts: Students will read several different short, contemporary, student- and teacher-selected texts from diverse cultures, identifying specific purposes for reading

#### ENG2P.B.1.2.: Using Reading Comprehension Strategi

Using Reading Comprehension Strategies: Students will use several different reading comprehension strategies before, during, and after reading to understand both simple and complex texts

#### ENG2P.B.1.3.: Demonstrating Understanding of Conte

Demonstrating Understanding of Content: Students will identify the important ideas and supporting details in both simple and complex texts

#### ENG2P.B.1.4.: Making Inferences

Making Inferences: Students will make and explain inferences about both simple and complex texts, supporting their explanations with stated and implied ideas from the texts

#### ENG2P.B.1.5.: Extending Understanding of Texts

Extending Understanding of Texts: Students will extend understanding of both simple and complex texts by making connections between the ideas in them and personal knowledge, experience, and insights; other texts; and the world around them

#### ENG2P.B.1.6.: Analysing Texts

Analysing Texts: Students will analyse texts in terms of the information, ideas, issues, or themes they explore, examining how various aspects of the texts contribute to the presentation or development of these elements

#### ENG2P.B.1.7.: Evaluating Texts

Evaluating Texts: Students will evaluate the effectiveness of both simple and complex texts, using evidence from the text to support their opinions

#### ENG2P.B.1.8.: Critical Literacy

Critical Literacy: Students will identify perspectives and/or biases evident in both simple and complex texts and comment on any questions they may raise about beliefs, values, identity, and power

#### ENG2P.B.2.1.: Text Forms

Text Forms: Students will identify several different characteristics of informational, literary, and graphic text forms and explain how they help communicate meaning

#### ENG2P.B.2.2.: Text Features

Text Features: Students will identify several different text features and explain how they help communicate meaning

#### ENG2P.B.2.3.: Elements of Style

Elements of Style: Students will identify several different elements of style in texts and explain how they help communicate meaning and enhance the effectiveness of the text

Reading Familiar Words: Students will automatically understand most words in several different reading contexts

Reading Unfamiliar Words: Students will use appropriate decoding strategies to read and understand unfamiliar words

#### ENG2P.B.3.3.: Developing Vocabulary

Developing Vocabulary: Students will identify and use several different strategies to expand vocabulary

#### ENG2P.C.1.1.: Identifying Topic, Purpose, and Audi

Identifying Topic, Purpose, and Audience: Students will identify the topic, purpose, and audience for several different types of writing tasks

#### ENG2P.C.1.2.: Generating and Developing Ideas

Generating and Developing Ideas: Students will generate and focus ideas for potential writing tasks, using several different strategies and print, electronic, and other resources, as appropriate

#### ENG2P.C.1.3.: Research

Research: Students will locate and select information to support ideas for writing, using several different strategies and print, electronic, and other resources, as appropriate

#### ENG2P.C.1.4.: Organizing Ideas

Organizing Ideas: Students will identify, sort, and order main ideas and supporting details for writing tasks, using several different strategies and organizational patterns suited to the content and the purpose for writing

#### ENG2P.C.2.1.: Form

Form: Students will write for different purposes and audiences using several different informational, literary, and graphic forms

#### ENG2P.C.2.3.: Diction

Diction: Students will use appropriate descriptive and evocative words, phrases, and expressions to make their writing clear and vivid for their intended audience

#### ENG2P.C.2.4.: Sentence Craft and Fluency

Sentence Craft and Fluency: Students will write complete sentences that communicate their meaning clearly and accurately, varying sentence type, structure, and length to suit different purposes and making logical transitions between ideas

#### ENG2P.C.2.6.: Revision

Revision: Students will revise drafts to improve the content, organization, clarity, and style of their written work, using a variety of teacher-modelled strategies

#### ENG2P.C.2.7.: Producing Drafts

Producing Drafts: Students will produce revised drafts of both simple and complex texts written to meet criteria identified by the teacher, based on the curriculum expectations

#### ENG2P.C.3.1.: Spelling

Spelling: Students will use knowledge of spelling rules and patterns, several different types of resources, and appropriate strategies to spell familiar and new words correctly

#### ENG2P.C.3.2.: Vocabulary

Vocabulary: Students will build vocabulary for writing by confirming word meaning(s) and reviewing word choice, using several different types of resources and strategies, as appropriate for the purpose

#### ENG2P.C.3.3.: Punctuation

Punctuation: Students will use punctuation correctly to communicate their intended meaning

#### ENG2P.C.3.4.: Grammar

Grammar: Students will use grammar conventions correctly to communicate their intended meaning clearly

Proofreading: Students will proofread and correct their writing, using guidelines developed with the teacher and peers

#### ENG2P.C.3.6.: Publishing

Publishing: Students will use several different presentation features, including print and script, fonts, graphics, and layout, to improve the clarity and coherence of their written work and to engage their audience

#### ENG2P.C.3.7.: Producing Finished Works

Producing Finished Works: Students will produce pieces of published work to meet criteria identified by the teacher, based on the curriculum expectations

#### ENG2P.D.1.1.: Purpose and Audience

Purpose and Audience: Students will explain how both simple and complex media texts are created to suit particular purposes and audiences

#### ENG2P.D.1.2.: Interpreting Messages

Interpreting Messages: Students will interpret simple and complex media texts, identifying and explaining the overt and implied messages they convey

#### ENG2P.D.1.3.: Evaluating Texts

Evaluating Texts: Students will evaluate how effectively information, ideas, issues, and opinions are communicated in both simple and complex media texts and decide whether the texts achieve their intended purpose

#### ENG2P.D.1.4.: Audience Responses

Audience Responses: Students will identify and explain different audience responses to selected media texts

#### ENG2P.D.1.5.: Critical Literacy

Critical Literacy: Students will identify the perspectives and/or biases evident in both simple and complex media texts and comment on any questions they may raise about beliefs, values, identity, and power

#### ENG2P.D.1.6.: Production Perspectives

Production Perspectives: Students will explain how several different production, marketing, and distribution factors influence the media industry

#### ENG2P.D.2.: Understanding Media Forms, Conventions

Understanding Media Forms, Conventions, and Techniques

#### ENG2P.D.2.1.: Form

Form: Students will identify some general characteristics of several different media forms and explain how they shape content and create meaning

#### ENG2P.D.2.2.: Conventions and Techniques

Conventions and Techniques: Students will identify several different conventions and/or techniques used in familiar media forms and explain how they convey meaning and influence their audience

#### ENG2P.D.3.1.: Purpose and Audience

Purpose and Audience: Students will describe the topic, purpose, and audience for media texts they plan to create, and identify specific challenges they may face in achieving their purpose

#### ENG2P.D.3.2.: Form

Form: Students will select a media form to suit the topic, purpose, and audience for a media text they plan to create, and explain why it is an appropriate choice

#### ENG2P.D.3.3.: Conventions and Techniques

Conventions and Techniques: Students will identify several different conventions and/or techniques appropriate to a media form they plan to use, and explain how these will help them communicate meaning

#### ENG2P.D.3.4.: Producing Media Texts

Producing Media Texts: Students will produce media texts for several different purposes and audiences, using appropriate forms, conventions, and techniques

#### ENG3C.A.1.

Listening to Understand

#### ENG3C.A.1.1.

Purpose: Students will identify the purpose of a variety of listening tasks and set goals for specific tasks

#### ENG3C.A.1.2.

Using Active Listening Strategies: Students will select and use appropriate active listening strategies when participating in a variety of classroom interactions

#### ENG3C.A.1.3.

Using Listening Comprehension Strategies: Students will select and use appropriate listening comprehension strategies before, during, and after listening to understand oral texts, including increasingly complex texts

#### ENG3C.A.1.4.

Demonstrating Understanding of Content: Students will identify the important information and ideas in oral texts, including increasingly complex texts, in a variety of ways

#### ENG3C.A.1.5.

Interpreting Texts: Students will develop and explain interpretations of oral texts, including increasingly complex texts, using evidence from the text and the oral and visual cues used in it to support their interpretations

#### ENG3C.A.1.6.

Extending Understanding of Texts: Students will extend understanding of oral texts, including increasingly complex texts, by making connections between the ideas in them and personal knowledge, experience, and insights; other texts; and the world around t

#### ENG3C.A.1.7.

Analysing Texts: Students will analyse oral texts, including increasingly complex texts, focusing on the ways in which they communicate information, ideas, issues, and themes and influence the listener's/viewer's response

#### ENG3C.A.1.8.

Critical Literacy: Students will identify and analyse the perspectives and/or biases evident in oral texts, including increasingly complex texts, and comment on any questions they may raise about beliefs, values, identity, and power

#### ENG3C.A.1.9.

Understanding Presentation Strategies: Students will evaluate the effectiveness of a variety of presentation strategies used in oral texts, including increasingly complex texts, and suggest other strategies that could be used effectively

#### ENG3C.A.2.

Speaking to Communicate

#### ENG3C.A.2.1.

Purpose: Students will communicate orally for a variety of purposes, using language appropriate for the intended audience

#### ENG3C.A.2.2.

Interpersonal Speaking Strategies: Students will demonstrate an understanding of a variety of interpersonal speaking strategies and adapt them to suit the purpose, situation, and audience, exhibiting sensitivity to cultural differences

#### ENG3C.A.2.3.

Clarity and Coherence: Students will communicate in a clear, coherent manner, using a structure and style appropriate to the purpose, subject matter, and intended audience

#### ENG3C.A.2.4.

Diction and Devices: Students will use appropriate words, phrases, and terminology, and several different stylistic devices, to communicate their meaning and engage their intended audience

#### ENG3C.A.2.5.

Vocal Strategies: Students will identify a variety of vocal strategies, including tone, pace, pitch, and volume, and use them appropriately and with sensitivity to audience needs and cultural differences

#### ENG3C.A.2.6.

Non-Verbal Cues: Students will identify a variety of non-verbal cues, including facial expressions, gestures, and eye contact, and use them appropriately to help convey their meaning and with sensitivity to audience needs and cultural differences

#### ENG3C.A.2.7.

Audio-Visual Aids: Students will use a variety of audio-visual aids appropriately to support and enhance oral presentations and to engage an audience

#### ENG3C.A.3.

Reflecting on Communication Skills and Strategies

#### ENG3C.A.3.1.

Metacognition: Students will describe a variety of strategies they used before, during, and after listening and speaking; explain which ones they found most helpful; and identify appropriate steps they can take to improve their oral communication skills

#### ENG3C.A.3.2.

Interconnected Skills: Students will identify a variety of their skills in viewing, representing, reading, and writing and explain how the skills help them improve their oral communication skills

#### ENG3C.B.1.1.

Variety of Texts: Students will read a variety of short, contemporary student-and teacher-selected texts from diverse cultures, identifying specific purposes for reading

#### ENG3C.B.1.2.

Using Reading Comprehension Strategies: Students will select and use appropriate reading comprehension strategies before, during, and after reading to understand texts, including increasingly complex texts

#### ENG3C.B.1.3.

Demonstrating Understanding of Content: Students will identify the most important ideas and supporting details in texts, including increasingly complex texts

#### ENG3C.B.1.4.

Making Inferences: Students will make and explain inferences about texts, including increasingly complex texts, supporting their explanations with well-chosen stated and implied ideas from the texts

#### ENG3C.B.1.5.

Extending Understanding of Texts: Students will extend understanding of texts, including increasingly complex texts, by making appropriate connections between the ideas in them and personal knowledge, experience, and insights; other texts; and the world a

#### ENG3C.B.1.6.

Analysing Texts: Students will analyse texts in terms of the information, ideas, issues, and themes they explore, examining how various aspects of the texts contribute to the presentation or development of these elements

#### ENG3C.B.1.7.

Evaluating Texts: Students will evaluate the effectiveness of texts, including increasingly complex texts, using evidence from the text to support their opinions

#### ENG3C.B.1.8.

Critical Literacy: Students will identify and analyse the perspectives and/or biases evident in texts, including increasingly complex texts, and comment on any questions they may raise about beliefs, values, identity, and power

#### ENG3C.B.2.

Understanding Form and Style

#### ENG3C.B.2.1.

Text Forms: Students will identify a variety of characteristics of informational, literary, and graphic text forms and explain how they help communicate meaning

#### ENG3C.B.2.2.

Text Features: Students will identify a variety of text features and explain how they help communicate meaning

#### ENG3C.B.2.3.

Elements of Style: Students will identify a variety of elements of style in texts, including increasingly complex texts, and explain how they help communicate meaning and enhance the effectiveness of the texts

#### ENG3C.B.3.1.

Reading Familiar Words: Students will automatically understand most words in a variety of reading contexts

#### ENG3C.B.3.2.

Reading Unfamiliar Words: Students will use appropriate decoding strategies to read and understand unfamiliar words

#### ENG3C.B.3.3.

Developing Vocabulary: Students will identify and use a variety of strategies to expand vocabulary

#### ENG3C.B.4.

Reflecting on Skills and Strategies

#### ENG3C.B.4.1.

Metacognition: Students will describe a variety of strategies they used before, during, and after reading; explain which ones they found most helpful; and identify appropriate steps they can take to improve as readers

#### ENG3C.B.4.2.

Interconnected Skills: Students will identify a variety of their skills in listening, speaking, writing, viewing, and representing and explain how the skills help them read more effectively

#### ENG3C.C.1.

Developing and Organizing Content

#### ENG3C.C.1.1.

Identifying Topic, Purpose, and Audience: Students will identify the topic, purpose, and audience for a variety of writing tasks

#### ENG3C.C.1.2.

Generating and Developing Ideas: Students will generate, expand, explore, and focus ideas for potential writing tasks, using a variety of strategies and print, electronic, and other resources, as appropriate

#### ENG3C.C.1.3.

Research: Students will locate and select information to appropriately support ideas for writing, using a variety of strategies and print, electronic, and other resources, as appropriate

#### ENG3C.C.1.4.

Organizing Ideas: Students will identify, sort, and order main ideas and supporting details for writing tasks, using a variety of strategies and organizational patterns suited to the content and the purpose for writing

#### ENG3C.C.2.

Using Knowledge of Form and Style

#### ENG3C.C.2.1.

Form: Students will write for different purposes and audiences using a variety of informational, literary, and graphic forms

#### ENG3C.C.2.3.

Diction: Students will use appropriate descriptive and evocative words, phrases, and expressions to make their writing clear, vivid, and interesting for their intended audience

#### ENG3C.C.2.4.

Sentence Craft and Fluency: Students will write complete sentences that communicate their meaning clearly and accurately, varying sentence type, structure, and length to suit different purposes and making smooth and logical transitions between ideas

#### ENG3C.C.2.6.

Revision: Students will revise drafts to improve the content, organization, clarity, and style of their written work, using a variety of teacher-modelled strategies

#### ENG3C.C.2.7.

Producing Drafts: Students will produce revised drafts of texts, including increasingly complex texts, written to meet criteria identified by the teacher, based on the curriculum expectations

#### ENG3C.C.3.

Applying Knowledge of Conventions

#### ENG3C.C.3.1.

Spelling: Students will use knowledge of spelling rules and patterns, a variety of resources, and appropriate strategies to recognize and correct their own and others' spelling errors

#### ENG3C.C.3.2.

Vocabulary: Students will build vocabulary for writing by confirming word meaning(s) and reviewing and refining word choice, using a variety of resources and strategies, as appropriate for the purpose

#### ENG3C.C.3.3.

Punctuation: Students will use punctuation correctly and appropriately to communicate their intended meaning

#### ENG3C.C.3.4.

Grammar: Students will use grammar conventions correctly and appropriately to communicate their intended meaning clearly and fluently

#### ENG3C.C.3.5.

Proofreading: Students will proofread and correct their writing, using guidelines developed with the teacher and peers

#### ENG3C.C.3.6.

Publishing: Students will use a variety of presentation features, including print and script, fonts, graphics, and layout, to improve the clarity and coherence of their written work and to heighten its appeal for their audience

#### ENG3C.C.3.7.

Producing Finished Works: Students will produce pieces of published work to meet criteria identified by the teacher, based on the curriculum expectations

#### ENG3C.C.4.

Reflecting on Skills and Strategies

#### ENG3C.C.4.1.

Metacognition: Students will describe a variety of strategies they used before, during, and after writing; explain which ones they found most helpful; and identify appropriate steps they can take to improve as writers

#### ENG3C.C.4.3.

Portfolio: Students will select a variety of types of writing that they think most clearly reflect their growth and competence as writers, and explain the reasons for their choice

#### ENG3C.D.1.

Understanding Media Texts

#### ENG3C.D.1.1.

Purpose and Audience: Students will explain how media texts, including increasingly complex texts, are created to suit particular purposes and audiences

#### ENG3C.D.1.2.

Interpreting Messages: Students will interpret media texts, including increasingly complex texts, identifying and explaining the overt and implied messages they convey

#### ENG3C.D.1.3.

Evaluating Texts: Students will evaluate how effectively information, ideas, issues, and opinions are communicated in media texts, including increasingly complex texts, and decide whether the texts achieve their intended purpose

#### ENG3C.D.1.4.

Audience Responses: Students will explain why the same media text might prompt different responses from different audiences

#### ENG3C.D.1.5.

Critical Literacy: Students will identify the perspectives and/or biases evident in media texts, including increasingly complex texts, and comment on any questions they may raise about beliefs, values, identity, and power

#### ENG3C.D.1.6.

Production Perspectives: Students will explain how a variety of production, marketing, and distribution factors influence the media industry

#### ENG3C.D.2.

Understanding Media Forms, Conventions, and Techniques

#### ENG3C.D.2.1.

Form: Students will identify general and specific characteristics of a variety of media forms and explain how they shape content and create meaning

#### ENG3C.D.2.2.

Conventions and Techniques: Students will identify conventions and/or techniques used in a variety of media forms and explain how they convey meaning and influence their audience

#### ENG3C.D.3.

Creating Media Texts

#### ENG3C.D.3.1.

Purpose and Audience: Students will describe the topic, purpose, and audience for media texts they plan to create

#### ENG3C.D.3.2.

Form: Students will select a media form to suit the topic, purpose, and audience for a media text they plan to create, and explain why it is an appropriate choice

#### ENG3C.D.3.3.

Conventions and Techniques: Students will identify a variety of conventions and/or techniques appropriate to a media form they plan to use, and explain how these will help them communicate specific aspects of their intended meaning

#### ENG3C.D.3.4.

Producing Media Texts: Students will produce media texts for a variety of purposes and audiences, using appropriate forms, conventions, and techniques

#### ENG3C.D.4.

Reflecting on Skills and Strategies

#### ENG3C.D.4.1.

Metacognition: Students will describe a variety of strategies they used in interpreting and creating media texts, explain which ones they found most helpful, and identify appropriate steps they can take to improve as media interpreters and producers

#### ENG3C.D.4.2.

Interconnected Skills: Students will explain how their skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing help them interpret and produce media texts

#### ENG3E.A.1.

Listening to Understand

#### ENG3E.A.1.1.

Purpose: Students will identify the purpose of several different listening tasks and set goals for specific tasks

#### ENG3E.A.1.2.

Using Active Listening Strategies: Students will identify and use several different active listening strategies when participating in a variety of classroom interactions

#### ENG3E.A.1.3.

Using Listening Comprehension Strategies: Students will identify and use several different listening comprehension strategies before, during, and after listening to understand both simple and complex oral texts

#### ENG3E.A.1.4.

Demonstrating Understanding of Content: Students will identify the important information and ideas in both simple and complex oral texts in several different ways

#### ENG3E.A.1.5.

Interpreting Texts: Students will develop and explain interpretations of both simple and complex oral texts, using evidence from the text and the oral and visual cues used in it to support their interpretations

#### ENG3E.A.1.6.

Extending Understanding of Texts: Students will extend understanding of both simple and complex oral texts by making connections between the ideas in them and personal knowledge, experience, and insights; other texts; and the world around them

#### ENG3E.A.1.7.

Analysing Texts: Students will analyse both simple and complex oral texts, focusing on the ways in which they communicate information, ideas, issues, and themes and influence the listener's/viewer's response

#### ENG3E.A.1.8.

Critical Literacy: Students will identify the perspectives and/or biases evident in both simple and complex oral texts and comment on any questions they may raise about beliefs, values, identity, and power

#### ENG3E.A.1.9.

Understanding Presentation Strategies: Students will explain how several different presentation strategies are used in oral texts to inform, persuade, or entertain

#### ENG3E.A.2.

Speaking to Communicate

#### ENG3E.A.2.1.

Purpose: Students will communicate orally for several different purposes, using language appropriate for the intended audience

#### ENG3E.A.2.2.

Interpersonal Speaking Strategies: Students will demonstrate an understanding of several different interpersonal speaking strategies and adapt them to suit the purpose, situation, and audience, exhibiting sensitivity to cultural differences

#### ENG3E.A.2.3.

Clarity and Coherence: Students will communicate in a clear, coherent manner appropriate to the purpose, subject matter, and intended audience

#### ENG3E.A.2.4.

Diction and Devices: Students will use appropriate words, phrases, and terminology, and several different stylistic devices, to communicate their meaning and engage their intended audience

#### ENG3E.A.2.5.

Vocal Strategies: Students will identify several different vocal strategies and use them selectively and with sensitivity to audience needs

#### ENG3E.A.2.6.

Non-Verbal Cues: Students will identify several different non-verbal cues and use them, with sensitivity to audience needs, to help convey their meaning

#### ENG3E.A.2.7.

Audio-Visual Aids: Students will use several different audio-visual aids to support and enhance oral presentations

#### ENG3E.A.3.

Reflecting on Skills and Strategies

#### ENG3E.A.3.1.

Metacognition: Students will describe several different strategies they used before, during, and after listening and speaking; explain which ones they found most helpful; and identify several specific steps they can take to improve their oral communicatio

#### ENG3E.A.3.2.

Interconnected Skills: Students will identify a variety of their skills in viewing, representing, reading, and writing and explain how the skills help them improve their oral communication skills

#### ENG3E.B.1.1.

Variety of Texts: Students will read several different short, contemporary, student- and teacher-selected texts that come from diverse cultures and reflect a variety of perspectives on current issues, identifying specific purposes for reading

#### ENG3E.B.1.2.

Using Reading Comprehension Strategies: Students will use several different reading comprehension strategies before, during, and after reading to understand both simple and complex texts

#### ENG3E.B.1.3.

Demonstrating Understanding of Content: Students will identify the important ideas and supporting details in both simple and complex texts

#### ENG3E.B.1.4.

Making Inferences: Students will make and explain inferences about both simple and complex texts, supporting their explanations with stated and implied ideas from the texts

#### ENG3E.B.1.5.

Extending Understanding of Texts: Students will extend understanding of both simple and complex texts by making connections between the ideas in them and personal knowledge, experience, and insights; other texts; and the world around them

#### ENG3E.B.1.6.

Analysing Texts: Students will analyse texts in terms of the information, ideas, issues, or themes they explore, examining how various aspects of the texts contribute to the presentation or development of these elements

#### ENG3E.B.1.7.

Evaluating Texts: Students will evaluate the effectiveness of both simple and complex texts, using evidence from the text to support their opinions

#### ENG3E.B.1.8.

Critical Literacy: Students will identify the perspectives and/or biases evident in both simple and complex texts and comment on any questions they may raise about beliefs, values, and identity

#### ENG3E.B.2.

Understanding Form and Style

#### ENG3E.B.2.1.

Text Forms: Students will identify several different characteristics of informational, graphic, and literary text forms and explain how they help communicate meaning

#### ENG3E.B.2.2.

Text Features: Students will identify several different text features and explain how they help communicate meaning

#### ENG3E.B.2.3.

Elements of Style: Students will identify several different elements of style in both simple and complex texts and explain how they help communicate meaning and enhance the effectiveness of the text

#### ENG3E.B.3.1.

Reading Familiar Words: Students will automatically understand most words in several different reading contexts

#### ENG3E.B.3.2.

Reading Unfamiliar Words: Students will use appropriate decoding strategies to read and understand unfamiliar words

#### ENG3E.B.4.

Reflecting on Skills and Strategies

#### ENG3E.B.4.1.

Metacognition: Students will describe several different strategies they used before, during, and after reading; explain which ones they found most helpful; and identify several specific steps they can take to improve as readers

#### ENG3E.B.4.2.

Interconnected Skills: Students will identify several of their skills in listening, speaking, writing, viewing, and representing and explain how the skills help them read more effectively

#### ENG3E.C.1.

Developing and Organizing Content

#### ENG3E.C.1.1.

Identifying Topic, Purpose, and Audience: Students will identify the topic, purpose, and audience for several different types of writing tasks

#### ENG3E.C.1.2.

Generating and Developing Ideas: Students will generate and focus ideas for potential writing tasks, using several different strategies and print, electronic, and other resources, as appropriate

#### ENG3E.C.1.3.

Research: Students will locate and select information to support ideas for writing, using several different strategies and print, electronic, and other resources, as appropriate

#### ENG3E.C.1.4.

Organizing Ideas: Students will identify, sort, and order main ideas and supporting details for writing tasks, using several different strategies and organizational patterns suited to the content and the purpose for writing

#### ENG3E.C.2.

Using Knowledge of Form and Style

#### ENG3E.C.2.1.

Form: Students will write for different purposes and audiences, using several different informational, graphic, and literary forms

#### ENG3E.C.2.3.

Diction: Students will use appropriate descriptive and evocative words, phrases, and expressions to make their writing clear and vivid for their intended audience

#### ENG3E.C.2.4.

Sentence Craft and Fluency: Students will write complete sentences that communicate their meaning clearly and accurately, varying sentence type, structure, and length for different purposes and making logical transitions between ideas

#### ENG3E.C.2.6.

Revision: Students will revise drafts to improve the content, organization, clarity, and style of their written work, using a variety of teacher-modelled strategies

#### ENG3E.C.3.

Applying Knowledge of Conventions

#### ENG3E.C.3.1.

Spelling: Students will use knowledge of spelling rules and patterns, several different types of resources, and appropriate strategies to spell familiar and new words correctly

#### ENG3E.C.3.2.

Vocabulary: Students will build vocabulary for writing by confirming word meaning(s) and reviewing word choice, using several different types of resources and strategies, as appropriate for the purpose

#### ENG3E.C.3.3.

Punctuation: Students will use punctuation correctly to communicate their intended meaning

#### ENG3E.C.3.4.

Grammar: Students will use grammar conventions correctly to communicate their meaning clearly

#### ENG3E.C.3.5.

Proofreading: Students will proofread and correct their writing, using guidelines developed with the teacher and peers

#### ENG3E.C.3.6.

Publishing: Students will use several different presentation features, including print and script, fonts, graphics, and layout, to improve the clarity and coherence of their written work and to engage their audience

#### ENG3E.C.3.7.

Producing Finished Works: Students will produce pieces of published work to meet criteria identified by the teacher, based on the curriculum expectations

#### ENG3E.C.4.

Reflecting on Skills and Strategies

#### ENG3E.C.4.1.

Metacognition: Students will describe several different strategies they used before, during, and after writing; explain which ones they found most helpful; and identify several specific steps they can take to improve as writers

#### ENG3E.C.4.3.

Portfolio: Students will select several examples of different types of writing that they think most clearly reflect their growth and competence as writers, and explain the reasons for their choice

#### ENG3E.D.1.

Understanding Media Texts

#### ENG3E.D.1.1.

Purpose and Audience: Students will explain how both simple and complex media texts are created to suit particular purposes and audiences

#### ENG3E.D.1.2.

Interpreting Messages: Students will interpret simple and complex media texts, identifying and explaining the overt and implied messages they convey

#### ENG3E.D.1.3.

Evaluating Texts: Students will evaluate how effectively information, ideas, issues, and opinions are communicated in both simple and complex media texts and decide whether the texts achieve their intended purpose

#### ENG3E.D.1.4.

Audience Responses: Students will identify and explain different audience responses to selected media texts

#### ENG3E.D.1.5.

Critical Literacy: Students will identify the perspectives and/or biases evident in both simple and complex media texts, and comment on any questions they may raise about beliefs, values, and identity

#### ENG3E.D.1.6.

Production Perspectives: Students will explain how several different production, marketing, and distribution factors influence the media industry

#### ENG3E.D.2.

Understanding Media Forms, Conventions, and Techniques

#### ENG3E.D.2.1.

Form: Students will identify general characteristics of several different media forms and explain how they shape content and create meaning

#### ENG3E.D.2.2.

Conventions and Techniques: Students will identify several different conventions and/or techniques used in familiar media forms and explain how they convey meaning and influence their audience

#### ENG3E.D.3.

Creating Media Texts

#### ENG3E.D.3.1.

Purpose and Audience: Students will describe the topic, purpose, and audience for media texts they plan to create

#### ENG3E.D.3.2.

Form: Students will select a media form to suit the topic, purpose, and audience for a media text they plan to create and explain why it is an appropriate choice

#### ENG3E.D.3.3.

Conventions and Techniques: Students will identify several different conventions and/or techniques appropriate to a media form they plan to use, and explain how these will help communicate meaning

#### ENG3E.D.3.4.

Producing Media Texts: Students will produce media texts for several different purposes and audiences, using appropriate forms, conventions, and techniques

#### ENG3E.D.4.

Reflecting on Skills and Strategies

#### ENG3E.D.4.1.

Metacognition: Students will describe several different strategies they used in interpreting and creating media texts, explain which ones they found most helpful, and identify several specific steps they can take to improve as media interpreters and produ

#### ENG3E.D.4.2.

Interconnected Skills: Students will explain how their skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing help them interpret and produce media texts

#### ENG3U.A.1.

Listening to Understand

#### ENG3U.A.1.1.

Purpose: Students will identify the purpose of a range of listening tasks and set goals for specific tasks

#### ENG3U.A.1.2.

Using Active Listening Strategies: Students will select and use the most appropriate active listening strategies when participating in a range of situations

#### ENG3U.A.1.3.

Using Listening Comprehension Strategies: Students will select and use the most appropriate listening comprehension strategies before, during, and after listening to understand oral texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts

#### ENG3U.A.1.4.

Demonstrating Understanding of Content: Students will identify the important information and ideas in oral texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, in a variety of ways

#### ENG3U.A.1.5.

Interpreting Texts: Students will develop and explain interpretations of oral texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, using evidence from the text and the oral and visual cues used in it to effectively support their interpretations

#### ENG3U.A.1.6.

Extending Understanding of Texts: Students will extend understanding of oral texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, by making effective connections between the ideas in them and personal knowledge, experience, and insights; other texts;

#### ENG3U.A.1.7.

Analysing Texts: Students will analyse oral texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, focusing on the ways in which they communicate information, ideas, issues, and themes and influence the listener's/viewer's response

#### ENG3U.A.1.8.

Critical Literacy: Students will identify and analyse the perspectives and/or biases evident in oral texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, and comment with growing understanding on any questions they may raise about beliefs, values, id

#### ENG3U.A.1.9.

Understanding Presentation Strategies: Students will evaluate the effectiveness of a variety of presentation strategies used in oral texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, and suggest other strategies that could be used effectively

#### ENG3U.A.2.

Speaking to Communicate

#### ENG3U.A.2.1.

Purpose: Students will communicate orally for a range of purposes, using language appropriate for the intended audience

#### ENG3U.A.2.2.

Interpersonal Speaking Strategies: Students will demonstrate an understanding of a variety of interpersonal speaking strategies and adapt them to suit the purpose, situation, and audience, exhibiting sensitivity to cultural differences

#### ENG3U.A.2.3.

Clarity and Coherence: Students will communicate in a clear, coherent manner, using a structure and style effective for the purpose, subject matter, and intended audience

#### ENG3U.A.2.4.

Diction and Devices: Students will use appropriate words, phrases, and terminology, and a variety of stylistic devices, to effectively communicate their meaning and engage their intended audience

#### ENG3U.A.2.5.

Vocal Strategies: Students will identify a variety of vocal strategies, including tone, pace, pitch, and volume, and use them effectively and with sensitivity to audience needs and cultural differences

#### ENG3U.A.2.6.

Non-Verbal Cues: Students will identify a variety of non-verbal cues, including facial expressions, gestures, and eye contact, and use them effectively to help convey their meaning and with sensitivity to audience needs and cultural differences

#### ENG3U.A.2.7.

Audio-Visual Aids: Students will use a variety of audio-visual aids effectively to support and enhance oral presentations and to engage an audience

#### ENG3U.A.3.

Reflecting on Skills and Strategies

#### ENG3U.A.3.1.

Metacognition: Students will explain which of a variety of strategies they found most helpful before, during, and after listening and speaking, then evaluate their strengths and weaknesses in oral communication to help identify the steps they can take to

#### ENG3U.A.3.2.

Interconnected Skills: Students will identify a variety of their skills in viewing, representing, reading, and writing and explain how the skills help them improve their oral communication skills

#### ENG3U.B.1.1.

Variety of Texts: Students will read a variety of student- and teacher-selected texts from diverse cultures and historical periods, identifying specific purposes for reading

#### ENG3U.B.1.2.

Using Reading Comprehension Strategies: Students will select and use the most appropriate reading comprehension strategies to understand texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts

#### ENG3U.B.1.3.

Demonstrating Understanding of Content: Students will identify the most important ideas and supporting details in texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts

#### ENG3U.B.1.4.

Making Inferences: Students will make and explain inferences of increasing subtlety about texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, supporting their explanations with well-chosen stated and implied ideas from the texts

#### ENG3U.B.1.5.

Extending Understanding of Texts: Students will extend understanding of texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, by making appropriate and increasingly rich connections between the ideas in them and personal knowledge, experience, and ins

#### ENG3U.B.1.6.

Analysing Texts: Students will analyse texts in terms of the information, ideas, issues, or themes they explore, examining how various aspects of the texts contribute to the presentation or development of these elements

#### ENG3U.B.1.7.

Evaluating Texts: Students will evaluate the effectiveness of texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, using evidence from the text to support their opinions

#### ENG3U.B.1.8.

Critical Literacy: Students will identify and analyse the perspectives and/or biases evident in texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, commenting with growing understanding on any questions they may raise about beliefs, values, identity

#### ENG3U.B.2.

Understanding Form and Style

#### ENG3U.B.2.1.

Text Forms: Students will identify a variety of characteristics of literary, informational, and graphic text forms and explain how they help communicate meaning

#### ENG3U.B.2.2.

Text Features: Students will identify a variety of text features and explain how they help communicate meaning

#### ENG3U.B.2.3.

Elements of Style: Students will identify a variety of elements of style in texts and explain how they help communicate meaning and enhance the effectiveness of the texts

#### ENG3U.B.3.1.

Reading Familiar Words: Students will automatically understand most words in a variety of reading contexts

#### ENG3U.B.3.2.

Reading Unfamiliar Words: Students will use decoding strategies effectively to read and understand unfamiliar words, including words of increasing difficulty

#### ENG3U.B.3.3.

Developing Vocabulary: Students will use a variety of strategies, with increasing regularity, to explore and expand vocabulary, focusing on the precision with which words are used in the texts they are reading

#### ENG3U.B.4.

Reflecting on Skills and Strategies

#### ENG3U.B.4.1.

Metacognition: Students will explain which of a variety of strategies they found most helpful before, during, and after reading, then evaluate their strengths and weaknesses as readers to help identify the steps they can take to improve their skills

#### ENG3U.B.4.2.

Interconnected Skills: Students will identify a variety of their skills in listening, speaking, writing, viewing, and representing and explain how the skills help them read more effectively

#### ENG3U.C.1.

Developing and Organizing Content

#### ENG3U.C.1.1.

Identifying Topic, Purpose, and Audience: Students will identify the topic, purpose, and audience for a variety of writing tasks

#### ENG3U.C.1.2.

Generating and Developing Ideas: Students will generate, expand, explore, and focus ideas for potential writing tasks, using a variety of strategies and print, electronic, and other resources, as appropriate

#### ENG3U.C.1.3.

Research: Students will locate and select information to effectively support ideas for writing, using a variety of strategies and print, electronic, and other resources, as appropriate

#### ENG3U.C.1.4.

Organizing Ideas: Students will identify, sort, and order main ideas and supporting details for writing tasks, using a variety of strategies and selecting the organizational pattern best suited to the content and the purpose for writing

#### ENG3U.C.2.

Using Knowledge of Form and Style

#### ENG3U.C.2.1.

Form: Students will write for different purposes and audiences using a variety of literary, informational, and graphic forms

#### ENG3U.C.2.3.

Diction: Students will use appropriate descriptive and evocative words, phrases, and expressions imaginatively to make their writing clear, vivid, and interesting for their intended audience

#### ENG3U.C.2.4.

Sentence Craft and Fluency: Students will write complete sentences that communicate their meaning clearly and effectively, skillfully varying sentence type, structure, and length to suit different purposes and making smooth and logical transitions between

#### ENG3U.C.2.6.

Revision: Students will revise drafts to improve the content, organization, clarity, and style of their written work, using a variety of teacher-modelled strategies

#### ENG3U.C.2.7.

Producing Drafts: Students will produce revised drafts of texts, including increasingly complex texts, written to meet criteria identified by the teacher, based on the curriculum expectations

#### ENG3U.C.3.

Applying Knowledge of Conventions

#### ENG3U.C.3.1.

Spelling: Students will use knowledge of spelling rules and patterns, a variety of resources, and appropriate strategies to recognize and correct their own and others' spelling errors

#### ENG3U.C.3.2.

Vocabulary: Students will build vocabulary for writing by confirming word meaning(s) and reviewing and refining word choice, using a variety of resources and strategies, as appropriate for the purpose

#### ENG3U.C.3.3.

Punctuation: Students will use punctuation correctly and effectively to communicate their intended meaning

#### ENG3U.C.3.4.

Grammar: Students will use grammar conventions correctly and appropriately to communicate their intended meaning clearly and effectively

#### ENG3U.C.3.6.

Publishing: Students will use a variety of presentation features, including print and script, fonts, graphics, and layout, to improve the clarity and coherence of their written work and to heighten its appeal and effectiveness for their audience

#### ENG3U.C.3.7.

Producing Finished Works: Students will produce pieces of published work to meet criteria identified by the teacher, based on the curriculum expectations

#### ENG3U.C.4.

Reflecting on Skills and Strategies

#### ENG3U.C.4.1.

Metacognition: Students will explain which of a variety of strategies they found most helpful before, during, and after writing, then evaluate their strengths and weaknesses as writers to help identify the steps they can take to improve their skills

#### ENG3U.C.4.3.

Portfolio: Students will select a variety of types of writing that they think most clearly reflect their growth and competence as writers, and explain the reasons for their choice

#### ENG3U.D.1.

Understanding Media Texts

#### ENG3U.D.1.1.

Purpose and Audience: Students will explain how media texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, are created to suit particular purposes and audiences

#### ENG3U.D.1.2.

Interpreting Messages: Students will interpret media texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, identifying and explaining the overt and implied messages they convey

#### ENG3U.D.1.3.

Evaluating Texts: Students will evaluate how effectively information, ideas, themes, issues, and opinions are communicated in media texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, and decide whether the texts achieve their intended purpose

#### ENG3U.D.1.4.

Audience Responses: Students will explain why the same media text might prompt different responses from different audiences

#### ENG3U.D.1.5.

Critical Literacy: Students will identify the perspectives and/or biases evident in media texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, and comment on any questions they may raise about beliefs, values, identity, and power

#### ENG3U.D.1.6.

Production Perspectives: Students will explain how production, marketing, financing, distribution, and legal/regulatory factors influence the media industry

#### ENG3U.D.2.

Understanding Media Forms, Conventions, and Techniques

#### ENG3U.D.2.1.

Form: Students will identify general and specific characteristics of a variety of media forms and explain how they shape content and create meaning

#### ENG3U.D.2.2.

Conventions and Techniques: Students will identify conventions and/or techniques used in a variety of media forms and explain how they convey meaning and influence their audience

#### ENG3U.D.3.

Creating Media Texts

#### ENG3U.D.3.1.

Purpose and Audience: Students will describe the topic, purpose, and audience for media texts they plan to create

#### ENG3U.D.3.2.

Form: Students will select a media form to suit the topic, purpose, and audience for a media text they plan to create, and explain why it is a highly appropriate choice

#### ENG3U.D.3.3.

Conventions and Techniques: Students will identify a variety of conventions and/or techniques appropriate to a media form they plan to use, and explain how these will help communicate a specific aspect of their intended meaning effectively

#### ENG3U.D.3.4.

Producing Media Texts: Students will produce media texts, including increasingly complex texts, for a variety of purposes and audiences, using appropriate forms, conventions, and techniques

#### ENG3U.D.4.

Reflecting on Skills and Strategies

#### ENG3U.D.4.1.

Metacognition: Students will explain which of a variety of strategies they found most helpful in interpreting and creating media texts, then evaluate their strengths and weaknesses as media interpreters and producers to help identify the steps they can ta

#### ENG3U.D.4.2.

Interconnected Skills: Students will explain how their skills in listening, speaking, reading, and writing help them interpret and produce media texts

#### ENG4C.A.1.

Listening to Understand

#### ENG4C.A.1.1.

Purpose: Students will identify the purpose of a range of listening tasks and set goals for specific tasks

#### ENG4C.A.1.2.

Using Active Listening Strategies: Students will select and use the most appropriate active listening strategies when participating in a range of situations

#### ENG4C.A.1.3.

Using Listening Comprehension Strategies: Students will select and use the most appropriate listening comprehension strategies before, during, and after listening to understand oral texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts

#### ENG4C.A.1.4.

Demonstrating Understanding of Content: Students will identify the important information and ideas in oral texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, in a variety of ways

#### ENG4C.A.1.5.

Interpreting Texts: Students will develop and explain interpretations of oral texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, using evidence from the text and the oral and visual cues used in it to effectively support their interpretations

#### ENG4C.A.1.6.

Extending Understanding of Texts: Students will extend understanding of oral texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, by making effective connections between the ideas in them and personal knowledge, experience, and insights; other texts;

#### ENG4C.A.1.7.

Analysing Texts: Students will analyse oral texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, focusing on the ways in which they communicate information, ideas, issues, and themes and influence the listener's/viewer's response

#### ENG4C.A.1.8.

Critical Literacy: Students will identify and analyse the perspectives and/or biases evident in oral texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, and comment with growing understanding on any questions they may raise about beliefs, values, id

#### ENG4C.A.1.9.

Understanding Presentation Strategies: Students will evaluate the effectiveness of a variety of presentation strategies used in oral texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, and suggest other strategies that could be used effectively

#### ENG4C.A.2.

Speaking to Communicate

#### ENG4C.A.2.1.

Purpose: Students will communicate orally for a range of purposes, using language appropriate for the intended audience

#### ENG4C.A.2.2.

Interpersonal Speaking Strategies: Students will demonstrate an understanding of a variety of interpersonal speaking strategies and adapt them to suit the purpose, situation, and audience, exhibiting sensitivity to cultural differences

#### ENG4C.A.2.3.

Clarity and Coherence: Students will communicate in a clear, coherent manner, using a structure and style effective for the purpose, subject matter, and intended audience

#### ENG4C.A.2.4.

Diction and Devices: Students will use appropriate words, phrases, and terminology, and a variety of stylistic devices, to effectively communicate their meaning and engage their intended audience

#### ENG4C.A.2.5.

Vocal Strategies: Students will identify a variety of vocal strategies, including tone, pace, pitch, and volume, and use them effectively and with sensitivity to audience needs and cultural differences

#### ENG4C.A.2.6.

Non-Verbal Cues: Students will identify a variety of non-verbal cues, including facial expressions, gestures, and eye contact, and use them effectively to help convey their meaning and with sensitivity to audience needs and cultural differences

#### ENG4C.A.2.7.

Audio-Visual Aids: Students will use a variety of audio-visual aids effectively to support and enhance oral presentations and to engage an audience

#### ENG4C.A.3.

Reflecting on Skills and Strategies

#### ENG4C.A.3.1.

Metacognition: Students will explain which of a variety of strategies they found most helpful before, during, and after listening and speaking, then evaluate their strengths and weaknesses in oral communication to help identify the steps they can take to

#### ENG4C.A.3.2.

Interconnected Skills: Students will identify a variety of their skills in viewing, representing, reading, and writing and explain how the skills help them improve their oral communication skills

#### ENG4C.B.1.1.

Variety of Texts: Students will read a variety of short, contemporary student-and teacher-selected texts from diverse cultures, identifying specific purposes for reading

#### ENG4C.B.1.2.

Using Reading Comprehension Strategies: Students will select and use the most appropriate reading comprehension strategies to understand texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts

#### ENG4C.B.1.3.

Demonstrating Understanding of Content: Students will identify the most important ideas and supporting details in texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts

#### ENG4C.B.1.4.

Making Inferences: Students will make and explain inferences about texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, supporting their explanations with well-chosen stated and implied ideas from the texts

#### ENG4C.B.1.5.

Extending Understanding of Texts: Students will extend understanding of texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, by making appropriate and increasingly rich connections between the ideas in them and personal knowledge, experience, and ins

#### ENG4C.B.1.6.

Analysing Texts: Students will analyse texts in terms of the information, ideas, issues, and themes they explore, examining how various aspects of the texts contribute to the presentation or development of these elements

#### ENG4C.B.1.7.

Evaluating Texts: Students will evaluate the effectiveness of texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, using evidence from the text effectively to support their opinions

#### ENG4C.B.1.8.

Critical Literacy: Students will identify and analyse the perspectives and/or biases evident in texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, commenting with growing understanding on any questions they may raise about beliefs, values, identity

#### ENG4C.B.2.

Understanding Form and Style

#### ENG4C.B.2.1.

Text Forms: Students will identify a variety of characteristics of informational, literary, and graphic text forms and explain how they help communicate meaning

#### ENG4C.B.2.2.

Text Features: Students will identify a variety of text features and explain how they help communicate meaning

#### ENG4C.B.2.3.

Elements of Style: Students will identify a variety of elements of style in texts, including increasingly complex or difficult texts, and explain how they help communicate meaning and enhance the effectiveness of the texts

#### ENG4C.B.3.1.

Reading Familiar Words: Students will automatically understand most words in a variety of reading contexts

#### ENG4C.B.3.2.

Reading Unfamiliar Words: Students will use appropriate decoding strategies to read and understand unfamiliar words, including words of increasing difficulty

#### ENG4C.B.3.3.

Developing Vocabulary: Students will use a variety of strategies, with increasing regularity, to explore and extend vocabulary, focusing on the precision with which words are used in the texts they are reading

#### ENG4C.B.4.

Reflecting on Skills and Strategies

#### ENG4C.B.4.1.

Metacognition: Students will explain which of a variety of strategies they found most helpful before, during, and after reading, then evaluate their strengths and weaknesses as readers to help identify the steps they can take to improve their reading skil

#### ENG4C.B.4.2.

Interconnected Skills: Students will identify a variety of their skills in listening, speaking, writing, viewing, and representing and explain how the skills help them read more effectively

#### ENG4C.C.1.

Developing and Organizing Content

#### ENG4C.C.1.1.

Identifying Topic, Purpose, and Audience: Students will identify the topic, purpose, and audience for a variety of writing tasks

#### ENG4C.C.1.2.

Generating and Developing Ideas: Students will generate, expand, explore, and focus ideas for potential writing tasks, using a variety of strategies and print, electronic, and other resources, as appropriate

#### ENG4C.C.1.3.

Research: Students will locate and select information to effectively support ideas for writing, using a variety of strategies and print, electronic, and other resources, as appropriate

#### ENG4C.C.1.4.

Organizing Ideas: Students will identify, sort, and order main ideas and supporting details for writing tasks, using a variety of strategies and selecting the organizational pattern best suited to the content and the purpose for writing

#### ENG4C.C.2.

Using Knowledge of Form and Style

#### ENG4C.C.2.1.

Form: Students will write for different purposes and audiences using a variety of informational, literary, and graphic forms

#### ENG4C.C.2.3.

Diction: Students will use appropriate descriptive and evocative words, phrases, and expressions imaginatively to make their writing clear, vivid, and interesting for their intended audience

#### ENG4C.C.2.4.

Sentence Craft and Fluency: Students will write complete sentences that communicate their meaning clearly and effectively, skillfully varying sentence type, structure, and length to suit different purposes and making smooth and logical transitions between

#### ENG4C.C.2.6.

Revision: Students will revise drafts to improve the content, organization, clarity, and style of their written work, using a variety of teacher-modelled strategies

#### ENG4C.C.2.7.

Producing Drafts: Students will produce revised drafts of texts, including increasingly complex texts, written to meet criteria identified by the teacher, based on the curriculum expectations

#### ENG4C.C.3.

Applying Knowledge of Conventions

#### ENG4C.C.3.1.

Spelling: Students will use knowledge of spelling rules and patterns, a variety of resources, and appropriate strategies to recognize and correct their own and others' spelling errors

#### ENG4C.C.3.2.

Vocabulary: Students will build vocabulary for writing by confirming word meaning(s) and reviewing and refining word choice, using a variety of resources and strategies, as appropriate for the purpose