Prince Edward Island Curriculum — Grade 8

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Investigate how artistic and literary expression reflects the following aspects of Canadian identity: landscape, climate, history, people-citizenship, and related challenges and opportunities.

Carry out procedures in order to investigate how temperature differences in water cause currents (209-1).

State a conclusion based on experimental data about the formation of water currents (209-4, 210-11).

Explain how waves and tides are generated (311-10).

Formulate operational definitions on the basis of investigations of waves for (208-7).

Select and integrate information from various print and electronic sources related to processes of erosion and deposition that result from wave action and water flow (209-5, 311-11).

Explain how waves and tides interact with shorelines (311-10).

Provide examples of various technologies designed to contain damage due to waves and tides (112-3).

Prepare a presentation or report on the effect of tides and waves on a shoreline and evaluate individual and group processes used in planning and completing the task (211-2, 211-4).

Describe processes that lead to the development of ocean basins and continental drainage systems (311-7).

Select and integrate information from various print and electronic sources to provide examples of technologies that have enabled scientific research involving ocean basins (111-3, 209-5).

Provide examples of how technologies used to investigate the ocean floor have improved over time (110-8).

Identify some strengths and weaknesses of technologies used to investigate the ocean floor (210-3).

Apply the concept of systems to show how changes in one component of a body of water causes change in other components in that system (111-6).

Describe the interactions of the ocean currents, winds, and regional climates (311-9).

Analyse factors that affect productivity and species distribution in marine and fresh water environments (311-8).

Predict and interpret trends in populations of a marine species from graphical data by interpolating and extrapolating data (210-4, 210-6).

Describe some positive and negative effects of marine technologies in the ocean (113-2).

Provide examples of problems related to the oceans that cannot be resolved using scientific and technological knowledge (113-10).

Describe factors that affect glaciers and polar icecaps and describe their consequent effects on the environment (311-12).

Identify new questions that arise from the study of glaciers and polar icecaps (210-16).


Demonstrate an understanding of the basic features of Canadas landscape and climate.

Identify and describe the following properties of visible light (308-08):

Travels in a straight line (rectilinear propagation)

Speed of light in air is 300,000 km/s

Refraction and dispersion

Travels in a vacuum and in some types of media


Identify and locate major land forms of Canada.


Explain the creation and characteristics of mountains and plains.


Describe and account for the variation in physical landscape across Canada.


Identify and locate major climatic regions of Canada.


Explain the characteristics of Canadas climatic regions and account for the variation among them.


Analyse the effects of selected geographic factors on Canadian identity.

Describe the laws of reflection of visible light and their applications in everyday life (308-09):

Regular versus diffuse reflection

Angle of incidence = angle of reflection

Formulate operational definitions for incidence, reflection, and the normal (208-7).

Estimate angles of incidence and reflection (209-2).

Work co-operatively and collaboratively with others to plan and safely construct an optical device using mirrors (209-6, 211-1).

Identify and correct practical problems in the way a.

Constructed optical device functions (210-14).


Describe where Canadians live and explain why communities are established and grow in particular locations.


Account for the variations in growth of settlements due to physical and human factors.


Explain the effect of natural and human resources on regional prosperity.


Confront the issues of regional stereotypes.


Demonstrate an understanding of the nature of migration and its impact on post-1920 Canada.

Rephrase questions related to refraction in a testable form (208-1).

Predict the effect of transparent media of varying densitites on the angle of refraction of light (208-5).

Estimate angles of refraction (209-2).

Describe qualitatively how visible light is refracted (210-11, 308-10).

Estimate focal length of a convex lens by finding its focal point (209-2).

Describe how optical technologies have developed through systematic trial-and-error processes constrained by the optical properties of the material (109-5).

Provide examples of optical technologies that enable scientific research and relate personal activities associated with such technologies (109-10, 111-3).


Explain why people migrate and provide examples of push and pull factors.


Identify and explain changing source areas for immigrants to Canada since 1920.


Identify and explain changing destinations within Canada for migrants and immigrants since 1920.


Identify and explain the nature of emigration from Canada and its impact since 1920.


Demonstrate an understanding of the debate surrounding immigration policy since 1920.


Analyse the effect of geographic features on the development of Canada and of a selected country with similar geographic features.

Describe different types of electromagnetic radiation including infrared, ultraviolet, X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves (308-11).

Compare the properties of visible light to the properties of other types of electromagnetic radiation including infrared, ultraviolet, X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves (308-12).

Explain the importance of using the words frequency and wavelength correctly (109-13).

Provide examples related to optics that illustrate that scientific and technological activities take place individually and in group settings (112-8).

Describe possible negative and positive effects of technologies associated with electromagnetic radiation (113-2).


Compare the size, landforms, climate, and natural and human resources of the two countries.


Compare how these features have created challenges and opportunities for the development of the two countries.


Analyse the impact of changing technology and socioeconomic conditions on differing prosperities and lifestyles in Canada in the 1920s and 1930s.

Describe the relationship among the mass, volume, and density of solids, liquids, and gases using the particle model of matter (307-8).

Analyse quantitatively the density of various substances and suggest explanations for discrepancies in data, such as the measurement of the volume of irregular objects by water displacement (210-7, 307-11).

Explain the effects of changes in temperature on the density of solids, liquids, and gases and relate the result to the particle model of matter (307-9).

Describe situations in life where the density of substances naturally changes or is intentionally changed (307-10).

Identify questions to investigate arising from practical problems involving floating, sinking, and density (208-2).

Work cooperatively with team members to design an experiment and identify major variables in order to investigate floating, sinking, and density (208-6, 211-3).


Identify the factors leading to prosperity in the 1920s.


Examine the impact of new technology on lifestyle in the 1920s.


Analyse the causes of the Great Depression.


Demonstrate an understanding of Canadas participation in WWII.

Describe the movement of objects in terms of balanced and unbalanced forces (309-2).

Test and compare a student-constructed dynamometer with a commercial dynamometer (210-13).

Calibrate a student-constructed dynamometer with known masses (210-14).

Describe qualitatively the difference between mass and weight (309-1).

Provide examples of technologies that have been developed because of our understanding of density and buoyancy (111-1).

Explain quantitatively the relationship between force, area, and pressure (309-3).

Describe the science underlying hydraulic technologies (111-5).

Explain qualitatively the relationship among pressure, volume, and temperature when liquid and gaseous fluids are compressed or heated (309-4).


Identify the factors leading to WWII.


Explain Canadas response to the outbreak of WWII.


Demonstrate an understanding of the role of Canadas army, air force, navy, and merchant marine during WWII.


Examine the extent of Canadas human and material contribution to WWII.


Analyse the effect of WWII on Canada and its people.

Compare the viscosity of various liquids (307-6).

Design an experiment to test the viscosity of various common fluids and identify the major variables (208-6).

Describe factors that can modify the viscosity of a liquid (3077).

Use a temperature-measuring technology effectively and accurately for collecting data in temperature-viscosity investigations (209-3).

Demonstrate a knowledge of WHMIS standards by demonstrating the correct methods of disposal of various oils, for example (209-7).

Identify and relate personal activities and potential applications to fluid dynamics (109-10, 112-7, 210-12).


Describe the experiences and attitudes of Canadians during WWII.


Examine how the war strained ethnic and cultural relations within our nation, including the Maritimes, and Newfoundland.


Analyse the economic, social, and political changes as a result of WWII.


Examine Canadas reaction and response to the moral and ethical issues raised by events such as the Holocaust and the use of the first atomic bombs.


Evaluate Canadas role in the world since WWII.


Explain the meaning of the term Cold War.


Evaluate Canadas role in NATO and NORAD during and since the Cold War.


Evaluate Canadas role as a global citizen through its involvement in the United Nations and other international organizations.


Analyse the impact of changing technology and socioeconomic conditions on Canadas prosperity and lifestyles in the 1950s and 1960s.


Examine how changing technologies affected lifestyle.


Identify attitudes and values of the 50s and 60s and examine how they affected lifestyle.


Compare the social and cultural trends in Canada in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s.


Suggest reasons for the conformity of the 1950s and its rejection in the 1960s and 1970s.


Describe the idealism that developed in the 1960s by examining movements such as the civil rights movement, the womens rights movement, the peace movement, and environmentalism.


Analyse how globalization has affected Canada and Canadians since 1980.


Define globalization.


Examine the effects of the end of the Cold War.


Examine the extent of American influence on world cultures.


Identify the causes of economic globalization and its effects on Canada.


Predict the impact of global environmental threats on Canadas future.


Take age-appropriate actions that demonstrate the rights and responsibilities of citizenship (local, national and global).

Illustrate and explain that the cell is a living system that exhibits the following characteristics of life (304-4):

Explain that growth and reproduction depend on cell division (304-6).

Distinguish between plant and animal cells (304-5).

Use a light microscope or microviewer correctly to produce a clear image of cells (209-3).

Work co-operatively with team members to develop and construct models of cells (211-3).

Explain that it is important to use proper terms when comparing plant and animal cells (109-13).


Examine the concept of citizenship.


Define rights and responsibilities.


Examine the criteria for becoming a Canadian citizen.


Examine the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights.


Demonstrate an understanding of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.


Develop a definition of responsible citizenship.


Plan and carry out age-appropriate actions that demonstrate responsible citizenship.


Demonstrate an understanding of how citizenship has evolved over time.

Relate the needs and functions of various cells and organs to the needs and functions of the human organism as a whole (304-8).

Explain structural and functional relationships between and among cells, tissues, organs, and systems in the human body (304-7).

Compare the early idea that living organisms were made of air, fire, and water with the modern cell theory (110-2).

Evaluate individual and group processes used in researching the roles of the main organ systems (211-4).


Examine factors in ancient, medieval, and early modern times that influenced our modern democratic concept of citizenship.


Describe how the history of Canada has shaped our concept of citizenship.


Examine the role and responsibility of the citizen in supporting the rule of law.


Identify current global events and the impact they may have on views of citizenship.


Demonstrate an understanding of the structure and operation of government in Canada under a federal system.

Describe the basic factors that affect the functions and efficiency of the human respiratory, circulatory, digestive, excretory, and nervous systems (304-9).

Illustrate examples of conflicting evidence related to how we should maintain and/or treat body systems (110-5).

Describe the science underlying various technologies used to assist or replace unhealthy organs or systems (111-5).


Describe the operation and responsibilities of government at the municipal, provincial, and federal levels.


Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the provincial and federal governments and account for provincial and regional variations in this relationship.


Examine the roles and responsibilities of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government.


Examine the processes leading to the formation and dissolution of governments.

Rephrase questions into testable form about the factors that affect physical fitness and health (208-1).

Design and carry out an experiment to compare and contrast heart rate and breathing rate in an individual during various levels of activity and identify and control major variables (208-6, 209-1).

Suggest explanations for variations in the heart rate and the breathing rate of an individual during various levels of activity when the experiment is repeated (210-7).

Describe three examples of the interdependence of various systems of the human body (304-10).

Provide examples of careers that are associated with the health of body systems (112-10).

Make informed decisions about applications of science and technology that are associated with human body systems, taking into account personal and social advantages and disadvantages (113-8).


Portray personal understanding of Canadian identity.

Understand how personal knowledge, ideas, values, perceptions, and points of view influence how writers create texts.

Recognize how and when personal background influences meaning construction, understanding, and textual response.

Describe how cultures and reality are portrayed in media texts.


Demonstrate an understanding of perfect square and square root, concretely, pictorially and symbolically (limited to whole numbers).


Determine the approximate square root of numbers that are not perfect squares (limited to whole numbers).


Demonstrate an understanding of percents greater than or equal to 0%.


Demonstrate an understanding of ratio and rate.


Solve problems that involve rates, ratios and proportional reasoning.


Demonstrate an understanding of multiplying and dividing positive fractions and mixed numbers, concretely, pictorially and symbolically.


Demonstrate an understanding of multiplication and division of integers, concretely, pictorially and symbolically.


Graph and analyse two-variable linear relations.


Model and solve problems using linear equations of the form:


ax = b concretely, pictorially and symbolically, where a, b and c are integers.


x/a = b; a = 0 concretely, pictorially and symbolically, where a, b and c are integers.


ax + b = c concretely, pictorially and symbolically, where a, b and c are integers.


x/a + b = c, a = 0 concretely, pictorially and symbolically, where a, b and c are integers.


a(x + b) = c concretely, pictorially and symbolically, where a, b and c are integers.


Critique ways in which data is presented.


Solve problems involving the probability of independent events.


Develop and apply the Pythagorean theorem to solve problems.


Draw and construct nets for 3-D objects.


Determine the surface area of:


Right rectangular prisms to solve problems.


Right triangular prisms to solve problems.


Right cylinders to solve problems.


Develop and apply formulas for determining the volume of right prisms and right cylinders.


Demonstrate an understanding of tessellation by:


Explaining the properties of shapes that make tessellating possible.


Creating tessellations.


Identifying tessellations in the environment.