Quebec Education Program Progression of Learning — Grade 9


Click on any standard to search for aligned resources. This data may be subject to copyright. You may download a CSV of the Quebec Education Program Progression of Learning if your intention constitutes fair use.


Plan, assess, and analyze learning aligned to these standards using Kiddom.

Learn more: How Kiddom Empowers Teachers.

19.1.a.

Indicates the demographic weight of the main language groups

19.1.b.

Names public institutions that reflect the French fact (e.g. the Charter of the French language, the Civil Code)

19.1.c.

Indicates forms of cultural expression illustrating the French fact (e.g. the Francofolies de Montral, the Ftes de la Nouvelle-France, the Festival en chanson de Petite-Valle)

19.2.1.

Colonization program of the chartered companies

19.2.1.a.

Identifies the administrators of the colony before 1663: chartered companies, particularly the Company of One Hundred Associates

19.2.1.b.

Names the objective of the chartered companies: profit

19.2.1.c.

Indicates factors that influenced the decision to locate the first settlements in the St. Lawrence Valley: access to resources, access to water routes, presence of Amerindians

19.2.1.d.

Names the main obligation and the privilege granted to the chartered companies by the state: settlement of the colony, monopoly on the fur trade

19.2.1.e.

Indicates actions taken by the chartered companies to develop the fur trade (e.g. exploring the territory, constructing trading posts)

19.2.2.

Colonization program of the state

19.2.2.a.

Identifies the administrators of the colony after 1663: the governor, the intendant, the sovereign council

19.2.2.b.

Indicates roles of the governor, intendant and sovereign council (e.g. the governor handled diplomacy; the intendant managed finances; the sovereign council administered justice according to the Custom of Paris)

19.2.2.c.

Names the objectives pursued by the state under royal government: to settle the colony and obtain resources

19.2.2.d.

Indicates measures taken by the state to settle the colony: granting land toengags and soldiers, sending the Filles du Roy

19.2.3.

Colonization program of the Church

19.2.3.a.

Names the objectives pursued by the Church: evangelization, religious and social guidance

19.2.3.b.

Indicates actions taken by the Church to support evangelization and provide religious and social guidance: establishment of religious orders, missions and parishes

19.2.4.

Effects of the colonization programs

19.2.4.a.

Indicates effects of the colonization programs on the territory: occupation of the St. Lawrence Valley, division of land into seigneuries, construction of forts, expansion of the territory

19.2.4.b.

Names the first French settlements: Qubec, Trois-Rivires, Montral

19.2.4.c.

Names territories the French explored and occupied: the Great Lakes, the Mississippi, Hudson Bay

19.2.4.d.

Indicates the effect of the colonization programs of the chartered companies and of the state on economic activity: development of the fur trade

19.2.4.e.

Indicates effects of the colonization programs on relations with the Amerindians (e.g. conversion, alliances and rivalries)

19.2.5.

Franco-British rivalry in North America during the 18th century

19.2.5.a.

Names the main reasons for the rivalry between France and Great Britain: possession of the territory, control of the fur trade

19.2.5.c.

Describes the balance of military strength between France and Great Britain before the Conquest: Great Britain had more ships than France; Great Britain had more, better-armed troops than France

19.2.5.d.

Names some facts related to the Conquest (e.g. war in Ohio, deportation of the Acadians, battle of the Plains of Abraham, capitulation of Montral)

19.3.a.

Indicates the main measure taken by the state to protect and promote the French fact: the Charter of the French language

19.3.b.

Names organizations that seek to promote the French fact (e.g. the Socit Saint-Jean-Baptiste, the Office qubcois de la langue franaise, the Conseil suprieur de la langue franaise)

19.3.c.

Indicates sectors in which Qubec depends on other states to meet its needs (e.g. hydrocarbons, food)

19.3.d.

Names international organizations of which Qubec is a member (e.g. UNESCO, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie)

19.3.e.

Names agreements and international organizations in which Qubec is involved as a member of the Canadian federation (e.g. the North American Free Trade Agreement, the World Trade Organization)

20.1.a.

Indicates aspects of the dualism of some public institutions (e.g. language, religion)

20.1.b.

Names institutions in which cultural or linguistic dualism is expressed (e.g. school boards, civil law, the media)

20.2.1.a.

Names the type of government established in the colony after the capitulation of Montral: military government

20.2.1.b.

Identifies the administrators of the colony after the capitulation of Montral: generals, such as Jeffery Amherst and James Murray

20.2.1.c.

Gives the reason for the establishment of a military government: the war between France and Great Britain was not over in Europe

20.2.1.d.

Indicates measures imposed on the Canadiens during the period of military government: forfeiture of arms, obligation to sell land only to the British, obligation to swear an oath of allegiance and loyalty to the king

20.2.1.e.

Indicates the immediate effects of the military government on the colonys economy: the arrival of adventurers interested in exploiting resources, the arrival of British merchants

20.2.1.f.

Indicates the reason for the end of military government: the Treaty of Paris

20.2.2.

Political organization of the Province of Quebec

20.2.2.a.

Indicates the boundaries of the Province of Quebec after the Royal Proclamation

20.2.2.b.

Identifies the administrators of the Province of Quebec after the Royal Proclamation and after the Qubec Act: governors, such as James Murray and Guy Carleton, councilors

20.2.2.c.

Indicates the main measures stipulated in the Instructions to governor Murray: establishment of a legislative assembly as soon as possible, introduction of British civil and criminal law, requirement to comply with theTest Act in order to hold public office

20.2.2.d.

Indicates the main concessions made to the Canadiens by the first governors following the Instructions: maintenance of French civil law, the appointment of British councillors favourable to the Canadiens

20.2.2.e.

Indicates the boundaries of the Province of Quebec after the Qubec Act

20.2.2.f.

Indicates effects of the Qubec Act on the Province of Quebec (e.g. abolition of the Test Act oath, appointment of Canadiens to the council, American invasion)

20.2.3.a.

Names the main economic activities in the Province of Quebec: the fur trade, agriculture, fishing

20.2.3.b.

Identifies the group that gained control of the fur trade after the Conquest: British merchants

20.2.3.c.

Names the main export product and the main market: furs; Great Britain

20.2.4.

Effects of the American Revolution on the Province of Quebec

20.2.4.a.

Indicates the boundaries of the territory of the Province of Quebec and the United States after the Treaty of Paris (1783)

20.2.4.b.

Indicates the effect of the Treaty of Paris (1783) on the territory of the Province of Quebec: loss of the region south of the Great Lakes

20.2.4.c.

Indicates the main effect of the American Revolution on the fur trade: displacement of the fur trade to the northwest

20.2.4.d.

Indicates the main effect of the American Revolution on the composition of the population in the Province of Quebec: presence of Loyalists

20.3.a.

Identifies players in the debate about dualism (e.g. political organizations, the media)

20.3.b.

Indicates the positions of players in the debate about dualism (e.g. primacy of the French language, access to education in English)

20.3.c.

Indicates interests of the players who express views about dualism: defence of values, principles and beliefs

21.2.1.

Communication of liberal ideas

21.2.1.a.

Names some liberal values and ideas disseminated in the early 19th century: freedom, equality and the principle of nationhood

21.2.1.b.

Indicates means used to disseminate liberal ideas in the early 19th century (e.g. publications, newspapers, circulating libraries)

21.2.1.c.

Indicates political demands associated with liberal ideas: representativity, power sharing

21.2.2.

Political organization of the colony

21.2.2.a.

Names the constitutions of 1791 and 1840: Constitutional Act and Act of Union

21.2.2.b.

Indicates the boundaries of Upper Canada and Lower Canada in 1791 and the boundaries of United Canada in 1840

21.2.2.c.

Names the political regime introduced by the Constitutional Act: constitutional monarchy

21.2.2.d.

Names the institution that gave the population representation at the political level after the passage of the Constitutional Act: legislative assembly

21.2.2.e.

Describes the political structure introduced by the constitutions of 1791 and 1840 and some of the powers of the constituent parts (e.g. the governor had a right of veto and appointed the members of the councils; the executive council saw to the application of laws and administered public funds; the members of the legislative assembly passed laws)

21.2.3.

Interests of social groups

21.2.3.a.

Describes the place of British merchants and members of the French Canadian professional bourgeoisie in the political structure of Lower Canada in 1791: British merchants formed a majority on the executive and legislative councils; members of the French-Canadian professional bourgeoisie sat in the legislative assembly

21.2.3.b.

Indicates political interests of the British administrators and the professional bourgeoisie in Lower Canada in the early 19th century (e.g. the British administrators wanted to retain control of the colony; the French-Canadian professional bourgeoisie defended the interests of the people)

21.2.4.

Political and social tensions

21.2.4.a.

Names topics of dispute between the governor, the members of the councils and the legislative assembly of Lower Canada (e.g. funding for the construction of canals, the language used in the legislative assembly)

21.2.4.b.

Indicates the main demands made in the 92 Resolutions: responsible government, control of the budget by the legislative assembly, elected council members

21.2.4.c.

Names some facts related to the Rebellions (e.g. suspension of the legislative assembly, the Toronto Declaration, the declaration of independence of Lower Canada, disavowal of the general amnesty granted by Durham to the Patriotes, hanging of Patriotes ordered by the Special Council)

21.2.4.d.

Indicates the recommendations of the Durham Report: union of the two Canadas, granting of responsible government, assimilation of the French Canadians

21.2.4.e.

Indicates the general reaction of the population of Lower Canada to the Durham Report: rejection of the proposed union

22.1.a.

Names areas of jurisdiction of the federal and provincial governments (e.g. defence and currency for the federal government; education and civil law for the Qubec government; immigration and agriculture shared between the two levels of government)

22.1.b.

Indicates measures used to redistribute wealth between the provinces: equalization payments, federal social programs

22.1.c.

Gives characteristics of Qubecs economic development (e.g. difficulties encountered by some industries, the beginning of the aerospace and biotechnology industries)

22.2.1.

The move toward federation

22.2.1.a.

Identifies players in the project to federate the British colonies in North America (e.g. bankers, Cartier, Brown, the British Parliament)

22.2.1.b.

Gives reasons invoked by the supporters and opponents of the federation project (e.g. creation of a domestic market for supporters; political minoritization of Francophones for opponents)

22.2.1.c.

Gives the main results of the Charlottetown, Qubec and London conferences: agreement in principle on a federation at the Charlottetown conference; agreement on a federal union, power-sharing and construction of a railway at the Qubec conference; agreement on creating a federation at the London conference

22.2.1.d.

Names the colonies that took part in the preparatory conferences but did not join the projected federation: Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland

22.2.2.a.

Names the 1867 constitution: the British North America Act

22.2.2.b.

Names the provinces that made up Canada in 1867: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Qubec, Ontario

22.2.2.c.

Locates on a map the provinces that made up Canada in 1867

22.2.2.d.

Names the provinces that joined the Canadian federation between 1870 and 19051: Manitoba, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island, Saskatchewan, Alberta

22.2.2.e.

Locates on a map the provinces that joined the Canadian federation between 1870 and 1905

22.2.3.a.

Names the political system maintained by the British North America Act: constitutional monarchy

22.2.3.b.

Describes the political structure established by the British North America Act and the powers of its constituent parts (e.g. the House of Commons passes legislation, the Governor General gives assent)

22.2.4.

Relations with the Amerindians and Mtis

22.2.4.a.

Names the territories of the Hudsons Bay company purchased by the federal government in 1869: Northwest Territories, Ruperts Land

22.2.4.b.

Describes the main reactions of the Mtis after the purchase by Canada of the territories of the Hudsons Bay Company: the Mtis rise up under the leadership of Riel; a provisional government is formed at Red River

22.2.4.c.

Names the objective targeted by the Indian Act of 1876: assimilation

22.2.5.

Relations with Great Britain

22.2.5.a.

Indicates the Dominion of Canadas degree of autonomy from Great Britain after the passage of the British North America Act: full autonomy in the area of domestic policy; dependency in international and constitutional matters

22.2.5.b.

Indicates effects, for Canada, of its status as a dominion prior to 1931 (e.g. participation in the Boer War, participation in the First World War)

22.2.5.c.

Indicates the Dominion of Canadas degree of autonomy from Great Britain after the passage of the Statute of Westminster: full autonomy in international matters; dependency in constitutional matters

22.2.6.

Industrial development

22.2.6.a.

Indicates the main industrial sectors developed during the first phase of industrialization, the main sources of capital and the main market: manufacturing and the timber industry; capital mainly from Great Britain; the domestic market

22.2.6.b.

Names the objectives of the National Policy: protection for Canadian industries, settlement of Western Canada, development of the domestic market

22.2.6.c.

Names the three components of the National Policy: increase in customs duties, increase in immigration, completion of the transcontinental railway

22.2.6.d.

Indicates the main industrial sectors developed during the second phase of industrialization, the main sources of capital and the markets: hydroelectricity, metallurgy, mining and pulp and paper; capital mainly from the United States; the local market and export market

22.2.6.e.

Describes some living and working conditions of workers (e.g. unhealthy housing; long working hours; low wages)

22.2.6.f.

Establishes a connection between industrialization and unionization: poor working conditions encourage workers to group together and make demands

22.2.6.g.

Indicates effects of industrial development on cities and regions (e.g. exodus from rural areas, expansion of the road network, increase in the number of businesses and services)

22.3.a.

Indicates effects of market liberalization on Qubecs economy (e.g. job relocation in some sectors of activity, increase in exports)

22.3.b.

Indicates measures implemented by the Qubec government to develop certain economic sectors (e.g. investments in research and development; support for specialization and innovation; adoption of a green technology development strategy)

22.3.c.

Identifies interest groups concerned by economic change (e.g. community groups, unions, political parties)

22.3.d.

Names public institutions concerned by economic change (e.g. parliaments, Bank of Canada, Caisse de dpt et placement du Qubec)

23.2.1.

State interventionism

23.2.1.a.

Indicates the main measures introduced by governments in the social sector to help people without jobs during the depression of the 1930s: public works program, direct assistance

23.2.1.b.

Indicates measures introduced by the federal government in the social arena following the economic crisis of the 1930s: unemployment insurance, family allowances

23.2.1.c.

Indicates measures introduced by the Qubec government to promote development in the regions: settlement plans, rural electrification, the construction of transportation infrastructure

23.2.2.

Movements that have contributed to changing attitudes in Qubec

23.2.2.a.

Names movements that have contributed to changing attitudes:

23.2.2.b.

Identifies players associated with the feminist movement (e.g. Thrse F. Casgrain, the Ligue des droits de la femme, Laure Gaudreault, Henry Morgentaler). Identifies players associated with the union movement (e.g. Madeleine Parent, Michel Chartrand, the Confdration des travailleurs catholiques du Canada / Canadian Catholic Confederation of Labour, labour confederations). Identifies players associated with secularism (e.g. the Facult des sciences sociales at Universit Laval, Frre Untel [Jean-Paul Desbiens], Mgr Alphonse-Marie Parent, Marcel Trudel).

23.2.2.c.

Indicates demands made by the feminist movement (e.g. right to vote, change in the legal status of married women, access to higher education). Indicates demands made by the union movement (e.g. better working conditions, measures to improve worker health and safety, especially in the mining sector). Indicates a demand made by the secularist movement: limitation of place of the Church in the education and health sectors.

23.2.2.d.

Indicates the position of players opposed to the movements contributing to changing attitudes (e.g. the Church advocated the maintenance of womens traditional role; the Duplessis government and employers associations refused to recognize the right to strike).

23.2.2.e.

Gives examples of government intervention regarding demands made by the feminist movement (e.g. granting of the right to vote, appointment of women judges). Gives examples of government intervention regarding demands made by the union movement (e.g. creation of the Department of Labour, passage of the Labour Relations Act, recognition of the right to unionization in the public sector). Cites instances of government intervention regarding demands made by the secularist movement: taking charge of the education and health sectors, passage of the Hospitals Act.

23.2.3.

Scientific and technological development

23.2.3.a.

Identifies players who contributed to the development of science and technology (e.g. Frre Marie-Victorin [Conrad Kirouac], Irma LeVasseur, Fernand Seguin, Armand Frappier)

23.2.3.b.

Names infrastructure and institutions associated with the development of science and technology (e.g. St. Lawrence Seaway, Montral metro, Daniel-Johnson hydro dam, Centre de recherche en microbiologie at the Universit de Montral)

23.2.4.

Emergence of consumer society

23.2.4.a.

Indicates factors that contributed to the Americanization of lifestyles in the second half of the 20th century (e.g. the spread of American popular culture, the media)

23.2.4.b.

Indicates factors that contributed to increased consumerism in the second half of the 20th century: increase in disposable income, advertising, easy access to credit

23.2.4.c.

Names consumer products accessible to most of the population in the second half of the 20th century (e.g. refrigerator, TV, automobile)

23.2.5.

Relations with the Native peoples

23.2.5.a.

Indicates the reaction of the Cree and Inuit in 1971 to the construction of hydroelectric dams by the Qubec government: filing in Qubec Superior Court of a motion to stop the work

23.2.5.b.

Indicates actions undertaken by the Qubec government following the decision of the Qubec Superior Court that an agreement should be sought with the Cree and Inuit: apply to halt the judicial proceedings launched by the Cree and Inuit, negotiate with those two peoples

23.2.5.c.

Indicates the main elements in the agreements signed by the Qubec government with the Cree and Inuit (1975) and the Naskapi (1978): protection for traditional lifestyles, financial compensation, creation of autonomous political institutions, development of water, forest and mineral resources

23.2.6.

Affirmation of nationhood

23.2.6.a.

Names expressions associated with the affirmation of nationhood (e.g. Rendez-nous notre butin, Maintenant ou jamais! MATRES chez-nous, galit ou indpendance, Vive le Qubec! Vive le Qubec libre!

23.2.6.b.

Indicates the position of the majority of French Canadians in the plebiscite on conscription for service overseas: opposition

23.2.6.c.

Identifies players in the affirmation of nationhood (e.g. Qubec premiers, Rassemblement pour lindpendance nationale, Mouvement souverainet-association, socio-political organizations)

23.2.6.d.

Gives examples of intervention by the Qubec government that reflect the affirmation of nationhood (e.g. adoption of the Fleurdelis, nationalization of hydroelectric companies, Grin-Lajoie doctrine and opening of Qubec delegations abroad, referendum on sovereignty-association)

25.1.a.

Indicates the approximate number of inhabitants3 and the composition of Qubecs population

25.1.b.

Describes Qubecs demographic situation: low natural growth, aging population, increased immigration

25.1.c.

Indicates government measures to promote population increase (e.g. public daycare system, parental insurance plan, immigration policy)

25.1.d.

Indicates effects of the aging of Qubecs population since the end of the 20th century (e.g. labour scarcity in some sectors, increased costs in the health sector)

25.2.a.

Indicates elements of membership in a society (e.g. language, religion, ethnic or national origin)

25.2.b.

Names communities that share elements of identity with Qubec society (e.g. Abenaki, Haitian, Vietnamese communities)

25.2.c.

Indicates values shared by Qubec citizens (e.g. the French language, democracy, human rights and freedoms)

25.B.1.1.

Approximate number of inhabitants and composition of the population

25.B.1.1.a.

Indicates the approximate number of inhabitants and the composition of the population in the St. Lawrence Valley around 1663: a population of roughly 3 000 inhabitants, mainly male and of French origin, and Native population

25.B.1.1.b.

Indicates the approximate number of inhabitants and the composition of the population in the St. Lawrence Valley around 1760: a mixed population consisting of roughly 65 000 Canadiens and French subjects, a population consisting of Amerindians and Blacks, some Amerindians and Blacks being slaves

25.B.1.2.a.

Indicates the main measures taken by the state to settle the colony between 1666 and 1672: sending the Filles du Roy, granting land toengags and soldiers, encouraging marriage and large families

25.B.1.2.b.

Indicates results of policies encouraging immigration and large families implemented by the state between 1666 and 1672: increase in the number of women, doubling of the population

25.B.1.2.c.

Indicates the main factor in the growth of the population of New France between 1672 and 1760: natural growth

25.B.2.

Effects of the European presence on the Amerindians

25.B.2.1.a.

Indicates effects of the presence of the French on the Amerindian population: mixed births, the spread of disease, sedentarization

25.B.2.2.b.

Indicates effects of the presence of the French on the territory occupied by Amerindians: establishment of missions, construction of forts

25.B.3.

French territory in North America

25.B.3.1.a.

Locates on a map of eastern North America the territory possessed by France in 1663

25.B.3.1.b.

Locates on a map of eastern North America the territory possessed by France after the Treaty of Utrecht

25.B.3.2.a.

Locates on a map of eastern North America the territory occupied by the French in 1663

25.B.3.2.b.

Locates on a map of eastern North America the territory occupied by the Canadiens and the French after the Treaty of Utrecht

25.B.3.3.

Organization of the territory

25.B.3.3.a.

Indicates the mode of territorial organization used in New France: the seigneurial system

25.B.3.3.b.

Describes the mode of land division used in New France: range roads, rectangular plots at right-angles to a watercourse

25.B.3.3.c.

Indicates basic elements of a seigneury (e.g. land belonging to thefabrique [parish corporation], censives, manor house)

25.C.1.1.

Approximate number of inhabitants and composition of the population

25.C.1.1.a.

Indicates the approximate number of inhabitants and the composition of the population after the Treaty of Paris (1763): a population of roughly 65 000 inhabitants, consisting overwhelmingly of Canadiens, a minority of British subjects, a population of Amerindians and Blacks, some Amerindians and Blacks being slaves

25.C.1.1.b.

Indicates the approximate number of inhabitants and the composition of the population after the Constitutional Act: a population of roughly 160 000 inhabitants, consisting mainly of Canadiens, a minority of British subjects, a population of Amerindians and Blacks, some Amerindians and Blacks being slaves

25.C.1.1.c.

Indicates the approximate number of inhabitants and the composition of the population after the Act of Union: a population of roughly 665 400 inhabitants, consisting mainly of Francophones, a growing Anglophone minority, Amerindians and Blacks

25.C.1.2.a.

Indicates the main population growth factor in the Province of Quebec during the second half of the 18th century: natural growth

25.C.1.2.b.

Indicates the main population growth factors during the first half of the 19th century: natural growth in Lower Canada / Canada East, immigration in Upper Canada / Canada West

25.C.2.1.

Immigration of British subjects

25.C.2.1.a.

Indicates reasons for immigration: attractiveness of the fur trade after the Conquest, difficult social and economic conditions in Great Britain, famine in Ireland

25.C.2.1.b.

Indicates the conditions that promoted immigration (e.g. free land grants in the early 19th century, appointment of an immigration agent in Qubec City, management of land by the British American Land Company)

25.C.2.1.c.

Names places where immigrants settled after the Conquest and during the first half of the 19th century: St. Lawrence Valley after the Conquest; Eastern Townships and Upper Canada during the first half of the 19th century

25.C.2.2.

Immigration of Loyalists

25.C.2.2.a.

Indicates the main factors underlying the immigration of Loyalists: loyalty to the British Crown, fear of reprisal

25.C.2.2.b.

Names places where Loyalists settled (e.g. New Brunswick, Upper Canada)

25.C.2.3.

Emigration of French Canadians

25.C.2.3.a.

Indicates the main factors underlying the emigration of French Canadians to the United States beginning in 1830: the scarcity of agricultural land in the seigneuries, the existence of job prospects in New England factories

25.C.2.3.b.

Names places where French Canadian migrants settled beginning in 1830 (e.g. Massachusetts, Maine, areas of internal colonization such as the Mauricie, the Saguenay, the Laurentians)

25.C.3.

Effects of migration flows

25.C.3.1.a.

Indicates effects on the colony of transatlantic crossing conditions of British immigrants: the spread of disease, compulsory quarantine at the Grosse-le

25.C.3.1.b.

Indicates the change observed in the linguistic composition of the population of Montral around 1845: the Anglophone population became the majority

25.C.3.1.c.

Indicates the findings of the 1851 census: the population of Canada East was smaller than that of Canada West

25.C.3.2.a.

Indicates effects of British and Loyalist immigration in the colony: construction of Protestant churches and English schools, township development, division of the Province of Quebec into Lower Canada and Upper Canada

25.C.3.2.b.

Names regions that were settled by migrants from overcrowded holdings in Lower Canada in the early 19th century (e.g. Outaouais, Mauricie)

25.C.4.

Amerindian population

25.C.4.1.

Approximate number of inhabitants and composition of the Amerindian population in the St. Lawrence Valley around 1800

25.C.4.1.a.

Indicates the approximate number of inhabitants and the composition of the Amerindian population in the St. Lawrence Valley around 1800: a population of roughly 5 000 Algonquians and Iroquoians

25.C.4.2.

Effects of immigration on the Amerindians

25.C.4.2.a.

Indicates effects of the arrival of immigrants and French-Canadian migrants on the Amerindian population during the first half of the 19th century (e.g. reduction in the size of hunting and fishing territories, acculturation)

25.D.1.1.

Approximate number of inhabitants and composition of the population

25.D.1.1.a.

Indicates the approximate number of inhabitants of Qubec: around 1901: 1.7 million inhabitants; around 1961: 5 million inhabitants; around 2006: 7.6 million inhabitants

25.D.1.1.b.

Indicates the composition of the population of Qubec: around 1901: a majority of French Canadians, a minority of English Canadians, a small proportion of Native people and people of other origins; around 1961: a majority of Francophones, a minority of Anglophones, a small proportion of Allophones; around 2006: a majority of Francophones, a minority of Allophones, a small proportion of Anglophones

25.D.1.2.a.

Indicates the factors that contributed to population growth in Qubec during the 20th century: natural growth, immigration

25.D.1.2.b.

Names the period of strong population growth that began after the Second World War and ended in the early 1960s: the baby boom

25.D.2.1.a.

Indicates factors that contribute to migration flows (e.g. improvement of socio-economic conditions, flight from political regimes, family reunification)

25.D.2.1.b.

Names the countries or regions of origin of the main immigrant groups in Qubec in the second half of the 19th century and the second half of the 20th century (e.g. Great Britain and the United States in the second half of the 19th century; the Balkans, Haiti and Southeast Asia in the second half of the 20th century)

25.D.2.2.

Emigration of French Canadians

25.D.2.2.a.

Indicates the main factors contributing to the emigration of French Canadians to the United States in the second half of the 19th century: the scarcity of agricultural land, the existence of job prospects in New England factories

25.D.2.2.b.

Names places where French Canadian migrants settled in the second half of the 19th century (e.g. Massachusetts, Maine, areas of internal colonization such as the Mauricie, the Saguenay, the Laurentians)

25.D.2.2.c.

Indicates the effect of French Canadian emigration to the United States on Qubecs population in the second half of the 19th century: net migration was negative

25.D.2.3.

Measures taken by the state

25.D.2.3.a.

Indicates measures regarding immigration implemented by the Canadian government in the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century (e.g. free land in Western Canada; the Chinese Immigration Act)

25.D.2.3.b.

Indicates the main measure implemented by the Qubec government to halt the emigration of French Canadians to the United States during the second half of the 19th century: the opening of new areas of colonization

25.D.2.3.c.

Indicates provisions of Canadas 1952 Immigration Act (e.g. preference given to immigrants from Western European countries and the United States, discrimination against Blacks, Asians and homosexuals)

25.D.2.3.d.

Indicates measures implemented by the Qubec government in the area of immigration since the creation of Qubecs Department of Immigration (e.g. establishment of selection criteria, such as knowledge of French, creation of reception services and linguistic and cultural integration services)

25.D.2.3.e.

Names the main categories of immigrants recognized by Canadas 1976 Immigration Act: family class immigrants, who receive financial support from relatives, refugees

25.D.2.3.f.

Indicates provisions of Canadas 2001 Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (e.g. broadening of the powers of the immigration services regarding permanent residents who may present a threat to security, tightening the conditions for obtaining refugee status)

25.D.3.

Effects of migration flows

25.D.3.1.a.

Indicates effects of immigration on Qubec society at the end of the 20th century (e.g. presence of various religious denominations, spread of ethnic art)

25.D.3.2.a.

Indicates effects of immigration on Qubecs territory at the end of the 20th century: development of ethnic neighbourhoods in some cities, opening of businesses managed by members of cultural communities, establishment of places of worship

25.D.4.1.a.

Indicates the relative proportion of urban and rural population in Qubec: in 1901: urban population smaller than the rural population; in 1931: urban population slightly larger than the rural population; in 2001: urban population much larger than the rural population

25.D.4.1.b.

Indicates the main factors contributing to the increase in Qubecs urban population between 1851 and 1901: job openings in factories, the establishment of immigrants

25.D.4.1.c.

Indicates factors contributing to the increase in Qubecs urban population in 2001 (e.g. settlement of immigrants, concentration of specialized services, diversified cultural life)

25.D.4.1.d.

Indicates effects of the increase in the urban population on the society and the territory since the early 20th century (e.g. urban sprawl, the development of transportation infrastructure, the construction of shopping centres)

25.D.4.1.e.

Indicates means used by the Qubec government and municipalities to improve living conditions in urban areas since the early 20th century (e.g. dissemination of information on hygiene and public health, vaccination campaigns, construction of water supply and sewage systems)

25.D.4.2.

Regional growth and decline

25.D.4.2.a.

Indicates effects of the development of certain regions on the society and the territory (e.g. changes in the Native way of life, division of land into townships)

25.D.4.2.b.

Indicates factors that contributed to a population decline in certain regions after 1970: business closures, reduction in services, attraction of urban poles

25.D.5.

Relations with the Native peoples

25.D.5.1.

Effects of immigration on Native populations

25.D.5.1.a.

Indicates effects of immigration on the social and territorial organization of the Mtis and Amerindians in Western Canada (e.g. changes in their way of life, reduction in the size of hunting and fishing territories)

25.D.5.1.b.

Indicates reactions of the Mtis and some Native peoples following the failure of the 1869 uprising against the federal government: migration to northwestern Canada and the United States; demands for the signature of treaties concerning land occupation

26.1.a.

Names Qubecs main natural resources: water, forests, ore

26.1.b.

Names Qubecs main imports (e.g. hydrocarbons, motor vehicles)

26.1.c.

Names Qubecs main exports (e.g. aluminium, alloys, airplanes)

26.1.d.

Names areas in which Qubec has internationally recognized expertise (e.g. aeronautics, dam construction, performing arts)

26.1.e.

Indicates matters on which Qubec has entered into economic partnerships with other states (e.g. recognition of professional qualifications with France, labour mobility and the recognition of professional qualifications in the construction industry with Ontario)

26.2.a.

Identifies players concerned by economic development (e.g. the government, consumers associations, employers and union organizations)

26.2.b.

Indicates measures taken by the government to promote economic development (e.g. granting of subsidies to businesses, establishment of worker training programs, financial support for research and development)

26.2.c.

Indicates measures taken by the government that reflect commitment to the social values of equity, justice and solidarity (e.g. free and universal health care, income redistribution)

26.2.d.

Indicates sources of government revenue (e.g. income tax, profits of Crown corporations)

26.2.e.

Indicates the main items of government expenditure: education, health and social services

26.2.f.

Indicates means used by citizens to make their voices heard concerning the economic decisions of the government (e.g. participating in elections, taking part in public consultations, signing petitions)

26.B.1.

Organization of the economy in New France

26.B.1.1.a.

Defines mercantilism: economic policy designed to enrich the mother country

26.B.1.1.b.

Indicates the methods used by the mother country to enrich itself: accumulation of precious metals, exploitation of its colonies resources

26.B.1.1.c.

Indicates the role played by the colony under Frances mercantilist policy: export raw materials to the mother country, purchase manufactured goods from the mother country

26.B.1.2.a.

Names the territories forming the legs of the triangular trade: France, New France, the French West Indies

26.B.1.2.b.

Names the products in circulation thanks to the triangular trade and their origin (e.g. fur and fish from New France, rum from the French West Indies, manufactured goods from France)

26.B.2.

Economy based on fur

26.B.2.1.a.

Describes roles of various agents in the fur trade (e.g. Amerindians who hunted animals and processed pelts, coureurs des bois who brought furs to a trading post)

26.B.2.1.b.

Indicates the importance of fur in trade with France in the mid-18th century: fur was the main export product

26.B.2.2.

Effects on the organization of the society and of the territory

26.B.2.2.a.

Indicates effects of the fur trade on Amerindian groups: alliances between the French and the Huron, use of European goods by Amerindians

26.B.2.2.b.

Indicates effects of the fur trade on the society and the territory: slow settlement, establishment of trading posts, territorial expansion

26.B.2.2.c.

Indicates effects of the fur trade on relations between New France and the Anglo-American colonies: commercial rivalry, wars

26.B.3.1.a.

Names the economic activity in which most inhabitants of New France were involved: agriculture

26.B.3.1.b.

Indicates the markets where most agricultural surpluses were sent: local market, cities, France

26.B.3.1.c.

Names agricultural processing activities: brewing beer, grinding grain, manufacturing canvas and rigging

26.B.3.2.

Effects on the organization of the territory

26.B.3.2.a.

Indicates effects of agricultural activity on the organization of the territory: increase in the area of cultivated land, construction of mills, establishment of public markets

26.B.4.1.a.

Names craft activities that developed in the colony (e.g. wig-making, construction of casks and metal objects )

26.B.4.1.b.

Names craft activities (e.g. carpentry, masonry, hat making)

26.B.4.2.

Effects on the organization of the territory

26.B.4.2.a.

Indicates effects of craft activities on the organization of the territory: growth of cities, presence of workshops and boutiques in craft workers neighbourhoods

26.B.5.

Attempts at economic diversification

26.B.5.1.

Measures taken by the state

26.B.5.1.a.

s taken by Intendant Talon to diversify the colonys economy: encouragement to cultivate flax, hemp and hops, and to raise livestock

26.B.5.1.b.

Indicates measures introduced by intendants Bgon and Hocquart to diversify the colonys economy: support for iron ore mining in the Mauricie, establishment of the kings naval shipyard in Qubec City

26.B.5.2.

Obstacles to economic diversification

26.B.5.2.a.

Indicates obstacles to the diversification of the economy in New France: economy based on the fur trade, lack of capital, scarcity of specialized labour

26.B.5.2.b.

Indicates the factor explaining the scarcity of economic diversification in New France: mercantilism

26.C.1.

Economy based on fur

26.C.1.1.a.

Identifies the main fur-trading companies: Hudsons Bay Company, Northwest Company

26.C.1.1.b.

Indicates effects of the transfer of the fur trade to British companies (e.g. arrival of British merchants, hiring of Canadiens as voyageurs for the Northwest Company)

26.C.1.1.c.

Indicates economic effects of the expansion of the fur trade to the northwest: founding of the Northwest Company, establishment of trading posts, exhaustion of the resource

26.C.1.1.d.

Names the main territories for the supply and trade of fur: Hudson Bay region, Great Lakes region

26.C.1.2.

Decline of the fur trade

26.C.1.2.a.

Indicates factors that contributed to the decline of the fur trade in the early 19th century: increasingly remote trading territories, increased operating costs

26.C.1.2.b.

Indicates effects of the decline of the fur trade on the economy of the colony in the early 19th century: takeover of the Northwest Company by the Hudsons Bay Company; replacement of Montral by Hudson Bay as the main place of export

26.C.2.

Economy based on timber

26.C.2.1.a.

Indicates the importance of the timber trade for the economy of Lower Canada around 1810: timber replaced furs as the main export product

26.C.2.1.b.

Indicates the source of capital: Great Britain

26.C.2.1.c.

Indicates the composition of the workforce: mostly French Canadians and Irish immigrants

26.C.2.1.d.

Names trades related to the economy based on timber (e.g. lumberjack, log driver, sawyer)

26.C.2.1.e.

Names products and their target market (e.g. large squared pine or oak beams, staves and construction lumber; Great Britain)

26.C.2.1.f.

Names places associated with the timber trade (e.g. port of Qubec, forest regions, Great Britain)

26.C.2.2.

Factors in the development of the timber trade in the early 19th century

26.C.2.2.a.

Indicates factors that contributed to the development of the timber trade in the colony in the early 19th century: continental blockade by Napoleon, construction of warships, establishment of preferential tariffs by Great Britain

26.C.2.2.b.

Indicates measures taken by merchants to facilitate financial operations and access to capital: founding of banks, issue of paper money by banks

26.C.2.3.

Effect of the development of the timber trade

26.C.2.3.a.

Indicates effects of the development of the timber trade on social groups in Lower Canada: increase in the number of workers and artisans, increased influence of the business class

26.C.2.3.b.

Names regions of colonization that developed with the timber trade (e.g. Mauricie, Saguenay)

26.C.2.3.c.

Indicates effects of the development of the timber trade on the population in the first half of the 19th century: some workers migrated to regions newly opened up to forestry; forestry work provided farmers with extra income

26.C.3.1.a.

Names agricultural crops in Lower Canada in the early 19th century (e.g. wheat, oats, potatoes)

26.C.3.1.b.

Indicates the target markets for some crops from Lower Canada: the local market, the British market

26.C.3.2.

Decline of wheat production in Lower Canada

26.C.3.2.a.

Indicates problems related to agriculture in Lower Canada in the 1830s (e.g. overpopulation on agricultural land, soil exhaustion in the seigneurial zone)

26.C.3.2.b.

Indicates solutions chosen by farmers facing difficulty: settling in new colonization regions, moving to cities or emigrating to the United States

26.C.4.

Effects of economic activity on transportation development

26.C.4.a.

Names transportation infrastructure established in the first half of the 19th century: canals, railways

26.C.4.b.

Indicates advantages generated by transportation infrastructure: quick travel, increase in the volume of freight transported

26.C.5.1.a.

Defines protectionism: policy designed to protect national economy against foreign competition

26.C.5.1.b.

Indicates effects of the protectionism adopted by Great Britain on the economy of the colony: increase in timber exports to Great Britain, increase in port activities

26.C.5.2.a.

Defines free trade: free circulation of merchandise, no customs barriers to trade

26.C.5.2.b.

Indicates effects of the establishment of free trade by Great Britain on the colonys economy: reduced exports to Great Britain, a search for new markets

26.D.1.

Exploitation of resources and opening of new regions

26.D.1.1.

Resources and regions

26.D.1.1.a

Names resources exploited in the first phase of industrialization (e.g. timber, leather, dairy, tobacco)

26.D.1.1.b.

Names natural resources exploited during the second phase of industrialization (e.g. copper, silver, gold, zinc, asbestos, water)

26.D.1.1.c.

Names natural resources exploited in the Abitibi, Cte-Nord and Gaspsie regions (e.g. iron and titanium in the Cte-Nord region, copper and wood in the Abitibi and Gaspsie regions)

26.D.1.1.d.

Indicates effects of natural resource exploitation on the organization of the territory (e.g. development of regions, railway construction, harbour development)

26.D.1.2.a.

Indicates the main changes to agriculture in the late 19th century: improved production techniques, development of the dairy industry

26.D.1.2.b.

Indicates the main change to agriculture in the early 20th century: use of farm machinery

26.D.1.2.c.

Indicates changes that occurred in agriculture between 1945 and 1960 (e.g. rural electrification, creation of agricultural cooperatives)

26.D.1.2.d.

Indicates changes that occurred in the agricultural industry between 1960 and 1980 (e.g. reduction in number of farms, introduction of production quotas, use of fertilizers and pesticides)

26.D.1.2.e.

Indicates changes that occurred in the agricultural industry after 1980 (e.g. improved access to international markets, focus on organic production, reduction in the area of land under cultivation)

26.D.2.

Industrial development

26.D.2.1.

Phases of industrialization

26.D.2.1.a.

Names some facts about industrial development during the first phase of industrialization (e.g. the use of coal as a source of energy, the division of labour, mechanization)

26.D.2.1.b.

Names some facts about industrial development during the second phase of industrialization (e.g. use of hydroelectricity as a power source, need for specialized labour, more extensive mechanization)

26.D.2.1.c.

Indicates factors that contributed to industrial development during one of the phases of industrialization (e.g. extensive natural resources, strong hydroelectric potential, abundant and low-cost labour)

26.D.2.1.d.

Indicates effects of industrial development on society during one of the phases of industrialization (e.g. child labour, difficult living and working conditions, social and economic disparity between the business class and the working class)

26.D.2.1.e.

Indicates effects of industrial development on the territory during the first phase of industrialization (e.g. development of working class neighbourhoods, widening of canals, introduction of electric streetcars)

26.D.2.2.a.

Indicates factors that contributed to industrial development during the Second World War: demand for military supplies, need for food in Europe

26.D.2.2.b.

Indicates effects of the war industry on industrial production and the society during the Second World War: increased production in the steel, transportation and chemical sectors; increase in the number of women working in factories

26.D.2.3.

The period 1945 to 1960

26.D.2.3.a.

Names some facts about industrial development (e.g. increased factory production, increased mineral production, development of the petrochemical industry)

26.D.2.3.b.

Indicates factors that contributed to industrial development (e.g. the reconstruction of European countries after the Second World War, demand for raw materials and military materials in the United States)

26.D.2.3.c.

Indicates effects of economic development on society (e.g. labour struggles, increase in purchasing power, employment growth in the tertiary sector)

26.D.2.3.d.

Indicates effects of economic development on the territory (e.g. development of cities and suburbs, creation of the St. Lawrence Seaway, expansion of the road network)

26.D.2.4.

The period 1960 to 1980

26.D.2.4.a.

Names some facts about economic development (e.g. creation of small- and medium-sized enterprises, emergence of Qubec multinationals)

26.D.2.4.b.

Indicates the factor that contributed to economic development: government intervention

26.D.2.4.c.

Cites instances of government intervention in the economy (e.g. creation of Crown corporations, drafting of a regional development plan, creation of the Stock Savings Plan, construction of hydroelectric dams)

26.D.2.4.d.

Indicates effects of economic development on society (e.g. increase in the unionization rate, improvement in working conditions, establishment of new social programs)

26.D.2.4.e.

Indicates effects of economic development on the territory (e.g. development of industrial zones, increase in residential construction, development of transportation infrastructure, construction of suburban shopping centres)

26.D.2.5.

The period 1980 to the turn of the 21st century

26.D.2.5.a.

Names some facts about economic development (e.g. reduced importance of the primary and secondary sectors, development of a high-technology sector, worldwide competition)

26.D.2.5.b.

Indicates factors that contributed to economic development (e.g. globalization of the economy, formation of consortiums)

26.D.2.5.c.

Indicates effects of economic globalization on society (e.g. job relocation, establishment of training programs for laid-off workers, creation of new businesses)

26.D.3.1.

Effects of urbanization

26.D.3.1.a.

Gives the main characteristics of urbanization: concentration of the population, multiplication of services

26.D.3.1.b.

Indicates effects of the development of cities on the organization of the society and the territory in the second half of the 19th century (e.g. appearance of well-off neighbourhoods at a distance from working-class neighbourhoods, creation of parks)

26.D.3.1.c.

Indicates effects of the development of cities on the organization of the society and the territory in the early 20th century (e.g. establishment of public services, opening of department stores, urban sprawl)

26.D.4.

Socioeconomic context of working-class life

26.D.4.1.

Living and working conditions

26.D.4.1.a.

Describes the living conditions in working-class neighbourhoods in the late 19th century (e.g. unhygienic conditions, unhealthy housing, pollution and crowding leading to new health problems)

26.D.4.1.b.

Describes the working conditions in factories in the late 19th century (e.g. six-day workweek of 60 to 70 hours; women and children paid less than men)

26.D.4.1.c.

Indicates the main method used by workers to improve their working conditions in the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century: unionization

26.D.4.1.d.

Indicates the reaction of the clergy to the establishment of American unions in Qubec in the late 19th century and early 20th century: foundation of Catholic unions

26.D.4.2.a.

Indicates demands made by workers in the first half of the 20th century (e.g. reduction in working hours, prohibition of child labour)

26.D.4.2.b.

Indicates demands made by workers between 1945 and 1960 (e.g. wage increases, protection against industrial illnesses)

26.D.4.2.c.

Indicates demands made by workers between 1960 and 1980 (e.g. amendments to labour relations legislation, measures to combat social inequality)

26.D.4.2.d.

Indicates demands made by workers since 1980 (e.g. protection against inflation, parental leave, improved pension plans, reorganization of work schedules)

26.D.5.1.a.

Names economic indicators (e.g. gross domestic product, unemployment rate, balance of trade)

26.D.5.2.

Expansion and contraction

26.D.5.2.a.

Gives characteristics of a period of expansion: increase in production, increase in exports, reduction of unemployment

26.D.5.2.b.

Gives characteristics of a period of contraction: reduction in production, reduction in exports, increase in unemployment

26.D.5.3.

Depression and recession

26.D.5.3.a.

Names some facts about the economic depression of the 1870s (e.g. precarious financial situation of some banks, increased unemployment)

26.D.5.3.b.

Names some facts about the economic depression of the 1930s (e.g. introduction of public works programs, establishment of assistance measures for the unemployed)

26.D.5.3.c.

Names some facts about recessions since 1970 (e.g. oil price increases, closure of mines and mining towns)

26.D.6.1.a.

Indicates the solution chosen by United Canada in 1854 to deal with the market problem caused by Great Britains free trade policies: trade agreement with the United States

26.D.6.1.b.

Indicates effects of free trade on Qubecs economy (e.g. job losses in certain sectors, increase in exports)

26.D.6.2.a.

Indicates the solution chosen to find new markets for the products of United Canada after the non-renewal of the Reciprocity Treaty: creation of a domestic market

26.D.6.2.b.

Indicates the solution chosen to develop the domestic market and Canadian industry in the second half of the 19th century: increasing customs duties after adopting the National Policy

27.1.a.

Names currents of thought in Qubec today (e.g. Aboriginalism, feminism, nationalism)

27.1.b.

Gives characteristics of Qubecs cultural identity (e.g. French language, values of freedom and equality)

27.1.c.

Indicates examples of means used to disseminate culture (e.g. literature, theatre, music, sculpture)

27.1.d.

Indicates examples of means used to transmit culture (e.g. family, educational institutions, media)

27.2.a.

Defines cultural heritage: the shared heritage of a community that is transmitted from one generation to the next, including language, values, social norms, buildings with a historical or artistic interest, artefacts

27.2.b.

Indicates elements of culture in Qubec society that constitute a heritage from the past (e.g. forms of cultural expression associated with the spirituality of the Native peoples, institutions such as the Catholic church, parishes, the French language, The Gazette, Cathedral of the Holy Trinity in Qubec City)

27.2.c.

Indicates means used by the state to preserve Qubecs cultural heritage (e.g. pass legislation, grant subsidies, classify or recognize historical monuments)

27.2.d.

Indicates effects of economic globalization on national cultures (e.g. broader access to cultural diversity, the homogenization of cultures and lifestyles)

27.B.1.

Divine right of kings

27.B.1.a.

Gives characteristics of the divine right of kings: monarchs derived their power from God, all power belonged to the monarch

27.B.1.b.

Identifies the players who embody the divine right of kings: the king, the governor

27.B.1.c.

Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with the divine right of kings (e.g. the appointment of the bishop by the monarch, the Chteau Saint-Louis, the royal coat of arms with the fleur-de-lys)

27.B.2.a.

Gives characteristics of Catholicism (e.g. Christian religion, recognition of the authority of the pope)

27.B.2.b.

Identifies the players who embody Catholicism: bishops, clergy, religious orders, missionaries, school, family

27.B.2.c.

Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with Catholicism (e.g. written documents such as the Conversion des Sauvages by Marc Lescarbot, the Jesuit Relations, the Catchisme du diocse de Qubec, religious buildings, religious art, regulation of daily life by the religious calendar)

27.B.3.

Independent spirit and adaptability of the Canadiens

27.B.3.a.

Identifies players who embody the independent spirit and adaptability of the Canadiens: coureurs des bois, habitants, merchants

27.B.3.b.

Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with the independence of the Canadiens from the state and the Church (e.g. fur trading without a permit, living in Amerindian territory, resistance to authority such as that related in Histoire et description de la Nouvelle-France by Father Charlevoix, Kalms Travels in North America)

27.B.3.c.

Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with the adaptability of the Canadiens (e.g. construction of houses adapted to the climate, use of birchbark canoes, snowshoes and fur clothing)

27.C.1.a.

Gives characteristics of imperialism (e.g. imposition of political structures by a state on other territories, policy of assimilation and acculturation, control of the economy)

27.C.1.b.

Identifies players who embody imperialism: the king, the governor

27.C.1.c.

Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with imperialism (e.g. The Quebec Gazette / La Gazette de Qubec, The History of Emily Montague by Frances Brooke, the monument Nelsons Column in Montral, Victoria Square)

27.C.2.a.

Gives characteristics of liberalism (e.g. individual freedom, freedom of expression, freedom of the press, participation in the exercise of political power)

27.C.2.b.

Identifies players who embody liberalism (e.g. some British merchants, Louis-Joseph Papineau, the French-Canadian professional bourgeoisie, the Patriotes)

27.C.2.c.

Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with liberalism (e.g. opinion journals such as Le Canadien and The Vindicator, the flag of the Patriotes, the Theater Royal in Montral, the Art Association of Montreal, the Socit Saint-Jean-Baptiste)

27.C.3.a.

Gives characteristics of ultramontanism (e.g. assertion of the primacy of the Church over the state, rejection of modernism, recognition of the absolute power of the pope)

27.C.3.b.

Identifies players who embody ultramontanism (e.g. Monseigneur Bourget, Monseigneur Laflche, the clergy)

27.C.3.c.

Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with ultramontanism (e.g. establishment of the uvre des bons livres by the Sulpicians, Saint-Jacques-le-Majeur church [Cathdrale Marie-Reine-du-Monde], Pontifical Zouave movement)

27.C.4.a.

Gives characteristics of anticlericalism (e.g. opposition to the influence of the church on the state, rejection of clerical intervention in civil society, challenging of traditionalism)

27.C.4.b.

Identifies players who embody anticlericalism (e.g. the Parti rouge, the Institut canadien de Montral, Dessaulles)

27.C.4.c.

Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with anticlericalism (e.g. the library of the Institut canadien de Montral, publication of the opinion journal LAvenir, Lettres sur le Canada by Arthur Buies)

27.D.1.a.

Gives characteristics of imperialism (e.g. imposition of political institutions, imposition of ones culture and values on the territories in ones possession)

27.D.1.b.

Identifies players who embody British imperialism (e.g. Lord Dufferin, the Orangists, the Imperial Federation League, DAlton McCarthy)

27.D.1.c.

Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with British imperialism (e.g. the statue of Queen Victoria in Victoria Square, First World War recruitment posters, visit of George VI to Qubec)

27.D.10.a.

Gives characteristics of Americanism (e.g. fascination with the American way of life, admiration for freedom, individualism and economic success)

27.D.10.b.

Identifies players who embody Americanism (e.g. large corporations, Howard Hughes, Ed Sullivan, Oscar Peterson)

27.D.10.c.

Indicates forms of cultural expression connected with Americanism (e.g. advertising, fast food, Hollywood movies, jazz)

27.D.11.a.

Gives characteristics of neoliberalism (e.g. free markets, individual responsibility, reduction in state intervention in areas of public life)

27.D.11.b.

Identifies players who embody neoliberalism (e.g. multinationals, financial circles, political parties)

27.D.11.c.

Identifies movements that oppose neoliberalism: global justice movement, social economy movements

27.D.2.a.

Gives characteristics of capitalism (e.g. private ownership of means of production, focus on profit)

27.D.2.b.

Identifies players who embody capitalism (e.g. the Montreal Curb Market, banks, John Redpath, multinationals)

27.D.2.c.

Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with capitalism (e.g. the Sun Life building, the Dominion Corset building, Saint-Roch neighbourhood in Qubec City and Saint-Henri neighbourhood in Montral)

27.D.3.a.

Gives characteristics of socialism (e.g. collective ownership of the means of production, primacy of general over individual interests)

27.D.3.b.

Identifies players who embody socialism (e.g. the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation, Albert Saint-Martin)

27.D.3.c.

Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with socialism (e.g. election posters of the Labour-Progressive Party, the Ligue de dfense ouvrire / Canadian Labor Defense League, Lea Robacks Marxist bookstore)

27.D.4.a.

Gives characteristics of agriculturism (e.g. promotion of rural life, primacy of traditional values such as the French language and Catholic religion, rejection of the industrial world)

27.D.4.b.

Identifies players who embody agriculturism (e.g. Cur Labelle, Mercier, Monseigneur Courchesne)

27.D.4.c.

Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with agriculturism (e.g. Un homme et son pch by Claude-Henri Grignon, La Bonne chanson by Abb Charles-mile Gadbois, the Agricultural Merit award)

27.D.5.1.a.

Gives characteristics of Canadian nationalism (e.g. pride in membership in the British Empire, financial and military support for the British Empire)

27.D.5.1.b.

Identifies players who embody Canadian nationalism (e.g. Laurier, the Canada First movement)

27.D.5.1.c.

Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with Canadian nationalism (e.g. the Canadian Red Ensign, the creation of the Canadian navy, Wilfrid Lauriers prediction that the twentieth century would belong to Canada)

27.D.5.2.

French Canadian nationalism

27.D.5.2.a.

Gives characteristics of French Canadian nationalism (e.g. attachment to the French language, attachment to the Catholic religion, distance maintained with the British Empire)

27.D.5.2.b.

Identifies players who embody French Canadian nationalism (e.g. Henri Bourassa, Lionel Groulx, the Bloc populaire)

27.D.5.2.c.

Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with French Canadian nationalism (e.g. the speech given by Honor Mercier at the Champ de Mars, Lappel de la race by Lionel Groulx, the newspaper Le Nationalisteand the magazine LAction nationale)

27.D.5.3.a.

Gives characteristics of Qubec nationalism (e.g. safeguarding of the French language, respect for areas of provincial jurisdiction, affirmation of the distinct character of Qubec society)

27.D.5.3.b.

Identifies players who embody Qubec nationalism (e.g. Duplessis, Ren Lvesque, the newspaper Le Jour)

27.D.5.3.c.

Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with Qubec nationalism (e.g. stage shows such as Pomes et chants de la rsistanceand LOsstidcho, the publication galit ou indpendance by Daniel Johnson, the manifesto Option Qubec by Ren Lvesque)

27.D.5.a.

Defines nationalism: an ideology that claims that a community with shared characteristics forms a nation

27.D.6.a.

Gives characteristics of secularism (e.g. non-denominational character of public institutions, limiting religious life to the private sphere)

27.D.6.b.

Identifies players who embody secularism (e.g. Paul-mile Borduas, the cole sociale populaire)

27.D.6.c.

Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with secularism (e.g. Les demi-civiliss by Jean-Charles Harvey, the Manifeste du Refus global, Cit libre)

27.D.7.a.

Gives characteristics of cooperatism (e.g. sharing of resources, division of any surplus between the members)

27.D.7.b.

Identifies players who embody cooperatism (e.g. Alphonse and Dorimne Desjardins, the Union catholique des cultivateurs, Esdras Minville)

27.D.7.c.

Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with cooperatism (e.g. the Cooperative Syndicates Act (1906), the Ligue ouvrire catholique,Le Cooprateur agricole)

27.D.8.a.

Gives characteristics of fascism (e.g. cult of the leader, single party, ethnic nationalism)

27.D.8.b.

Identifies players who embody fascism (e.g. the Parti national social chrtien, Adrien Arcand, the Blue Shirts)

27.D.8.c.

Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with fascism (e.g. the fresco by Guido Nincheri in Notre-Dame-de-la-Dfense church in Montral, anti-Semitic posters, La Cl du mystre by Adrien Arcand)

27.D.9.a.

Gives characteristics of feminism (e.g. demands for recognition of womens rights, sexual equality)

27.D.9.b.

Identifies players who embody feminism (e.g. Nellie McClung, the Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women, the Conseil du statut de la femme)

27.D.9.c.

Indicates forms of cultural expression associated with feminism (e.g. the Montral Local Council of Women, the magazine La Vie en rose, the filmLe temps de lavant by Anne Claire Poirier)

28.A.1.

Power relations between the Amerindians and the administrators of the colony

28.A.1.a.

Identifies players who embody power relations between the Amerindians and the administrators of the colony (e.g. governors, the Innu, the Iroquois)

28.A.1.b.

Indicates demands made by Amerindians (e.g. military support against their enemies, European products, especially rifles)

28.A.1.c.

Indicates means used by Amerindians to influence the decisions of the colonial administrators (e.g. declare war, supply furs)

28.A.1.d.

Indicates effects of power relations between the administrators of the colony and the Amerindians (e.g. Champlains expedition against the Iroquois on the rivire Richelieu, signing of the Great Peace of Montral, French use of Amerindian customs in diplomacy, ongoing military presence in the territory of the colony)

28.A.2.

Power relations between the administrators of the colony and the mother country

28.A.2.a.

Identifies players who embody power relations between the administrators of the colony and the mother country (e.g. Company of One Hundred Associates, Talon, the Minister of the Marine)

28.A.2.b.

Indicates demands made by the administrators of the colony: financial resources, military resources

28.A.2.c.

Indicates the main means used by the administrators of the colony to influence the decisions of the mother country: exchange correspondence, draft briefs

28.A.2.d.

Indicates effects of power relations between the administrators of the colony and the mother country (e.g. publication of orders and edicts, submission to French authority in the colony, little economic diversification in the colony)

28.A.3.

Power relations between Church and state

28.A.3.a.

Identifies players who embody power relations between Church and state (e.g. king, Monseigneur de Laval, Frontenac)

28.A.3.b.

Indicates one demand made by the Church: prohibition on trading alcohol

28.A.3.c.

Indicates means used by the Church to influence the decisions of the state (e.g. complaining to the king about the actions of some governors, making a commitment to convert more Amerindians)

28.A.3.d.

Indicates effects of the power relations between the Church and the state (e.g. alliance to impose public order in the colony, revocation of governors DAvaugour and Frontenac, prohibition on performing Molires comedyTartuffe, granting of seigneuries to religious communities)

28.B.1.

Power relations between Church and state

28.B.1.a.

Identifies players who embody power relations between the Church and the state: king, bishops, governors

28.B.1.b.

Indicates demands made by the Church: appointment of a Catholic bishop, collection of tithes

28.B.1.c.

Indicates the means used by the Church to influence the decisions of the state: submitting requests to the king

28.B.1.d.

Indicates effects of the power relations between the Church and the state (e.g. appointment of a Superintendant of the Catholic Church in Canada; suggestion by Monseigneur Lartigue that the population of Lower Canada should submit to British authority during the Rebellions)

28.B.2.

Power relations between British merchants in the colony and the governor

28.B.2.a.

Identifies players who embody power relations between British merchants in the colony and the governor: the king, Governor Murray, Montrealers, members of the legislative assembly

28.B.2.b.

Indicates demands made by British merchants: discontinuation of the concessions made to the Canadiens by the first governors, restoration ofHabeas corpus, abolition of taxes on trade

28.B.2.c.

Indicates means used by British merchants to influence the decisions of the governor (e.g. writing petitions, writing to opinion journals such as theQuebec Mercury and the Montreal Gazette)

28.B.2.d.

Indicates effects of the power relations between British merchants and the governor (e.g. maintenance of taxes on trade, recall of Governor Murray by London)

28.B.3.

Power relations between the legislative assembly and the governor

28.B.3.a.

Identifies players who embody power relations between the legislative assembly and the governor: Papineau, Gosford, W. L. Mackenzie, Elgin, members of the assembly, political parties such as the Parti canadien, the Tory Party, the Parti patriote

28.B.3.b.

Indicates demands made by the Patriotes and Reformers: responsible government, control over the budget, election of members of the legislative council

28.B.3.c.

Indicates means used by the legislative assembly to influence the decisions of the governor: adopting a resolution on the free choice of language when tabling bills, adopting the 92 Resolutions, refusing to pass the budget

28.B.3.d.

Indicates means used by the Patriotes and Reformers to influence the decisions of the governor: asking the population to boycott British products, forming an alliance with Reformers in Upper Canada, organizing public assemblies

28.B.3.e.

Indicates effects of the power relations between the legislative assembly and the governor (e.g. dissolution of the legislative assembly, application of responsible government)

28.B.3.f.

Indicates effects of the power relations between the Patriotes, the Reformers and the governor (e.g. closing of opinion journals, the Rebellions, intervention by the army, the hanging of Patriotes, the call to Baldwin and Lafontaine to form a government)

28.B.4.

Power relations between the Native peoples and the British authorities

28.B.4.a.

Identifies players who embody power relations between the Amerindians and the British authorities (e.g. Pontiac, Le Grand Sauteux, Amherst, Governor Murray)

28.B.4.b.

Indicates Amerindian demands (e.g. financial compensation for lost territory, recognition of their rights)

28.B.4.c.

Indicates the main means used by the Amerindians to influence the decisions of the British authorities after the Treaty of Paris (1763): revolting

28.B.4.d.

Indicates effects of the power relations between the Amerindians and the British authorities (e.g. the establishment of a policy of assimilation starting in 1830, the creation of reserves)

28.C.1.

Power relations between Church and state

28.C.1.a.

Identifies players who embody power relations between Church and state (e.g. Monseigneur Laflche, Boucher de Boucherville, the Duplessis government, Frre Untel [Jean-Paul Desbiens])

28.C.1.b.

Indicates demands made by the Church (e.g. the colonization of new regions, amendments to the bill concerning the creation of a department of education)

28.C.1.c.

Indicates means used by the Church to influence decisions by the state (e.g. found Catholic unions, support strikers in some circumstances)

28.C.1.d.

Indicates effects of power relations between the Church and the state (e.g. the colonization of new regions, the refusal to give women the right to vote)

28.C.10.

Power relations between movements for social justice and the state

28.C.10.a.

Identifies players who embody power relations between movements for social justice and the state (e.g. the Church, the cole sociale populaire, community groups, municipalities)

28.C.10.b.

Indicates demands made by movements for social justice (e.g. fair distribution of wealth, social housing programs)

28.C.10.c.

Indicates means used by movements for social justice to influence decisions by the state (e.g. publishing the Programme de restauration sociale, organizing demonstrations, drafting petitions)

28.C.10.d.

Indicates effects of power relations between movements for social justice and the state (e.g. establishment of social solidarity programs, construction of social housing)

28.C.11.

Federal-provincial power relations

28.C.11.a.

Identifies players who embody federal-provincial power relations (e.g. the Parti national led by Honor Mercier, Trudeau, Ren Lvesque, the Blanger-Campeau Commission)

28.C.11.b.

Indicates demands made by the provinces (e.g. respect for areas of jurisdiction, changes to the equalization system)

28.C.11.c.

Indicates means used by the provinces to influence the decisions of the federal government (e.g. holding interprovincial conferences, launching negotiations, signing agreements, taking part in federal-provincial meetings such as the Victoria Conference)

28.C.11.d.

Indicates effects of power relations between the provinces and the federal government (e.g. overlapping of certain programs, instances of federal intervention in areas of provincial jurisdiction)

28.C.2.

Power relations between financial circles and the state

28.C.2.a.

Identifies players who embody power relations between financial circles and the state (e.g. the Canadian Pacific Railway, J. A. Macdonald, electricity trusts)

28.C.2.b.

Indicates demands made by financial circles (e.g. income tax reductions, subsidies, easing of regulations)

28.C.2.c.

Indicates means used by financial circles to influence decisions by the state (e.g. contributing, at certain times, to the funding of political parties, constituting lobby groups)

28.C.2.d.

Indicates effects of power relations between financial circles and the state (e.g. nationalization of hydroelectric companies, creation of Crown corporations for economic purposes, passage of the Act to govern the financing of political parties)

28.C.3.

Power relations between Native peoples and the state

28.C.3.a.

Identifies players who embody power relations between Native peoples and the state (e.g. Riel, the Assembly of First Nations of Qubec and Labrador, the governments of Canada and Qubec)

28.C.3.b.

Indicates demands made by the Native peoples (e.g. respect for Native and treaty rights, political autonomy)

28.C.3.c.

Indicates means used by the Native peoples to influence decisions by the state (e.g. forming a provisional government at Red River, addressing protests to the United Nations, breaching the peace)

28.C.3.d.

Indicates effects of power relations between the Native peoples and the state (e.g. the hanging of Riel and eight Amerindians, the end of the official policy of assimilation, the signing of the James Bay and Northern Qubec Agreement)

28.C.3.e.

Indicates the principles of the Paix des Braves, signed by the Cree people and the Qubec government (e.g. partnership based on trust and mutual respect for land development, compliance with the principles of sustainable development and the traditional lifestyle)

28.C.4.

Power relations between unions and the state

28.C.4.a.

Identifies players who embody power relations between unions and the state (e.g. the Knights of Labour, Monseigneur Charbonneau, the Confdration des travailleurs catholiques du Canada/ Canadian Catholic Confederation of Labour, labour confederations)

28.C.4.b.

Indicates demands made by the union movements (e.g. prohibition of child labour, deduction of union dues at source, reconciliation of work and family life)

28.C.4.c.

Indicates means used by union movements to influence decisions by the state (e.g. testifying before the Royal Commission on the Relations of Labor and Capital, forming a common front, publishing the Manifeste des grvistes)

28.C.4.d.

Indicates effects of power relations between union movements and the state (e.g. recognition of labour associations, intervention by the provincial police during labour conflicts, passage of the Act respecting labour standards)

28.C.5.

Power relations between feminist groups and the state

28.C.5.a.

Identifies players who embody power relations between feminist groups and the state (e.g. suffragettes, the Fdration des femmes du Qubec, va Circ-Ct, Adlard Godbout)

28.C.5.b.

Indicates demands made by the feminist groups (e.g. right to vote, implementation of a public daycare policy)

28.C.5.c.

Indicates means used by feminist groups to influence decisions by the state (e.g. calling for a strike at Dupuis Frres (1952), organizing the march Du pain et des roses)

28.C.5.d.

Indicates effects of power relations between feminist groups and the state (e.g. passage of the Womens Minimum Wage Act, appointment of women to the boards of directors of Crown corporations, introduction of provisions on maternity leave into the Act respecting labour standards)

28.C.6.

Power relations between the media and the state

28.C.6.a.

Identifies players who embody power relations between the media and the state (e.g. Andr Laurendeau, LAction catholique, Claude Ryan, The Gazette)

28.C.6.b.

Indicates the main roles played by the media: informing the population, conducting investigations

28.C.6.c.

Indicates demands made by the media (e.g. access to government information, protection of sources of information)

28.C.6.d.

Indicates means used by the media to influence decisions by the state (e.g. maintaining a presence in the press gallery, broadcasting reports)

28.C.6.e.

Indicates effects of power relations between the media and the state (e.g. passage of legislation on censorship, recognition of freedom of the press, passage of the Act respecting access to documents held by public bodies and the protection of personal information)

28.C.7.

Power relations between linguistic groups and the state

28.C.7.a.

Identifies players who embody power relations between linguistic groups and the state (e.g. the Socit Saint-Jean-Baptiste, Alliance Qubec, the governments of Canada and Qubec)

28.C.7.b.

Indicates demands made by linguistic groups (e.g. recognition of the primacy of the French language in Qubec, amendments to the rules for commercial signs)

28.C.7.c.

Indicates means used by linguistic groups to influence decisions by the state (e.g. challenging sections of language laws, organizing demonstrations, taking cases to court)

28.C.7.d.

Indicates effects of power relations between linguistic groups and the state (e.g. creation of the Office de la langue franaise, imposition of a percentage of French-language content for radio and TV broadcasts, passage of language laws)

28.C.8.

Power relations between nationalist movements and the state

28.C.8.a.

Identifies players who embody power relations between nationalist movements and the state (e.g. the Ligue pour la dfense du Canada, Henri Bourassa, Ren Lvesque, Trudeau)

28.C.8.b.

Indicates demands made by nationalist movements (e.g. a change in the political status of Qubec, passage of laws to protect the French language)

28.C.8.c.

Indicates means used by nationalist movements to influence decisions by the state (e.g. organizing Les tats gnraux du Canada franais, founding political parties, organizing demonstrations)

28.C.8.d.

Indicates effects of power relations between nationalist movements and the state (e.g. the holding of a plebiscite on conscription for service overseas, application of the War Measures Act during the October Crisis, the holding of referendums, passage of the Clarity Act)

28.C.9.

Power relations between environmentalist groups and the state

28.C.9.a.

Identifies players who embody power relations between environmentalist groups and the state (e.g. Frdric Back, the Regroupement des conseils rgionaux de lenvironment, the Assembly of First Nations of Qubec and Labrador)

28.C.9.b.

Indicates demands made by environmentalist groups (e.g. protection of fauna and flora, ratification of and compliance with international agreements)

28.C.9.c.

Indicates means used by environmental groups to influence decisions by the state (e.g. orchestrating media events, participating in international summits, founding a political party)

28.C.9.d.

Indicates effects of power relations between environmental groups and the state (e.g. adoption of regulations to protect the environment, organization of awareness-raising campaigns, creation of Qubecs Ministre de lEnvironnement)

29.1.a.

Indicates the aspect of society connected with the issue examined: political, economic, social or environmental

29.1.b.

Names some facts related to the issue studied

29.2.a.

Names principles and values underlying social debates: equality, freedom, representativity

29.2.b.

Indicates means used to debate the issue studied

29.2.c.

Identifies players concerned by the issue studied and by social debates

29.2.d.

Indicates positions of players concerned by the issue studied and by social debates

29.2.e.

Justifies his/her opinion concerning the issue studied

30.1.1.

Environmental problems

30.1.1.1.

Indicates causes of environmental degradation (e.g. industrialization, use of hydrocarbons, growth of the world population)

30.1.1.2.

Indicates the main cause of climate change: increase in greenhouse gas emissions

30.1.1.3.

Indicates economic activities that contribute to the increase in greenhouse gases (e.g. agriculture, transportation, forest industry)

30.1.1.4.

Indicates causes of the shortage of drinking water (e.g. desertification, dam construction and water diversion, increased demand)

30.1.1.5.

Indicates causes of the decline in biodiversity (e.g. destruction of natural habitats, climate change, poaching)

30.1.2.

Ecological footprint

30.1.2.1.

Defines the term ecological footprint: productive area a population requires to produce the resources it consumes and to absorb the waste it produces

30.1.2.2.

Indicates factors that make a populations ecological footprint vary (e.g. source and type of foods, level of consumption, urban sprawl)

30.1.3.

Environmental management

30.1.3.1.

Names players in environmental management (e.g. citizens, communities, states, multinational firms, international organizations)

30.1.3.2.

Indicates why it is so important for states to cooperate in environmental management: the global nature of environmental problems

30.1.3.4.

Indicates the objective of environmental management based on the principle of sustainable development: to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

30.2.4.

Indicates the principal means of action used by IUCN: publication of a complete list of threatened species, mediation between players concerned about biodiversity and those defending economic development, establishment of international standards for sustainable development

30.5.1.

Indicates the objectives of the states concerned about sustainable development: to protect the environment; to ensure economic development; to promote social equity and solidarity

30.5.2.

Describes the precautionary principle for environmental management: despite the absence of scientific certainty, if there is a serious risk of harm to the environment, states must implement measures to prevent environmental degradation

30.5.3.

Indicates measures implemented by states to maintain biodiversity (e.g. creation of protected areas, regulation of hunting and fishing)

30.5.4.

Indicates measures implemented by states to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (e.g. establishment of standards and regulations designed to reduce hydrocarbon consumption, imposition of a tax on the purchase of certain vehicles, establishment of carbon markets)

30.5.5.

Describes how carbon markets work: carbon emission quotas are attributed to emitters; emitters who release into the atmosphere less carbon than their quota can sell emissions credits on the carbon market; emitters who exceed their quota can buy emissions credits on the carbon market

31.1.1.

Population distribution

31.1.1.1.

Locates, on a world map, the major population centres: East and Southeast Asia, South Asia, Europe, northeastern United States, Gulf of Guinea, southeastern Brazil

31.1.1.2.

Describes distribution of the world population: it is primarily urban; most of it is located in the less-developed countries, it is concentrated in the intertropical zone

31.1.2.1.

Gives the main demographic characteristics of less-developed countries: falling death rate, falling fertility rate, rising life expectancy, stabilization of growth, increasing international migration

31.1.2.2.

Gives demographic characteristics of developed countries (e.g. falling birth rate, population aging, increasing international migration)

31.1.2.3.

Indicates the main factor that explains a negative rate of natural increase: fertility rate below the replacement level

31.1.2.4.

Indicates the factors that promote population growth: adoption of natalist policies, adoption of measures facilitating immigration, improvement of health care

31.2.1.1.

Indicates what characterizes a migration: movement of population within a country or from one country to another; permanent settlement

31.2.1.2.

Gives some characteristics of migrants (e.g. mainly young, mainly from less-developed countries, generally men and of working age)

31.2.1.3.

Locates, on a world map, the main world migration flows (e.g. from Latin America to North America, from North Africa to Western Europe)

31.2.1.4.

Indicates factors that explain the increase in world migration (e.g. development of transportation and communications infrastructure, economic globalization, climate change, political context)

31.2.1.5.

Indicates factors that influence the choice of a host country (e.g. geographical proximity, diaspora, colonial ties, cultural characteristics, such as language)

31.2.2.

Reasons for migration

31.2.2.1.

Indicates the main reasons for migration: to improve migrants economic situation, to reunite migrants families

31.2.2.2.

Indicates what makes it possible to obtain the status of refugee: threat to the candidates safety, ethnic or religious persecution, natural disaster

31.2.2.3.

Indicates refugee rights established by the Geneva Convention (e.g. right of asylum, right of education, right to work, right to freedom of movement)

31.2.2.4.

Names some conflicts that have led to migration (e.g. Cuban Revolution, genocide in Rwanda, guerilla warfare in Colombia, Kosovo War, armed conflict in Darfur)

31.2.3.

International networks of illegal immigration

31.2.3.1.

Indicates factors that explain the establishment of international networks (e.g. requirements of the host countries, tighter border controls, socioeconomic context in the countries of origin, proximity of a developed country)

31.2.3.2.

Indicates factors that facilitate illegal immigration (e.g. existence of international networks, permeable borders)

31.3.1.

Gives criteria used to select immigrants (e.g. training, investment capacity, knowledge of the official language)

31.3.2.

Indicates measures implemented to recruit skilled workers (e.g. organization of missions abroad, acceleration of the immigration process)

31.3.3.

Indicates measures implemented to integrate immigrants (e.g. language courses, help finding housing, employment integration services)

31.4.1.1.

Indicates reasons why countries try to attract immigrant workers (e.g. labour shortage in some economic sectors, such as oil production or fruit and vegetable farming, population aging)

31.4.1.2.

Indicates difficulties immigrants face in searching for work (e.g. mastery of the language, knowledge of employment criteria)

31.4.1.3.

Indicates some advantages immigrants derive from holding a job (e.g. learning the language, social integration)

31.4.2.1.

Indicates factors that limit job possibilities for skilled immigrant workers in the host countries (e.g. recognition of diplomas and competencies by professional corporations, training that does not correspond to the standards of the host country)

31.4.2.2.

Indicates measures implemented to overcome difficulties related to the recognition of diplomas (e.g. adoption of a system for the recognition of prior learning and establishing uniform international professional standards; establishing intergovernmental agreements)

31.4.2.3.

Indicates agreements to promote labour force mobility (e.g. equivalence of diplomas issued by countries in the European Union, recognition of employment qualifications between Spain and Qubec)

31.4.2.4.

Indicates measures implemented by some states to promote the integration of immigrants (e.g. adoption of positive discrimination policies; relaxing the rules for recognizing employment qualifications; grants to firms that hire immigrant workers)

31.4.3.1.

Indicates reasons why some employers use undocumented immigrant workers (e.g. wage and work conditions that do not respect the norms, lighter social security tax load)

31.4.3.2.

Indicates economic consequences for the host societies of the presence of undocumented immigrant workers (e.g. fewer jobs available in the job market, loss of government revenues)

31.4.3.3.

Indicates economic sectors in which undocumented immigrant workers are found (e.g. domestic work, fruit and vegetable farming)

31.4.3.4.

Gives characteristics of working conditions of undocumented immigrant workers (e.g. no job security or social safety net, labour standards not respected by employers)

31.5.1.

Indicates the urban population as a proportion of the world population: since 2008, more than half

31.5.2.

Indicates the impact of migration on developed countries: it is the principal urban growth factor

31.5.4.

Indicates some reasons why immigrants choose cities as destinations (e.g. job possibilities, concentration of health and education services, reception structures, presence of a diaspora)

32.1.1.1.

Gives the main characteristics of a state: territory defined by borders, resident population, territory administered by a government

32.1.1.2.

Indicates factors that explain the increase in the number of states in the second half of the 20th century: decolonization, collapse of the Eastern bloc

32.1.1.3.

Gives the roles of each of the states powers: adoption of laws by the legislative power; application of laws by the executive power; interpretation of laws by the judicial power

32.1.1.4.

Names the institution that exercises the executive power of the state: government

32.1.2.

Pressure groups and governance

32.1.2.1.

Names groups that influence the powers of the state (e.g. multinational firms, environmental groups, non-governmental organizations [NGOs])

32.1.2.2.

Indicates the main factors that are redefining the powers of states: globalized economic flows, ratification of international treaties

32.1.2.3.

Names international organizations that contribute to the definition of the powers of states (e.g. international tribunals, military alliances, economic and political associations)

32.2.1.1.

Indicates the main goals of the UN: to maintain peace and international security; to promote international cooperation; to combat poverty; to ensure respect for human rights

32.2.1.2.

Describes how the UN operates: the General Assembly discusses international questions; the Security Council is responsible for maintaining peace and international security

32.2.1.3.

Indicates the political factor that explains why the UN has a limited capacity to intervene in the internal affairs of a member state: sovereignty

32.2.2.

Economic Institutions

32.2.2.1.

Indicates the main objective of the World Trade Organization (WTO): to establish agreements on trade in goods and services and on intellectual property

32.2.2.2.

Indicates the main economic consequence for states that contrevene a WTO agreement: imposition of trade sanctions

32.2.2.3.

Indicates the main measure used by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to ensure the stability of the international monetary system: loans to member states with payment difficulties

32.2.2.4.

Indicates the means used by the World Bank to reduce poverty in the less-developed countries: loans with low interest rates or with no interest at all; donations to less-developed countries

32.2.2.5.

Indicates the main condition imposed on states by the IMF and the World Bank in exchange for loans: implementation of political and economic measures to turn around their financial situation

32.3.1.

Indicates what promotes the opening of markets throughout the world (e.g. end of the Cold War, formation of great economic zones, technological development)

32.3.2.

Indicates the main effect of the globalization of the economy on relations among states: increased interdependence

32.3.3.

Indicates what leads states to welcome multinational firms (e.g. job creation, source of income for the host countries)

32.3.4.

Indicates measures implemented by states to attract multinational firms (e.g. fiscal advantages, research and development grants, preferential tariffs, infrastructure development)

32.3.5.

Indicates what leads firms to relocate their activities (e.g. reduction of production costs, access to new markets)

32.4.1.1.

Indicates the main objective of free-trade agreements: to increase trade between signatory states

32.4.1.2.

Names free-trade agreements (e.g. North American Free Trade Agreement, Mercosur, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation)

32.4.1.3.

Indicates the measures abandoned by states that ratify free-trade agreements: customs tariffs, subsidies to firms

32.4.1.4.

Indicates means that promote the economic integration of states (e.g. adoption of free trade, creation of a customs union, free movement of people, adoption of a common currency)

32.4.1.5.

Names economic group that have adopted a common currency (e.g. European Union, Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa)

32.4.2.

Cultural and environmental policies

32.4.2.3.

Indicates why it is important for states to adopt common measures for the management of environmental problems: global nature of problems, need to find sustainable solutions

32.5.1.1.

Gives criteria for membership in the European Union (e.g. stable institutions that ensure democracy and a state based on law, viable market economy)

32.5.1.2.

Indicates the main effect of the European Union on the powers of the member states: sharing of competences between a central government and the governments of the member states

32.5.1.3.

Names some institutions of the European Union that redefine the powers of states (e.g. European Parliament, Court of Justice of the European Union, European Central Bank)

32.5.2.

Other political alliances

32.5.2.1.

Names other political alliances (e.g. Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas [ALBA] / Trait de commerce des peuples, Organization of American States, African Union)

32.5.2.2.

Gives the role of ALBA: to promote political, economic and social cooperation among the socialist countries of Latin America

33.1.1.

Gives characteristics of areas of tension (e.g. divergent economic, political and social interests of players; absence of armed conflict)

33.1.2.

Locates, on a world map, areas of tension (e.g. in 2012, Eastern Africa, Middle East, the Indian part of Kashmir, South China Sea)

33.1.3.

Locates, on a world map, countries in which armed conflicts are under way (e.g. in 2012, Afghanistan, Libya, Syria)

33.1.6.

Names players in areas of tension and conflict (e.g. states, United Nations [UN], NATO, non-governmental organizations)

33.1.7.

Indicates reasons cited for intervening in a sovereign territory (e.g. threat to world peace; humanitarian crisis following a natural disaster or an armed conflict; population threatened by crimes against humanity, genocide or war crimes)

33.2.1.

Control of resources

33.2.1.1.

Names natural resources whose control may be a source of tension and conflict (e.g. drinking water, oil and gas, minerals)

33.2.1.2.

Locates, on a world map, areas where the control of natural resources generates tension and conflict (e.g. in 2012, Middle East, Central Africa)

33.2.1.3.

Indicates means used by a government to control the natural resources of a territory: nationalization, granting of concessions

33.2.2.

Exercise of rights and freedoms

33.2.2.1.

Names the United Nations document that sets out human rights and freedoms: Universal Declaration of Human Rights

33.2.2.2.

Locates, on a world map, areas where demands for human rights and freedoms generate tension and conflict (e.g. in 2012, North African countries, China, Cuba)

33.2.2.3.

Names rights and freedoms of which populations are deprived in some situations of tension and conflict (e.g. right to justice, freedom of thought and expression)

33.2.3.

Identity-based demands and political autonomy

33.2.3.1.

Indicates sources of identity-based demands (e.g. language, religion, territory)

33.2.3.2.

Describes the main characteristic of populations that demand greater political autonomy: they constitute minority ethnic groups within a sovereign territory

33.2.3.3.

Locates, on a world map, areas where identity-based demands and demands for political autonomy generate tension and conflict (e.g. in 2012, Caucasus, Tibet, Northern Ireland)

33.2.3.4.

Indicates the principle of the United Nations Charter cited in support of demands for political autonomy: right of peoples to self-determination

33.3.1.

Charter of the United Nations

33.3.1.1.

Indicates the objective of the Charter of the United Nations: to establish the rights and obligations of the member states

33.3.1.2.

Indicates the factor that limits the UNs capacity to intervene in the internal affairs of a member state: sovereignty of states

33.3.1.3.

Indicates the main goals of the UN: to maintain peace and international security, to promote international cooperation, to fight poverty, to ensure respect for human rights

33.3.2.

General Assembly of the UN

33.3.2.1.

Describes the General Assembly of the UN as an institution: the General Assembly, which includes representatives of all the member states, is a forum for the discussion of matters covered by the Charter of the United Nations

33.3.2.2.

Describes the main role of the General Assembly: the General Assembly votes on resolutions on international issues

33.3.3.1.

Describes the UN Security Council as an institution: the Security Council has 15 members, of which five are permanent; it is the decision-making organ for questions concerning the maintenance of peace and international security

33.3.3.2.

Indicates the conditions for the adoption of a resolution: favourable vote by nine member states, no veto by any permanent member

33.3.3.3.

Names the permanent members who have the right of veto: China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States

33.3.3.4.

Indicates the principal means of intervention available to the Security Council in areas of tension and conflict: peacekeeping mission, international sanctions, collective military action

33.3.4.

International Criminal Tribunals (ICT)

33.3.4.1.

Describes the role of the international criminal tribunals: they prosecute those responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law during the war in the former Yugoslavia and the civil war in Rwanda

33.3.4.2.

Gives accusations made by the ICT: crimes against humanity, violation of the laws or customs of war, genocide

33.3.5.

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

33.3.5.1.

Describes the role of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees: to coordinate international action to meet the needs of refugees

33.3.5.2.

Describes the main effect of armed conflicts on populations: they lead to the displacement of civilian populations to other regions or countries, adjacent or otherwise

33.4.1.

Indicates objectives of NGOs that intervene in areas of tension and conflict (e.g. Reporters Without Borders defends freedom of the press; Oxfam International seeks durable solutions to poverty and injustice; Human Rights Watch protects and defends human rights)

33.4.2.

Indicates the principles that guide the intervention of some NGOs in areas of tension and conflict: neutrality, impartiality

33.4.3.

Indicates means used by NGOs to support populations in areas of tension and conflict (e.g. presence of humanitarian workers, delivery of material, awareness and fund-raising campaigns)

33.4.4.

Names the NGO at the origin of the international humanitarian law codified in the first Geneva Conventions: International Committee of the Red Cross

33.5.1.

Indicates the main objectives of the peacekeeping missions established by the UN Security Council: to protect the civilian population, support the disarmament process, support the organization of free elections, promote human rights

33.5.2.

Indicates the main conditions governing the intervention of the UN Blue Helmets: non-use of force, neutrality, impartiality

33.5.3.

Indicates factors that limit the effectiveness of UN peacekeeping missions (e.g. disagreement among members, limited financial capacity of the UN)

33.5.4.

Gives the main selection criteria for countries participating in peacekeeping missions: consent of the belligerants, neutrality regarding the belligrants

33.5.5.

Indicates measures implemented to reduce threats to peace and international security (e.g. trade embargo, breaking off diplomatic relations, use of military force)

33.5.6.

Indicates the main steps in a peace process: diplomatic intervention, cessation of combat, peace conference, signing of a treaty

33.6.1.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

33.6.1.1.

Locates, on a world map, countries that are members of the NATO (e.g. Canada, France, Lithuania, Poland, Turkey, United States)

33.6.1.2.

Indicates the commitment made by members of NATO: mutual defence if one of them is attacked

33.6.1.3.

Gives the main characteristic of NATOs intervention since the end of the Cold War: it takes place in countries that are not members of the organization

33.6.1.4.

Locates, on a world map, NATO missions in areas of tension and conflict (e.g. in 2012, International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan, operation Active Endeavour, which is designed to detect and deter terrorist activity in the Mediterranean)

33.6.1.5.

Indicates the main objectives of NATO intervention in sovereign territory: to help a government spread its authority; to create an environment conducive to the introduction of democratic institutions

33.6.2.

Other international organizations

33.6.2.1.

Names organizations that intervene in areas of tension and conflict (e.g. Arab League, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, European Union, African Union)

33.6.2.4.

Locates, on a map of Africa, countries in the African Union (e.g. South Africa, Kenya, Senegal)

33.6.2.5.

Indicates the principal means used by the African Union to reduce tensions and resolve conflicts in Africa: mediation, sending soldiers on observation missions

33.6.3.

Conventions, treaties and agreements

33.6.3.1.

Indicates the effects of international agreements in areas of tension and conflict (e.g. end of conflict between Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina after the Dayton Agreement; recognition of the Palestinian Authority by Israel after the Oslo Accords)

33.6.3.2.

Names conventions and treaties that regulate the use of force in armed conflicts (e.g. Geneva Conventions, Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention)

33.6.3.3.

Indicates the main objectives of the Geneva Conventions: to protect the sick, the wounded, prisoners and the civilian population during conflicts; to define the rights and obligations of the parties to a conflict in the conduct of hostilities

33.6.3.4.

Describes the commitment made by the signatory countries of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: countries that did not have nuclear arms promised not to produce or acquire them; countries that did have nuclear arms promised not to transmit nuclear arms or technologies to other states for military purposes

34.1.1.1.

Indicates some wealth creation factors (e.g. exploitation of natural resources, business productivity, public investments, labour force skills)

34.1.1.2.

Indicates means used by states to promote wealth creation (e.g. investment in education, establishment of research and development programs, participation in economic groups)

34.1.1.3.

Indicates measures implemented by states to regulate the exploitation of natural resources (e.g. adoption of resource-use, preservation and restoration policies, imposition of sanctions)

34.1.1.4.

Indicates factors that limit wealth creation (e.g. scarcity of natural, human and financial resources, weak transportation and communication infrastructure, inadequate labour force training, limited access to energy sources)

34.1.2.

Disparity in the distribution of wealth

34.1.2.1.

Locates, on a world map, countries that are rich in natural resources (e.g. Brazil and the United States [drinking water]; Saudi Arabia and Venezuela [oil]; Chile and Democratic Republic of the Congo [minerals]; Canada and Russia [forests])

34.1.2.2.

Gives indicators used to measure disparity (e.g. Gini coefficient [the wealth gap within a country]; GDP [total value of goods and services produced in one year])

34.1.2.3.

Locates, on a world map, countries with a high GDP per capita and countries with a low GDP per capita (e.g. in 2012, Australia and Japan [high GDP]; Bangladesh and Honduras [low GDP])

34.1.2.4.

Indicates means used by states to reduce the disparity in the distribution of wealth (e.g. adoption of fiscal policies, regulation of working conditions)

34.1.2.5.

Indicates the components of the Human Development Index (HDI): standard of living, education, health

34.2.1.

Indicates objectives of various economic groups (e.g. the European Unions objective is to strengthen economic cooperation among the member states; ASEANs objectives are to accelerate economic growth and to improve the living conditions in the member states)

34.2.2.

Indicates objectives of various international organizations (e.g. the G8 seeks to promote joint action on economic questions; the World Trade Organization facilitates trade; the International Monetary Fund helps stabilize the monetary system; the World Bank grants loans to the less-developed countries; the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations seeks to ensure that people have access to healthy food in adequate quantities)

34.2.3.

Indicates objectives of various international non-governmental organizations (e.g. the Mouvement international Quart monde aims to eradicate poverty; Oxfam International combats social injustice and poverty; the World Social Forum seeks to coordinate the action of altermondialist organizations; Doctors Without Borders provides medical assistance in conflicts and humanitarian crises)

34.3.1.

Indicates objectives of the colonizing states (e.g. to obtain natural resources, to acquire new markets)

34.3.2.

Indicates causes of the independence of the African and Asian colonies (e.g. assertion of identity, emergence of an educated elite, desire to control resources)

34.3.3.

Indicates consequences of decolonization for the new countries (e.g. ethnic conflicts, wars, challenging of some borders)

34.3.4.

Defines the term neocolonization: economic domination by a state of its former colonies

34.4.1.

Gives characteristics of the developed countries, such as Germany, Australia and Norway (e.g. goods and services readily accessible, high standard of living for the majority of the population, concentration of capital, high-tech industries)

34.4.2.

Gives characteristics of the economies of southern countries (e.g. extraction of natural resources, export crops, resource exploitation by foreign interests, limited on-site processing of raw materials)

34.4.3.

Gives characteristics of the less-developed countries, such as Colombia, Egypt and Indonesia (e.g. limited access to basic goods and services for the majority of the population, low GDP per capita, large proportion of the labour force in the agricultural sector)

34.4.4.

Gives characteristics of the emerging economies, such as Brazil, China and India (e.g. very rapid economic growth based on industrialization, major social inequalities, uneven development of the territory, heavy reliance on exports)

34.4.5.

Indicates some objectives of fair trade (e.g. to establish commercial partnership between distributors in developed countries and producers in less-developed countries; to respect the social and economic rights of workers; to pay a fair price for products; to contribute to sustainable development)

34.5.1.

Influence of globalization

34.5.1.1.

Gives characteristics of the globalization of the economy (e.g. liberalization of trade, greater fluidity of financial flows)

34.5.1.2.

Indicates advantages of globalization for firms (e.g. growth of markets, fall of production costs, increased profits)

34.5.1.3.

Indicates effects of globalization on the economy of the developed countries (e.g. development of new markets, job losses in the manufacturing sector)

34.5.1.4.

Indicates effects of globalization on the economy of the less-developed countries (e.g. development of emerging economies, migration of workers)

34.5.2.

Power of multinational firms

34.5.2.1.

Indicates what leads states to welcome multinational firms (e.g. job creation, source of income)

34.5.2.2.

Indicates measures implemented by states to attract multinational firms (e.g. fiscal advantages, research and development grants, preferential tariffs, infrastructure development)

34.5.2.3.

Indicates factors that lead firms to relocate their activities (e.g. reduction of production costs, access to new markets)

34.6.1.

Locates, on a world map, countries with high debt levels and countries with low debt levels (e.g. in 2012, Brazil and United States [high debt]; China and Turkey [low debt])

34.6.2.

Names the creditors of states: citizens, financial institutions, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, other states

34.6.3.

Indicates factors that explain the indebtedness of states (e.g. infrastructure construction, public services, support for business development, military expenses)

34.6.4.

Indicates possible effects of state indebtedness on the economy and society (e.g. reconsideration of social programs, privatization, increase in the gaps between social groups, greater economic dependence, political and social crises)

35.1.1.

Alliances and rivalries at the turn of the century

35.1.1.1.

Names the political regime in some European countries on the eve of the Great War (e.g. republic in France, constitutional monarchy in the United Kingdom, authoritarian monarchy in Austria-Hungary)

35.1.1.2.

Describes the main political demands made by some European countries on the eve of the Great War: Russia demanded free passage through the straits giving access to the Mediterranean; Germany demanded a new colonial division of Africa; France demanded the territories of Alsace and Lorraine

35.1.1.3.

Indicates the main consequences of the political tensions and economic rivalries in Europe on the eve of the Great War: rise of nationalism, intensification of militarization

35.1.1.4.

Indicates political issues that divided the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Serbia (e.g. boundary lines, sovereignty of the Slavic peoples)

35.1.1.5.

Indicates the main consequence of the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the early 20th century: the rise of nationalism

35.1.1.6.

Locates, on a map of Europe, the countries that signed the Triple Entente and the Triple Alliance: France, the United Kingdom and Russia signed the Triple Entente; Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy signed the Triple Alliance

35.1.1.7.

Indicates the main commitment made by the countries that signed the Triple Entente or the Triple Alliance: mutual defence in case of aggression

35.1.1.8.

Indicates the main reason why Italy entered the war on the side of the Triple Entente countries: the promise of territories on the Dalmatian coast

35.1.2.1.

Indicates the event that triggered the Great War: the assassination of the archduke of Austria-Hungary by a young Serb nationalist

35.1.2.10.

Indicates the contribution of the French and British colonies during the Great War: participation of colonial troops in combat

35.1.2.2.

Situates, on a time line, events that represent turning points in the Great War (e.g. the Battle of Verdun, the entry into the war of the United States, the Russian Revolution)

35.1.2.3.

Indicates some reasons why the Great War lasted so long (e.g. each side had roughly the same military capacity, each side had roughly the same industrial capacity for arms production, the effectiveness of the trenches limited the effectiveness of the offensive means employed)

35.1.2.4.

Indicates reasons why so many soldiers were killed during the Great War (e.g. lack of protection from heavy artillery fire, use of machine rifles in assaults outside the trenches)

35.1.2.5.

Indicates the main reasons why Russia withdrew from the Triple Entente: the October Revolution, negotiation of a separate peace with Germany

35.1.2.6.

Indicates the main effect of the British blockade: difficulties experienced by Germany in obtaining supplies

35.1.2.7.

Indicates the main consequence of the entry of the United States into the war: victory of the Triple Entente side

35.1.2.8.

Names principles set out in President Wilsons Fourteen Points in 1918 (e.g. end of secret diplomacy, respect for nationalities, establishment of the League of Nations)

35.1.2.9.

Indicates some political consequences of the Great War (e.g. dismantling of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, redrawing of borders, greater role of United States in international politics)

35.2.1.

Indicates some expressions of nationalism in early 20th century (e.g. unification of the Slavs of southern Europe by the Serbs, mobilization of soldiers in several countries at the start of the Great War)

35.2.2.

Indicates some expressions of liberalism in the early 20th century (e.g. freedom of movement on the seas, the increase in financial activity)

35.2.3.

Indicates some expressions of socialism in the early 20th century (e.g. emergence of revolutionary movements, seizure of power by the Bolsheviks following a coup dtat in Russia)

35.2.4.

Indicates economic and political factors that explain the colonization of Africa and Asia by European countries in the second half of the 19th century (e.g. access to resources, desire for power)

35.2.5.

Indicates the reason given by the colonizing countries to justify colonization: a civilizing mission toward peoples considered backward

35.3.1.

Locates, on a map of the world, the colonial empires in the early 20th century

35.3.2.

Indicates the main factors that explain the United Kingdoms economic power in the early 20th century: control of the great sea routes, resources supplied by colonies, high level of industrial production

35.3.3.

Indicates the aim of the Berlin Conference: to establish the rules for the colonization of Africa

35.3.4.

Indicates the main consequence of colonization for political relations between European countries: tensions over the division of the colonial territories

35.4.1.

Gives characteristics of the industrialization of some European countries in the late 19th century (e.g. use of new sources of energy, concentration of enterprises)

35.4.2.

Indicates industrial sectors that grew in some European countries (e.g. steel, engineering, chemistry)

35.4.3.

Indicates changes that occurred within great industrial enterprises in the early 20th century (e.g. greater role of unions, application of the principles of Taylorism, participation of women in the labour force)

36.1.1.

Indicates the main causes of the depression of the 1930s: speculation on the stock market, overproduction

36.1.4.

Indicates the main solution suggested by Keynes to bring countries out of the depression: increasing state spending to stimulate consumption

36.1.5.

Names the set of policies based on the economic theories of Keynes that Roosevelt implemented: the New Deal

36.1.6.

Indicates the main measures implemented by some countries to reduce the effects of the depression: adoption of protectionist measures, implementation of public works, introduction of social assistance measures

36.2.2.

Gives common characteristics of the fascist and Nazi ideologies: primacy of the state, rejection of liberalism, cult of the leader, use of propaganda, exaltation of the national spirit and of violence

36.2.3.

Gives the main characteristics of the Nazi ideology: promotion of racism and anti-Semitism, support for Pan-Germanism, support for eugenics

36.2.4.

Gives the main characteristics of the communist ideology: primacy of the collective interest, dictatorship of the proletariat, collective ownership of the means of production

36.2.5.

Indicates the main objective of the League of Nations: to maintain the peace

36.3.1.

Gives characteristics of totalitarian regimes in Europe (e.g. indoctrination of the masses by means of propaganda, control of the party and the state by a dictator)

36.3.2.

Indicates causes of Mussolinis seizure of power and establishment of a fascist dictatorship in Italy (e.g. rise of communism, activism of the Italian Combat Leagues, post-war economic context)

36.3.3.

Indicates causes of Hitlers seizure of power and establishment of a Nazi dictatorship in Germany (e.g. depression, political instability of the Weimar government, activism of Storm Troopers, support from industrialists, banning of left-wing parties)

36.3.4.

Indicates measures taken by the Communist Party of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) under Stalin (e.g. development of heavy industry, collectivization of agriculture, repression of opposition)

36.4.1.

Locates, on a map of Europe, territories demanded by Germany (e.g. Austria, the region inhabited by the Sudeten Germans in Czechoslovakia, the Danzig corridor)

36.4.2.

Gives factors invoked by Germany to justify these territorial demands (e.g. unification of German-speaking populations within a single state, reconnection of Prussia to Germany)

36.4.3.

Names countries invaded by the Italian army under Mussolinis Fascist regime (e.g. Albania, Ethiopia)

36.4.4.

Indicates some political consequences of imperial Japans expansionist aims in Asia (e.g. occupation of Korea, invasion of Manchuria, war with China)

36.4.5.

Indicates the response of the United Kingdom and France to Germanys territorial demands at the Munich Conference: acceptance of the territorial demands in exchange for a promise of peace

36.5.1.

Gives provisions of the Treaty of Versailles that Germany challenged (e.g. payment of war reparations, loss of territories, reduction of military personnel and armaments)

36.5.2.

Gives the main provisions of the German-Soviet Pact: non-aggression agreement between the signing countries, secret protocol for the division of Poland and the Baltic countries

36.5.3.

Indicates some political consequences of the signing of the German-Soviet Pact (e.g. invasion of Poland, Germanys entry into the war on only one front)

36.5.4.

Names the countries that formed the alliance called the Axis: Germany, Italy, Japan

36.5.5.

Indicates the objective of the Lend-Lease Act passed by the American Congress in March 1941: to provide military material to the Allies

36.5.6.

Indicates the main objective of the Atlantic Charter: to establish the principles of the organization of the world in the event of a Nazi defeat

36.5.7.

Indicates the cause of the rupture of the German-Soviet Pact: invasion of the USSR by Germany

36.6.1.

Indicates the event that triggered the declarations of war against Germany in 1939: the invasion of Poland

36.6.2.

Indicates Japans main objective in attacking Pearl Harbor: to curb the military capacity of the United States to intervene in the Pacific

36.6.3.

Situates, on a time line, factors that contributed to the Allied victory (e.g. Battle of Stalingrad, Battle of the Atlantic, Normandy landings, dropping atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki)

36.6.4.

Indicates the main effect of the participation of the USSR in the Second World War: division of German forces between two fronts

36.6.5.

Indicates some events that occurred during the period when Germany occupied much of Europe (e.g. collaboration or resistance of much of the population, genocide of Jews, pillage of resources and works of art)

36.6.6.

Indicates some social consequences of the Second World War (e.g. millions of civilian victims, decimation of populations, destruction of a large part of Europe and Japan)

36.6.7.

Indicates some measures decided upon at the Yalta and Potsdam conferences (e.g. occupation of Germany and Austria by the four Allied powers, entry of the USSR into the war against Japan)

36.6.8.

Indicates some political consequences of the Second World War (e.g. decline of Europes influence, emergence of superpowers, takeover of sovereign territories by the USSR)

36.6.9.

Indicates the purpose of the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials: to try German and Japanese authorities accused of war crimes, crimes against peace and crimes against humanity

37.1.1.

Conferences, treaties and international agreements

37.1.1.1.

Names conferences that had a political impact on international relations in the 1940s and 1950s (e.g. Bretton Woods, San Francisco, Bandung)

37.1.1.2.

Names treaties and agreements that had an impact on international relations during the Cold War (e.g. North Atlantic Treaty, Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance, Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons)

37.1.2.

Economic, political and military institutions

37.1.2.1.

Names the economic institutions established at the Bretton Woods Conference: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank

37.1.2.2.

Indicates the objectives of the economic institutions established at the Bretton Woods Conference: to promote trade (GATT), to stabilize the international monetary system (IMF), to rebuild the European countries (World Bank)

37.1.2.3.

Indicates the main goals of the United Nations (UN), which was founded at the San Francisco Conference: to maintain peace, to promote international cooperation, to fight poverty, to promote respect for human rights

37.1.2.4.

Describes the main roles played by the organs of the UN: the General Assembly discusses international issues and passes resolutions; the Secretariat administers UN programs and policies; the Security Council is responsible for maintaining peace and international security

37.1.2.5.

Names the countries on the winning side in the Second World War that were permanent members of the UN Security Council when it was founded: China, France, United Kingdom, United States, USSR

37.1.2.6.

Indicates the goal of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): to ensure the security of the member countries

37.1.2.7.

Indicates the goal of the Warsaw Pact established by the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance: to ensure the security of the member countries

37.1.2.8.

Locates, on a map of the world, the member countries of NATO and the member countries of the Warsaw Pact

37.1.3.1.

Indicates the objective of the Marshall Plan: to rebuild the European economy with economic and financial assistance from the United States

37.1.3.2.

Describes the reaction of European countries to the proposal of the Marshall Plan: countries allied with the United States welcomed it; the USSR and its allies rejected the assistance

37.1.3.3.

Indicates the reason given by the USSR for rejecting the Marshall Plan: it did not want to be linked to a capitalist economic plan

37.1.3.4.

Indicates the objective of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): to coordinate the use of American Marshall Plan aid

37.1.3.5.

Indicates the objective of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON), founded in response to the Marshall Plan: to promote economic cooperation between the USSR and the countries allied with it

37.2.1.

Prevailing conditions

37.2.1.1.

Defines the term Iron Curtain: a boundary between countries in the Soviet zone of influence from those in the American zone of influence

37.2.1.2.

Indicates the aim of the policy of containment adopted by President Truman: to prevent the expansion of communism in the world

37.2.1.3.

Gives characteristics of the Cold War (e.g. alternation between periods of tension and periods of dtente (less strained relations) between the USSR and the United States; threat of nuclear war; confrontation of the superpowers outside their own territory)

37.2.2.1.

Situates, on a time line, some Cold War crises (e.g. Berlin Blockade, Cuban Missile Crisis, Vietnam War)

37.2.2.2.

Names players in Cold War crises (e.g. Truman and Stalin during the Berlin Blockade; France, the United Kingdom, Israel and Egypt during the Suez Crisis; Kennedy and Khrushchev during the Cuban Missile Crisis)

37.2.2.3.

Indicates events related to some Cold War crises (e.g. invasion of South Korea by North Korea, nationalization of the Suez Canal, withdrawal of Soviet missiles from Cuba)

37.2.2.4.

Indicates other situations involving ideological confrontations between the Eastern and Western blocs (e.g. the space race, the Moscow and Los Angeles Olympic Games)

37.2.3.

Collapse of the Eastern bloc

37.2.3.1.

Indicates some demands made by opposition movements in the Eastern bloc (e.g. freedom of expression, freedom of the press, freedom of movement)

37.2.3.2.

Names players in opposition movements in the Eastern bloc (e.g. Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Andrei Sakharov, Charter 77, Solidarno)

37.2.3.3.

Gives characteristics of the economy in the Eastern bloc countries (e.g. low productivity, scarcity of consumer goods, black market)

37.2.3.4.

Indicates the objective of perestroika (restructuring), introduced by Gorbachev: to stimulate the economy

37.2.3.5.

Indicates some effects of glasnost (transparency), introduced by Gorbachev (e.g. recognition of freedom of the press, recognition of freedom of opinion)

37.2.3.6.

Indicates events related to the collapse of the Eastern bloc (e.g. opening of the Hungarian border, fall of the Berlin Wall, opening of the communist regimes to a multiparty system, independence of the republics of the USSR)

37.3.1.

Names countries that had colonial empires in the 20th century (e.g. France, United Kingdom, the Netherlands)

37.3.2.

Describes the economic and political context that favoured decolonization: in the aftermath of the Second World War, Europe was weakened, education contributed to the emergence of political leaders in colonized territories, the superpowers supported the decolonization process

37.3.3.

Locates, on a map of the world, territories that obtained their independence in the 1950s and 1960s

37.3.5.

Gives characteristics of Third World countries after decolonization (e.g. economic dependence, weak industrial development, high level of natural increase)

37.4.1.1.

Names the demographic phenomenon that marked the 1950s and 1960s in the West: the baby boom

37.4.1.2.

Gives the main socioeconomic characteristic of the Western countries during the 1950s and 1960s: consumer society

37.4.1.3.

Names a value championed by Third Worldist ideology: solidarity of rich countries with poor countries

37.4.1.4.

Describes the main influence of the mass media on currents of thought: the mass media contribute to the spread of ideas and cultural phenomena on a broad scale

37.4.2.

Demands related to human rights

37.4.2.1.

Indicates some demands of feminist movements in the 1960s and 1970s in the West (e.g. right to contraception and abortion, economic equality, elimination of discrimination)

37.4.2.2.

Names players in the feminist movements in the 1960s and 1970s in the West (e.g. Betty Friedan, National Organization for Women, Mouvement de libration des femmes)

37.4.2.3.

Indicates some demands of movements that defended the civil rights of Blacks in the 1960s and 1970s (e.g. abolition of segregationist laws and regulations, equal access to employment)

37.4.2.4.

Names players in the movements that defended the civil rights of Blacks in the 1960s and 1970s (e.g. Martin Luther King, Rosa Parks, African National Congress)

37.4.2.5.

Names values criticized by the hippie movement: individualism, materialism, violence

37.4.2.6.

Indicates a demand common to several currents of thought in the 1960s and 1970s in the West: withdrawal of American troops from Vietnam

38.1.1.

Indicates characteristics on which the assertion of identity may be based (e.g. language, religion or territory)

38.1.2.

Names regional conflicts related to the assertion of group identity (e.g. Israeli-Palestinian conflict, civil war in Rwanda, Kosovo War)

38.1.3.

Locates, on a map of the world, territories where there have been conflicts related to the assertion of group identity (e.g. Yugoslavia, Rwanda, East Timor)

38.1.4.

Indicates issues that led to regional conflicts related to the assertion of group identity in the 1990s (e.g. sovereignty of East Timor, sovereignty of Northern Ireland)

38.1.5.

Names the parties involved in regional conflicts related to the assertion of group identity in the 1990s (e.g. the Russian army and the Chechen separatists, the Serbian government and the government of Bosnia-Herzegovina, the Hutu militia and the Tutsi population in Rwanda)

38.1.6.

Indicates the main political consequence of regional conflicts in the 1990s: recognition of sovereign states by the international community

38.2.1.

Names international institutions that intervene in regional conflicts related to the assertion of group identity (e.g. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), United Nations (UN), International Criminal Court (ICC))

38.2.2.

Names East European countries that joined NATO after the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact (e.g. Poland, Czech Republic, Romania)

38.2.3.

Names the countries that joined NATO after the breakup of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania

38.2.4.

Gives the role of the international criminal courts created after the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia and in Rwanda: to try people accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity

38.3.1.

Names operations undertaken by the UN during regional conflicts related to the assertion of group identity in the 1990s (e.g. UN Mission in Bosnia-Herzegovina, UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda, UN Protection Force in Yugoslavia, UN Transitional Administration in East Timor)

38.3.2.

Names operations undertaken by NATO during regional conflicts related to the assertion of group identity in the 1990s (e.g. Implementation Force in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Stabilization Force in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo Force)

38.3.3.

Indicates the main reason given by NATO to justify a military intervention in sovereign territory: the need to protect the population from crimes against humanity

38.3.4.

Indicates effects of the adoption of international agreements on regional conflicts related to the assertion of group identity (e.g. end of interethnic fighting in Bosnia-Herzegovina after the Dayton Agreements, end of the first Chechnya war after the Khasavyurt Peace Agreements)

9-1.11.b.

Squares and square roots

9-1.11.c.

Numbers in exponential notation (integral exponent)

9-1.11.d.

Numbers in scientific notation

9-1.11.f.

Numbers in exponential notation (fractional exponents)

9-1.15.b.

Numbers expressed in different ways (fractional, decimal, exponential [integral exponent], percentage, square root, scientific notation)

9-1.A.1.a.

Considers the social function(s) of the text and the context in which it was produced, as well as his/her own reading context, to determine appropriate reading stance

9-1.A.1.b.

Adjusts reading stance(s) and strategies to determine possible meaning(s) or message(s) in spoken, written, media, multimodal and multigenre texts

9-1.A.1.c.

Uses cues conveyed by the structure, features, codes and conventions of spoken, written and media genres to determine significance in a text while listening/reading/viewing (e.g. recognizes the conventions of television news that are associated with credibility; recognizes the structural devices used in an editorial that strengthen an argument)

9-1.A.1.d.

Draws on needed background knowledge and experiences related to the social and/or cultural and/or historical context in which the text was produced in order to read critically (e.g. consults other texts written at the same time)

9-1.A.1.e.

Produces a coherent first reading/initial response to a text. See below for what constitutes a first reading/initial response to a text.

9-1.A.2.

First reading/initial response

9-1.A.2.a.

Extends/supports/scaffolds first reading/initial response by examining details in the text (e.g. draws on own reading profile; uses information gained through rereading, immersion into texts and exchanges with other readers and teacher)

9-1.A.2.b.

Keeps track of changes in own first reading/initial response as s/he works toward a more considered interpretation of the text (e.g. makes notes, highlights significant sections of text, begins a tentative outline)

9-1.A.2.c.

Demonstrates understanding of the difference between familiar open and closed written narrative texts by identifying:

9-1.A.2.c.i.

Known characteristics of a closed narrative text (e.g. the formulaic pattern in a heroic myth or in a serialized spy thriller such as James Bond)

9-1.A.2.c.ii.

Known characteristics of an open narrative text (e.g. figurative language in a short story or symbolism in a poem)

9-1.A.2.d.

Demonstrates understanding of how information is interpreted and communicated in different information-based (spoken, written, media) genres:

9-1.A.2.d.iii.

Locates evidence in the text of how the writer/producer creates a relationship between the text and its reader (e.g. identifies aspects that appeal more to women than to men in a magazine ad)

9-1.A.2.d.iv.

Identifies characteristics of writer/producer and how this influences the purpose of the text, its meaning(s)/message(s) and other aspects of the context in which it is produced and read (e.g. inherent values and how these are represented; influence of a social/cultural/historical context on their sensibility and/or central argument)

9-1.A.2.d.v.

Connects significant facts/information in relation to main idea(s), hypothesis, thesis statement or stance conveyed by writer/producer (i.e. means through which writer/producer interprets information or uses argument or persuasion to move the reader)

9-1.A.2.d.vi.

Analyzes implications and/or impact and/or influence of stereotyping or clich, false representation, gender bias and/or power relations within a text on the meaning(s)/message(s) communicated

9-1.A.2.d.vii.

Identifies dominant discourses and how they shape the writer's/producer's intended meanings/messages (i.e. recognizes whose voices are heard and whose voices are ignored or marginalized in a given text)

9-1.A.3.

Interpretation of the text

9-1.A.3.a.

Interrelates aspects of his/her reading profile, the structure, features and content of the text, and its social/cultural/historical context

9-1.A.3.b.

Determines own working hypothesis, theory, controlling idea, or thesis statement

9-1.A.3.d.

Selects a mode and genre that conveys own interpretation to advantage in light of situation/context (e.g. interprets the conflict faced by a central character through a journal that includes illustrations and print)

9-1.A.3.e.

Selects relevant evidence to illustrate and justify own interpretation:

9-1.A.3.e.iii.

Analyzes dominant features of the text, such as its point of view, use of persuasive language, connotation and denotation, etc.

9-1.A.3.e.ix.

Analyzes how readers are positioned or situated by the text and how this can alter an interpretation (e.g. considers how "generation gap"stereotypes might affect different readers)

9-1.A.3.e.v.

Explains how fact and opinion are represented by the writer/producer and to what effect

9-1.A.3.e.vi.

Analyzes how the text attempts to attract and hold the reader's attention (e.g. how continuity is established in an argument; how humour, sound or music is employed to special effect in film; how structural irony or vivid details are used to create suspense in a narrative)

9-1.A.3.e.vii.

Establishes interrelationships between the structure and features of the genre, the context in which the text is produced, and the impact of the text on self as reader (e.g. the use of dramatic irony in Romeo and Juliet allows Shakespeare to heighten the tragedy of their suicides, while reminding today's reader that in the 16th century, star-crossed lovers had very few choices as to how their situation might be resolved)

9-1.A.3.e.viii.

Compares/contrasts own ideas, values and beliefs with those presented by writer/producer (e.g. notions of beauty promoted in a teen magazine; portrayal of the American South in novels written between 1920 and 1945)

9-1.A.3.g.

Uses vocabulary and terminology that apply to a specific topic and/or genre (e.g. scientific terms in a feature article; literary terms proper to an Elizabethan sonnet)

9-1.B.1.a.

Examines model texts to guide production decisions, specifically:

9-1.B.1.a.i.

Unique structure(s), features, codes and conventions of a specific text type. See also the Required Genres section of this document for specific structures, features, codes and conventions.

9-1.B.1.a.ii.

Purpose and context in which the text was produced that influence features such as its style, rhetorical devices, textual conventions and content (e.g. an advertisement for sports equipment in a popular sports magazine; an airline safety pamphlet; a film review on a newspaper Web site)

9-1.B.1.a.iii.

How characteristics of the intended/target audience are represented such as their needs, expectations, age group, social status, etc.

9-1.B.1.a.iv.

How the meaning/message is represented and communicated

9-1.B.1.a.v.

Level of formality of the discourse (i.e. its register)

9-1.B.1.a.vi.

Aspects of the writer's/producer's stance and how these influence readers (e.g. intent, ideology, values, beliefs)

9-1.B.1.b.

Plans and drafts the text:

9-1.B.1.b.i.

(Media only) Uses collaborative strategies as part of a production team (e.g. adopts different roles, shares expertise, sets and meets deadlines, accepts different points of view, reaches consensus)

9-1.B.1.b.ii.

Selects a text in light of context, including purpose, meaning(s)/message(s) and intended/target audience

9-1.B.1.b.iii.

Determines criteria to judge the quality of the text in light of the production context, including purpose and intended/target audience

9-1.B.1.b.iv.1.

Characterizes needs and expectations of intended/target audience to make some decisions regarding content: Familiar audience (e.g. provides additional details or information; sequences events or information to enhance reader's comprehension)

9-1.B.1.b.iv.2.

Characterizes needs and expectations of intended/target audience to make some decisions regarding content: Distant but known audience, conceptually appropriate for an adolescent (e.g. considers audience knowledge and/or preconceived notions of topic)

9-1.B.1.b.ix.

Looks into issues of ownership, property and privacy common to the media industry (e.g. checks that copyright and/or legal permission can be obtained; reviews relevant intellectual property laws)

9-1.B.1.b.v.1.

Uses a range of stances derived from: Personal experience(s) and knowledge

9-1.B.1.b.v.2.

Uses a range of stances derived from: Distance between self as writer/producer, topic, purpose and intended/target audience

9-1.B.1.b.vi.

Uses appropriate organizational devices in light of text, purpose, intended/target audience, meaning(s)/message(s) and context (e.g. outline, storyboard)

9-1.B.1.b.vii.

Researches to locate material, resources and/or expertise

9-1.B.1.b.viii.

Manages resources (e.g. makes appointments to administer surveys or conduct an interview; books AV equipment in advance)

9-1.B.2.a.

Uses relevant technology resources throughout the production process (e.g. uses a still or video camera in a Public Service Announcement (PSA); downloads digital images for a multimedia project)

9-1.B.2.b.

Uses structures, features, codes and conventions of a specific text to communicate clearly and enhance meaning(s)/message(s)

9-1.B.2.c.

Uses knowledge about spoken and/or written and/or media modes and genres to make production decisions that enhance the impact of the text on its intended/target audience (e.g. decides to place a dramatic photograph with a feature news story to move the audience)

9-1.B.2.d.

Uses rhetorical strategies and different registers in context (e.g. uses an active voice to project a sense of immediacy)

9-1.B.2.e.

Respects constraints of the media industry (e.g. length, ideology, copyright, layout)

9-1.B.3.a.

Evaluates draft/version critically, and makes relevant adjustments to enhance:

9-1.B.3.a.i.

Clarity and development of ideas, meaning(s)/message(s)

9-1.B.3.a.ii.

Internal organization of the content (e.g. changes order of images in a photo essay)

9-1.B.3.a.iii.

Precision in the use of details and/or information

9-1.B.3.a.iv.

Coherence in light of the production context, purpose, intended/target audience and production criteria

9-1.B.3.a.v.

Accuracy in the use of structure, features, codes and conventions of the text, including respect for media constraints (i.e. applies text grammars correctly)

9-1.B.3.a.vi.

Effectiveness of technology used (e.g. rerecording narration to fill in gaps and/or for audibility in a radio spot; slowing down transitions between images in a digital photo essay so the reader can process them)

9-1.B.3.a.vii.

Use of stylistic conventions for specific effect (e.g. sound effects to create mood; use of exaggerated gory details in a crime scene description)

9-1.B.3.b.

Proofreads draft/version for:

9-1.B.3.b.i.

Surface errors in written language (i.e. spelling and usage conventions, grammar and syntax)

9-1.B.3.b.ii.

Clarity regarding the layout and presentation of the final draft/version of the text (e.g. arranges the placement of charts, diagrams or images)

9-1.B.3.b.iii.

Continuity (e.g. ensures coherent visual style in a comic re: colour, character depiction; checks that formatting is consistent in a written text)

9-1.B.3.c.

Prepares for presentation:

9-1.B.3.c.i.

Selects the most effective way to present the text to intended/target audience

9-1.B.3.c.ii.

Uses the appropriate codes and conventions to present the text (e.g. uses a formal register when presenting a poster to the class)