Saskatchewan Curriculum — Grade 4

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Reflect on viewing, listening, reading, representing, speaking, and writing by explaining what is effective or what worked in a text.


Ask questions such as ''What do I already know? What can I already do? What strategies have I learned? What do I need to remember? What goals do I need to set for myself?''


Reflect on own strategies for viewing, listening, reading, representing, speaking, and writing and set goals to improve the strategies used.


Create spoken, written, and other representations that include:


Ideas and information which are clear and complete.


Appropriate use of language and conventions.


Retelling and explaining the ideas and information presented in texts.


Recognizing and understanding the text structures (e.g., narrative, informational, poetry) and features (e.g., description, figurative language, graphics).


Responding to and interpreting the texts, and explaining and supporting response with evidence from the texts.


Use inquiry to explore authentic problems, questions, and issues associated with identity, community, and social responsibility including:


Recording, selecting, and sharing relevant personal knowledge and understanding of a topic or questions and considering purpose for individual and group inquiry or research.


Selecting and using a plan for gathering ideas and information.


Using a variety of tools (including indices, maps, atlases, charts, electronic sources) and resources to access ideas and information.


Organizing ideas and information in logical sequences.


Sharing findings and conclusions in a clear visual, oral, and written format.


Understand and apply cues and conventions including pragmatic, textual, syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and others to communicate meaning when using other forms of representing.


Adapt language and presentation style to the purpose and needs of the audience, and guide the listener to understand important ideas by using proper phrasing, pitch, and modulation.


Select and use pertinent before, during, and after strategies to construct meaning when speaking.


Understand and apply cues and conventions including pragmatic, textual, syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and others to communicate meaning when speaking.


Recite brief poems (e.g., two or three stanzas), monologues, or dramatic dialogues using clear diction, tempo, volume, and phrasing.


Make individual contributions to class discussion by expressing ideas, opinions, and feelings and interact with others to share ideas and opinions, ask for support, complete tasks, and explain concerns or problems.


Work through the stages of a writing process (e.g., pre-writing, drafting, revising successive versions).


Understand and apply cues and conventions including pragmatic, textual, syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and others to communicate meaning when writing.


Create compositions with an introductory paragraph that establishes a central idea in key sentence(s), supporting paragraphs with simple facts, details, and explanations, and a concluding paragraph that summarizes the points.


Write descriptions and narratives (3-5 paragraphs) that relate observations and recollections of an event or experience and use sensory details.


Write information reports (3-5 paragraphs) that focus on a central question about an issue or situation, include facts and details, and draw from more than one source of information (e.g., speakers, books, newspapers, other sources).


Communicate and demonstrate understanding by creating original texts (e.g., poem, play, letter, journal entry) and by writing responses to texts, supporting judgements through references to both the text and prior knowledge.


View, listen to, read, and respond to a variety of texts that reflect diverse personal identities, worldviews, and backgrounds (e.g., culture, age, gender, language) including First Nations and Mtis texts.


View, listen to, and read a variety of texts related to theme or topic of study and show comprehension by:


Connect the insights of an individual or individuals in texts to personal experiences.


Identify similarities and differences between personal experiences and the experiences of people from various cultures portrayed in a variety of texts including First Nations and Mtis texts.


Identify cultural representations in oral, print, and other media texts from various communities including First Nations and Mtis communities.


Discuss visual experiences (e.g., what was seen and the effectiveness).


Select and use pertinent before, during, and after strategies to construct meaning when viewing.


Understand and apply cues and conventions including pragmatic, textual, syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and others to construct and confirm meaning when viewing.


Evaluate the role of visuals in focusing attention on particular aspects or events, and influencing opinions on issues.


Identify the intent and appeal of particular TV and print advertisements and other visuals including First Nations and Mtis art and other texts.


Identify, with support, the values and aspects of various cultures underlying visual messages including First Nations and Mtis art and other texts.


Understand how a range of visual features (e.g., graphs, images, illustrations, charts, maps, diagrams) can enhance and clarify spoken, written, or silent messages.


View a multimedia presentation and identify how the language, visual, and multimedia features (e.g., sound, colour, movement) are used to persuade.


Listen critically and respond appropriately to a range of oral communications including oral traditions passed on by First Nations Elders and Knowledge Keepers.


Understand and apply cues and conventions including pragmatic, textual, syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and others to construct and confirm meaning when listening.


Ask thoughtful questions that probe deeper thought and respond to questions with elaboration.


Draw conclusions supported by ideas presented.


Recognize and explain the author's ideas, explicit and implicit message, and techniques (e.g., use of figurative language).


Select and use pertinent before, during, and after strategies to construct meaning when reading.


Understand and apply cues and conventions including pragmatic, textual, syntactical, semantic/lexical/morphological, graphophonic, and others to construct and confirm meaning when reading.


Read and summarize narrative texts including First Nations and Mtis narratives and identify characters' traits, characters' changes over time, and the theme.


Follow multi-step written instructions and procedures in basic technical or how-to manuals (e.g., how to play a video game).


Read and use grade four reference texts (e.g., dictionary, encyclopedia, how-to, explanations, biography) for inquiry and to identify main ideas, details, opinions, and reasons.


Support opinions and conclusions about what is read.


Read grade-appropriate texts silently (e.g., 20 minutes; 135-185 wcpm) and orally (with fluency, accuracy, pacing, intonation, and expression; 100-140 wcpm), adjusting reading rates to the complexity of the materials and the purpose for reading.


Locate Saskatchewan on a map of Canada, North America, and the world.


Locate the geographic centre of Saskatchewan on a map.


Make inferences about why people in Saskatchewan settled particular locations, including settlement patterns before and after coming together of First Nations and European peoples using a variety of maps (e.g., near waterways, sources of water, rail lines, natural resources, low population density in rural areas).


Identify the characteristics of the unique geographic regions in Saskatchewan.


Identify the impact of geography on the architecture of Saskatchewan, including how styles, materials, and cultural traditions have been affected by interaction with the land and other people in the province.


Analyze the influence of geography on the lifestyle of people living in Saskatchewan (e.g., flora and fauna, pastimes, transportation, cost of food, type of food, occupations, availability of services such as education and health care).


Conduct an inquiry investigating how residents of Saskatchewan came to occupy the land that is now our province (e.g., First Nations, early Europeans, and Mtis).


Investigate the traditional worldviews of First Nations peoples prior to European contact regarding land as an animate object and sustaining life force.


Research traditional lifestyles of First Nations communities and peoples prior to European contact (e.g., hunting, gathering, movement of people to follow food sources).


Explore how the traditional worldviews and teachings of First Nations's Elders regarding land influence the lifestyle of First Nations people today.


Research the history of the Mtis people and their relationship with the land.


Compare the traditional views of land and culture of the Aboriginal peoples of Saskatchewan with those of the railway developers.


Assess the impact of historic loss of land on First Nations and Mtis people.


Investigate the process by which decisions were made about the location of reserve lands in Saskatchewan.


Research the Mtis struggle for land, and the displacement of Mtis people in the late 19th century.


Locate Treaty areas within Saskatchewan and locate reserves within the Treaty area of the school.


Investigate conditions which precipitated Treaty negotiations in Saskatchewan.


Research Treaty provisions, including the spirit and intent of Treaties as well as material considerations.


Assess the benefits of Treaties to all Saskatchewan people.


Identify the plants and animals which can be found in the communities (e.g., house, village, farm, reserve, and city) in which students live.


Differentiate between populations, communities, and habitats using local and regional examples.


Predict and research the populations of plants and animals that exist in various habitats (e.g., desert, farmland, meadow, tree, forest, rain puddle, seashore, lake, river, tropical forest, tundra, river delta, and mountains).


Discuss stories that demonstrate the interdependence of land, water, animals, plants, and the sky in traditional worldviews.


Draw upon facets of Indigenous worldviews, such as the Medicine Wheel or circle of life, to examine understanding about the interdependence of plants and animals in various habitats and communities.


Classify plants and animals, including humans, according to their role(s) (e.g., producer, consumer, herbivore, omnivore, carnivore, predator, prey, scavenger, and decomposer) in food chains and food webs.


Construct a visual representation of a specific food chain that exists within a habitat or community.


Analyze food webs as representations of multiple food chains.


Conduct a simulation or role play to demonstrate the interdependence of plants and animals in a habitat or community.


Predict how the removal of a specific plant or animal population may affect a community in the short- and long-term.


Observe and maintain a habitat such as a terrarium, aquarium, mealworm box, ant farm, pond in a bottle, or vermiculture to examine interactions between plants and animals, and their environments.


Show concern and respect for the safety of self, others, plants and animals when maintaining a habitat.


Generate questions to investigate about the structures (e.g., beak shape, colour markings, type of feet, and thorny branches) and behaviours (e.g., seasonal migration, living in groups, and growing towards light) of plants and animals that enable them to exist within various habitats (e.g., schoolyard, wildlife reserve area, and creek bank).


Recognize that each plant and animal depends on a specific habitat to meet its needs.


Identify factors (e.g., availability of food, water, and shelter, weather conditions, and available living space) that influence the ability of plants and animals to meet their needs within a specific habitat.


Develop and carry out a plan to investigate safely and respectfully the structures and behaviours of plants and animals within natural (e.g., school yard, meadow, forest, and park) and constructed (e.g., sports field, aquarium, and terrarium) habitats.


Record observations and information about plant and animal structures and behaviours within natural and constructed habitats using words, diagrams, graphs, photographs, audio and video recordings, and other appropriate technologies.


Use gathered information to explain how the structures and behaviours of animals and plants enable them to meet their basic needs (e.g., food, water, air, movement, nutrients, reproduction, and light) in their habitat.


Compare the structural features of plants that enable them to thrive in different kinds of habitats (e.g., bog, forest, grassland, school yard, garden, and sports field).


Design and carry out a simulation to explore how the appearance of a plant or animal affects its visibility.


Predict the structural and behavioural adaptations required for a real or imagined animal to live in a particular habitat, either real or imagined.


Recognize and discuss the role of traditional knowledge in learning about, valuing, and caring for plants and animals within local habitats and communities.


Identify stakeholders who are likely to adopt different points of view on issues (e.g., sewage treatment, urban expansion, deforestation, water pollution, pipeline construction, grassland stewardship, climate change, and pesticide usage) that are highlighted in the media related to habitat protection, restoration, and management.


Categorize human activities by the effects they have or may have on habitats and communities.


Assess intended and unintended consequences of natural and human-caused changes to specific habitats.


Relate habitat loss to the endangerment and extinction of plants and animals within habitats and communities in Saskatchewan and elsewhere.


Explore how human impact on habitats and communities has been represented through traditional and contemporary music, dance, drama, and visual arts.


Investigate how both scientists' and traditional knowledge keepers' knowledge of plant growth and development has led to the development of agricultural methods and techniques (e.g., tillage, hydroponics, nutrient management, pest control, crop rotation, companion plants, and plant breeding) that affect habitats and communities.


Collaboratively develop and carry out (if feasible) a plan to preserve or restore one or more components of a local habitat.


Identify local, provincial, and national organizations that work to preserve, restore, and provide education about habitats and communities.


Create biographic profiles of a selection of Saskatchewan First Nations and Mtis leaders in the time period prior to Saskatchewan joining Confederation (e.g., Poundmaker, Big Bear, Riel, Dumont, Almighty Voice).


Create an inventory of the contributions of First Nations and Mtis people to government, business, and professional life in Saskatchewan (e.g., consulting firms, outfitters, financial firms, architects, educators, health workers, legal specialists, artists, athletes).


Explain the significance of dance and music to First Nations and Mtis peoples and its contribution to Saskatchewan intercultural development.


Illustrate the contributions of First Nations and Mtis artists, sculptors, musicians, dancers, storytellers and writers to Saskatchewan culture (e.g., Buffy Sainte-Marie, Allan Sapp, David Bouchard, Michael Lonechild, Henry Beaudry, Andrea Menard, Angelique Merasty).


Identify the traditional locations of the various First Nations tribes and language groupings in Saskatchewan prior to European contact.


Detail the ways in which First Nations peoples supported the survival of early European newcomers to Saskatchewan.


Trace and represent the history of European immigration to Saskatchewan including those who came for economic reasons (explorers, fur traders, homestead farmers) and religious reasons (Mennonites, Hutterites, Doukhobours).


Articulate reasons why European immigrants left their homelands and settled in Saskatchewan, with particular emphasis upon the local community and/or the individual student families.


Represent through speaking, writing, drama, multimedia, or other form, the challenges faced, both historically and in the current era, by First Nations people, Mtis people, and immigrants to Saskatchewan.


Compare immigration patterns in Saskatchewan in the 19th and early 20th centuries to immigration patterns in the current era.


Identify the significance of historic buildings and places associated with cultural diversity in the community and province.


Represent the accomplishments of prominent Saskatchewan people whose contributions in their field are nationally or internationally recognized in a gallery, media clips, vignettes, or other media.


Investigate the value of volunteerism in various local community organizations and activities.


Differentiate between natural (e.g., fire, sun, star, lightning, aurorae, fireflies, and bioluminescent fungi) and artificial (e.g., light bulb, street light, glow stick, LED, tanning lamp, and laser) sources of light in the environment.


Examine relationships between the light energy and heat energy emitted from light sources.


Investigate the characteristics of light beams in air and water, including determining that light travels in straight lines, that light travels away from a source in all directions, and that light beams may change direction upon entering or leaving water.


Distinguish, through observation, between objects that emit their own light (e.g., sun, glow stick, match, star, and light bulb) and those that reflect light from another source (e.g., moon, mirror, paper, clothing, and roadways).


Identify positive (e.g., increased vitamin D production, happiness, and increased productivity) and negative (e.g., sunburn, skin cancer, and light pollution) consequences of exposure to natural and artificial sources of light.


Predict changes in a shadow's location, shape, and relative size when an object is placed in different positions and orientations relative to a light source and surface (e.g., flashlight and puppet, and overhead projector and screen).


Collaboratively plan and carry out a procedure to determine changes in a shadow's location, shape, and relative size when an object is placed in different positions and orientations relative to a light source and screen.


Record and communicate results of investigations of the characteristics and physical properties of light using formats suitable to the task.


Pose questions about the interaction of light with different materials (e.g., How are shadows formed? How can we change the direction of light? What colours are in light?).


Investigate how light interacts with various objects to determine whether the objects cast shadows, allow light to pass, and/or reflect light.


Classify materials and objects as opaque, transparent, or translucent based on personal observations.


Design and carry out a fair test of the reflective properties of surfaces of different shapes and textures (e.g., mirrors, flat foil, crumpled foil, white paper, coloured paper, and spoons).


Develop simple conclusions about the reflective properties of surfaces of different shapes and textures based on observation and experimentation.


Demonstrate and describe how transparent media of different composition and shape (e.g., prisms, plastic blocks, glasses of water, and lenses) are used to change the direction of light.


Investigate how light interacts with optical devices such as kaleidoscopes, reading glasses, microscopes, periscopes, telescopes, and magnifying glasses.


Demonstrate the dispersion of white light into various colours using a prism, and draw simple conclusions about the composition of white light.


Identify characteristics and effects of radiation that are slightly below (i.e., infrared radiation) and slightly above (i.e., ultraviolet light) the frequencies of visible light.


Experiment with mixing colours of light to create colours that meet a student-specified function (e.g., mood for a dance or dramatic production).


Evaluate the suitability of different types of light sources based on criteria such as source of energy, area illuminated, cost, and intended use.


Assess positive and negative consequences of artificial sources of light (e.g., street light, automobile headlight, traffic light, emergency vehicle light, and lighted advertising sign) that have been designed to solve problems in the home, at school, and in the community.


Assess the suitability of translucent, transparent, and opaque materials for specific applications (e.g., window, shower curtain, paper, light bulb, and frosted glass).


Compare the types of light sources used historically and currently in Saskatchewan homes and communities.


Compare the functions of optical devices (e.g., magnifying glasses, eyeglasses, contact lenses, microscopes, and telescopes) that are designed to extend our ability to observe.


Research personal, societal, and environmental impacts of light- related technological innovations (e.g., periscope, flashlight, neon lighting, camera, and laser).


Design, construct, and test a prototype of an optical device (e.g., periscope, telescope, and microscope) that performs a specific student-identified function.


Work with classmates to troubleshoot problems with a prototype of an optical device.


Demonstrate an understanding of whole numbers to 10 000 (pictorially, physically, orally, in writing, and symbolically) by: representing, describing, comparing two numbers, ordering three or more numbers. [C, R,V]


Read a four-digit numeral without using the word ''and'' (e.g., 5321 is five thousand three hundred twenty one, NOT five thousand three hundred AND twenty one).


Write a numeral using proper spacing without commas (e.g., 4567 or 4 567, 10 000).


Write a numeral (0 - 10 000) in words.


Represent a numeral using a place value chart or diagrams.


Explain the meaning of each digit in a numeral.


Express a numeral in expanded notation (e.g., 321 = 300 + 20 + 1).


Write the numeral represented by an expanded notation expression.


Explain and show the meaning of each digit in a 4-digit numeral with all digits the same (e.g., for the numeral 2222, the first digit represents two thousands, the second digit two hundreds, the third digit two tens, and the fourth digit two ones).


Explain the meaning of each digit in a 4-digit number representing a particular quantity.


Order a set of numbers in ascending or descending order, and explain the order by making references to place value.


Create and order three different 4-digit numerals.


Identify the missing numbers in an ordered sequence or shown on a number line.


Identify incorrectly placed numbers in an ordered sequence or shown on a number line.


Decompose and represent a 4-digit number at least three different ways. o) Explain why two or more number compositions represent the same quantity.


Demonstrate an understanding of addition of whole numbers with answers to 10 000 and their corresponding subtractions (limited to 3 and 4-digit numerals) by: using personal strategies for adding and subtracting, estimating sums and differences, solving problems involving addition and subtraction. [C, CN, ME, PS, R]


Explain how to keep track of digits that have the same place value when adding or subtracting numbers.


Estimate sums and differences using different strategies (e.g., front-end estimation and compensation).


Explain the strategies used to determine a sum or difference.


Solve problems that involve addition and subtraction of more than two numbers.


Demonstrate an understanding of multiplication of whole numbers (limited to numbers less than or equal to 10) by: applying mental mathematics strategies, explaining the results of multiplying by 0 and 1 [C, CN, R]


Explain the strategy used to determine a product.


Explain the strategy used in a given solution to a product.


Explain the property for determining the answer when multiplying numbers by one.


Explain the property for determining the answer when multiplying numbers by zero.


Demonstrate an understanding of multiplication (2- or 3-digit by 1-digit) by: using personal strategies for multiplication, with and without concrete materials; using arrays to represent multiplication; connecting concrete representations to symbolic representations; estimating products; solving problems. [C,ME, PS, R, V]


Model a multiplication problem (concretely or symbolically) using the distributive property (e.g., 8 * 365 = (8 * 300) + (8 * 60) + (8 * 5)).


Use concrete materials, such as base ten blocks or their pictorial representations, to represent multiplication and record the process symbolically.


Estimate a product using a personal strategy (e.g., 2 * 243 is close to or a little more than 2 * 200, or close to or a little less than 2 * 250).


Model and solve a multiplication problem using an array, and record the process.


Solve a multiplication problem and explain the strategies or processes used.


Demonstrate an understanding of division (1-digit divisor and up to 2-digit dividend) to solve problems by: using personal strategies for dividing with and without concrete materials, estimating quotients, explaining the results of dividing by 1, solving problems involving division of whole numbers, relating division to multiplication. [C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]


Solve a division problem without a remainder using arrays or base ten materials.


Solve a division problem with a remainder using arrays or base ten materials.


Solve a division problem using a personal strategy and record the process symbolically.


Estimate a quotient using a personal strategy (e.g., 86/4 is close to 80/4 or close to 80/5).


Explain, using examples, the relationship between division and multiplication.


Demonstrate an understanding of fractions less than or equal to one by using concrete and pictorial representations to: name and record fractions for the parts of a whole or a set; compare and order fractions; model and explain that for different wholes, two identical fractions may not represent the same quantity; provide examples of where fractions are used. [C, CN, PS, R, V]


Represent a fraction using concrete materials.


Represent a fraction based on a symbolically concrete representation (e.g., circles for cookies).


Name and record the fraction for the included and not included parts of a set.


Name and record the shaded and non-shaded (included and not included) parts of a whole.


Represent a fraction pictorially by indicating parts of a given set.


Represent a fraction pictorially by indicating parts of a whole.


Explain how denominators can be used to compare two unit fractions with numerator 1.


Order a set of fractions that have the same numerator and explain the ordering.


Order a set of fractions that have the same denominator and explain the ordering.


Identify which of the benchmarks 0, 1/2 or 1 is closer to a given fraction.


Name fractions between two benchmarks on a number line.


Order a set of fractions by placing them on a number line with given benchmarks.


Provide an example of a fraction that represents part of a set, a fraction that represents part of a whole, or a fraction that represents part of a length from everyday contexts.


Demonstrate an understanding of decimal numbers in tenths and hundredths (pictorially, orally, in writing, and symbolically) by: describing, representing, relating to fractions. [C, CN, V]


Write the decimal for a concrete or pictorial representation of part of a set, part of a region, or part of a unit of measure.


Represent a decimal concretely or pictorially.


Explain the meaning of each digit in a given decimal with all digits the same.


Represent a decimal using money (dimes and pennies).


Record a money value using decimals.


Provide examples of everyday contexts in which tenths and hundredths are used.


Model, using manipulatives or pictures, that a tenth can be expressed as hundredths (e.g., 0.9 is equivalent to 0.90 or 9 dimes is equivalent to 90 pennies).


Read and write decimals as fractions (e.g., 0.5 is zero and five tenths).


Express orally and in symbolic form a decimal in fractional form.


Express orally and in symbolic form a fraction with a denominator of 10 or 100 as a decimal.


Express a pictorial or concrete representation as a fraction or decimal (e.g., 15 shaded squares on a hundred grid can be expressed as 0.15 or 15/100).


Express orally and in symbolic form the decimal equivalent for a fraction (e.g., 50/100 can be expressed as 0.50).


Demonstrate an understanding of addition and subtraction of decimals limited to hundredths (concretely, pictorially, and symbolically) by: using compatible numbers, estimating sums and differences, using mental math strategies, solving problems. [C, ME, PS, R, V]


Approximate sums and differences of decimals using estimation strategies.


Solve problems, including money problems, which involve addition and subtraction of decimals, limited to hundredths.


Determine the approximate solution of a problem not requiring an exact answer.


Estimate a sum or difference using compatible numbers.


Count back change for a purchase.


Explain the strategies used to determine a sum or difference.


Represent a sum or difference of two decimals concretely or pictorially, and record the solution to the sum or difference symbolically.


Demonstrate an understanding of patterns and relations by: identifying and describing patterns and relations in a chart, table or diagram; reproducing patterns and relations in a chart, table, or diagram using manipulatives; creating charts, tables, or diagrams to represent patterns and relations; solving problems involving patterns and relations [C, CN, PS, R]


Identify and describe a variety of patterns in a multiplication chart.


Determine the missing element(s) in a table or chart and explain the strategies used.


Identify and correct error(s) in a table or chart.


Describe the pattern found in a table or chart.


Create a concrete representation of a pattern displayed in a table or chart.


Extend patterns found in a table or chart to solve a problem.


Translate the information provided in a problem into a table or chart.


Identify and extend the patterns in a table or chart to solve a problem.


Identify the sorting rule for a Venn diagram.


Describe the relationship shown in a given Venn diagram when the circles intersect, when one circle is contained in the other, and when the circles are separate.


Determine where new data belong in a Venn diagram.


Demonstrate an understanding of equations involving symbols to represent an unknown value by: writing an equation to represent a problem, solving one step equations. [C, ME, PS, R]


Explain the purpose of the symbol, such as a triangle or circle, in an addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division equation with one unknown (e.g. 36 / _ = 6).


Write an equation in symbolic form for a given pictorial or concrete representation.


Identify the unknown in a story problem, represent the problem with an equation, and solve the problem concretely, pictorially, or symbolically.


Create a problem in context for an equation with one unknown.


Solve a one-step equation using manipulatives.


Solve a one-step equation using guess and test.


Explain what is meant by ''one-step equation with one unknown''.


Represent and solve a multiplication or division problem involving equal grouping or partitioning (equal sharing) using a symbol to represent the unknown.


Identify ways in which Saskatchewan people can be involved in making decisions which affect their local communities (e.g., run as a candidate for school board, local government, or band elections; vote during elections; attend community forums).


Illustrate the organization of the municipal or band decision-making process, including the name of the sitting mayor, reeve, or chief.


Describe ways in which Saskatchewan people can be involved in the democratic process regarding decisions which affect their province, and explain why it is important to be an active participant in the democratic process (e.g., vote in provincial elections; belong to a political party; run for member of the provincial or First Nations legislative assembly; communicate with the member of the legislative assembly about issues of concern).


Differentiate between rules and laws.


Differentiate between rights and responsibilities.


Describe the relationship between three levels of government in Canada, including local (i.e., municipal, band), provincial or territorial, and federal.


Identify elected local, provincial, and federal heads of government.


Compare how laws are made at the local and provincial levels.


Research the structures of governance in First Nations communities (e.g., local band council, tribal council, Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations, Assembly of First Nations).


Compare the traditional processes for selection of leaders in First Nations communities to current practices for selection of leaders in First Nations.


Compile an inventory of issues of current focus for First Nations governments in Saskatchewan.


Research the structures of governance of Mtis people in Saskatchewan (e.g., Mtis local, Mtis Nation of Saskatchewan, Mtis National Council).


Compare the traditional processes for selection of leaders of Mtis people to current practices for selection of leaders by the Mtis people.


Compile an inventory of issues of current focus for Mtis governments in Saskatchewan.


Pose questions about the properties of rocks and minerals (e.g., What is the difference between rocks and minerals? Where do we find rocks and minerals? Do rocks become minerals?).


Document the locations and characteristics of rocks that exist in their local environment.


Observe and record physical properties of rocks and minerals using appropriate terminology such as colour, lustre, hardness, cleavage, transparency, and crystal structure.


Use appropriate tools (e.g., hand lens, safety glasses, brush, rock pick, knife, measuring tape, and gloves) safely while making observations and collecting information on the physical properties of rocks and minerals.


Demonstrate respect for all components of their environment when observing and collecting rocks and minerals (e.g., do not remove rocks and minerals from private property without permission).


Demonstrate processes for testing the hardness of minerals, including reference to guides such as Moh's scale of mineral hardness.


Record observations of rocks and minerals using jot notes, labelled diagrams, and charts.


Compare the physical properties of rocks and minerals from the local environment with those from other geological areas.


Develop a classification scheme to organize their understanding of rocks and minerals.


Account for any variation between their classification schemes of rocks and minerals and those of classmates, Elders, traditional knowledge keepers, geologists, or other resources.


Differentiate between rocks and minerals.


Develop simple generalizations about the physical characteristics of rocks and minerals based on observation and research.


Discuss ways in which people of different cultures value, respect, and use rocks and minerals, including First Nations and Mtis connections to Mother Earth.


Identify objects in their local environment that are made from rocks and minerals (e.g., nickel, table salt, pottery, cement, carvings, brick, jewellery, bicycle, nutrients, battery, copper wiring, soda can, plumbing pipe, and sidewalk).


Research historical (e.g., flint arrowhead, gold jewellery, paint pigment, and coal heating) and contemporary (e.g., fertilizer, building products, ceramics, glass, salt, silver fillings, and electronics) uses for rocks and minerals in Saskatchewan.


Suggest alternative materials that could be used to create everyday objects or propose new uses for rocks and minerals.


Relate uses for rocks and minerals to characteristics such as functionality, mineral shape, cost, availability, and aesthetics.


Identify locations where minerals, including potash, sodium sulphate, salt, kaolin, uranium, copper, coal, diamond, and gold, are extracted in Saskatchewan.


Discuss the economic benefits associated with mineral extraction and refining, including related careers, in Saskatchewan.


Analyze issues related to the extraction and use of minerals from the perspectives of various stakeholders (e.g., company owner, employee, scientist, Elder, environmental group, and end user).


Research ways in which products made from rocks or minerals can be recycled and reused.


Suggest methods of reclaiming resource extraction sites (e.g., quarry, strip mine, open pit mine, and hard rock mine) to reduce short- and long-term impacts on communities and the environment.


Assess their own and their family's impact on natural resources based on their current lifestyle.


Construct a visual representation of the diversity of landscapes and landforms throughout Saskatchewan, including those that have significance for First Nations and Mtis people.


Examine the effects of natural phenomena (e.g., tidal wave, flash flood, hurricane, tornado, earthquake, mud slide, forest fire, avalanche, and meteor impact) that cause rapid and significant changes to the landscape.


Explain how rocks can be classified as igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic based on the processes by which they form.


Describe possible short- and long-term effects of wind, water, and ice on local, national, and global landscapes (e.g., sandy beaches, coastline erosion, rounded rock formations, sand dunes, river deltas, glacial deposits, and cracks in rocks).


Predict the effects of weathering on various landforms (e.g., butte, cliff, cave, valley, river, waterfall, and beach) in Saskatchewan.


Suggest explanations of how soils form from rocks, including the roles of wind, water, and biological processes (e.g., decomposition of plant and animal matter, and growth of plant roots play) over time.


Create models of different types (e.g., amber, imprint, cast, and mould) of plant and animal fossils.


Discuss how fossils and the fossil record provide evidence of Earth's history, including the formation of various landforms.


Predict the types of plant or animal fossils that would be found in Saskatchewan landforms in the past, present, and future.


Explain how scientists develop explanations of natural phenomena based on observations and data.


Pose new questions about Saskatchewan landforms based on what was learned.


List the challenges and opportunities climate presents for residents of Saskatchewan.


Determine safety measures necessary for living in the Saskatchewan climate (e.g., clothing; safety package for vehicle; never leave vehicle when stranded in winter; checking highway hotline; not licking frozen metal).


Retell the stories of Elders, traditional knowledge keepers, and senior citizens about surviving weather extremes (e.g., drought, cold, blizzards, tornadoes, extreme heat).


Collect the natural weather forecasting techniques of Elders, traditional knowledge keepers, senior citizens, and others with local knowledge.


Represent the traditions and practices Saskatchewan people developed when faced with isolation, including First Nations practices adopted by Europeans.


Research past and present technologies used to withstand the Saskatchewan climate.


Investigate the technological evolution of farming practices in Saskatchewan, including crop variety development, pesticide and herbicide use, and soil and water conservation.


Graph the typical energy consumption in Saskatchewan for an average year, and investigate energy efficient technologies being developed in Saskatchewan.


Identify and locate various types of farms in Saskatchewan.


Research production practices of various types of crop and livestock farms.


Identify various farm stewardship practices (e.g., how farmers care for the land, animals, water supply, natural vegetation, and air quality).


Compile an inventory of Saskatchewan agricultural food and by-products.


Identify agricultural products used in daily life in Saskatchewan.


Trace the steps of a food product from the farm to the plates of consumers, and identify the various careers that contribute to this process in the agriculture and food processing industries.


Analyze the significance of Saskatchewan agricultural commodity exports to the province.


Represent on a map the major resources in Saskatchewan (e.g., minerals, potash, oil, uranium, natural gas, lumber, water, crop and livestock production).


Locate on a map the major industries in Saskatchewan (e.g., agriculture processing, mining, manufacturing, forestry products, energy refinement, tourism, livestock production).


Identify the natural resources and industries found in the local community, and analyze their impact upon the community.


Illustrate the goods made from the major natural resources, the consumers of those goods, and the export destinations.


Differentiate between primary and secondary industry.


Examine the environmental impact of the development of natural resources on the local community, the province, and the world.


Describe the impact of technological innovations originating in Saskatchewan on the global community (e.g., farm machinery, varieties of grain, automated teller machines, fibre optics, communications technologies, pesticides and herbicides, vaccines).


Identify and classify, using student-developed criteria, examples of natural and artificial sounds in their environments (e.g., classroom, school, home, playground, and community).


Relate natural and artificial sources of sounds in their environment to the ways in which those sounds are produced.


Describe examples of sounds (e.g., radio, alarm clock, fire alarm, and whistling steam kettle) that people use to meet their everyday needs.


Explain how humans and other animals use sounds for various purposes such as enjoyment, warning, navigation, annoyance, ambience, and communication.


Examine connections between music of various cultures, including First Nations and Mtis, and natural sounds (e.g. water moving, bird flying, and wind blowing).


Differentiate among the types of sounds produced by various stringed, woodwind, brass, and percussion instruments.


Illustrate and explain how humans create and detect sounds.


Compare the characteristics of human and animal perceptions of sound, including their sense organs to detect sound and their range of hearing.


Propose structural modifications that might improve the hearing of a specific animal.


Predict and explore how sound travels from different sources to the human ear.


Pose questions about the characteristics of sound (e.g., Why are some sounds louder than others? Why do sounds sound different? Why are some locations noisier than other locations?).


Recognize and demonstrate that sound energy originates from vibrating objects (e.g., larynx, tuning fork, radio speaker, and musical instruments).


Compare how sound vibrations travel differently through solids, liquids, and gases such as air.


Differentiate between the loudness of various sounds, as measured in decibels.


Compare the ability of different materials to absorb and reflect sounds of varying pitch and loudness.


Compare the ability of self and others to hear sounds of various pitch and loudness.


Compare the characteristics (e.g., construction and method of vibration) of string, woodwind, brass, and percussion instruments to determine how they make sound.


Rephrase questions about pitch and loudness into a testable form.


State and test a prediction about how the pitch and loudness of a sound can be altered.


Design and construct a device such as a musical instrument which has the ability to create sounds of variable pitch and/or loudness.


Suggest improvements to enhance the effectiveness of a device such as a musical instrument which has the ability to create sounds of variable pitch and/or loudness.


State generalizations about the physical characteristics of sound, including pitch and loudness, learned through observation.


Explain the purpose and effect of devices (e.g., hearing aid, sonar, amplifier, microphone, oscilloscope, and ultrasound) that enhance the human ability to produce, transmit, and detect sound.


Explore the use of sound in movies, television, dance, and drama.


Investigate the type and loudness of sounds heard in various locations in their environment (e.g., classroom, hallway, gymnasium, music room, library, lunch room, and playground).


Explore the personal and social impacts on humans who are deaf or hard of hearing, including connections to speech and the role of sign language.


Explain how and why different materials are used in schools and other buildings based on their ability to absorb and/or reflect sounds.


Demonstrate methods and technologies used to prevent noise pollution in their surroundings, and work with group members to evaluate the effectiveness of those methods.


Identify positive and negative consequences, for humans and other animals, of technologies (e.g., leaf blower, stereo, car horn, motors, and fireworks) that produce sounds.


Identify issues related to sound such as long-term exposure to environmental noise, portable music players, and workplace sounds, and discuss the implications of these issues on individuals, society, and the environment.


Explain practices that help meet the need for protection from loud and sustained sounds to prevent short- and long-term hearing loss in humans.


Demonstrate an understanding of many-to-one correspondence by: comparing correspondences on graphs, justifying the use of many-to-one correspondences, interpreting data shown using a many-to-one correspondence, creating bar graphs and pictographs using many-to-one correspondence. [C, R, T, V]


Compare graphs in which different correspondences are used and explain why the correspondence may have been used.


Compare graphs in which the same data have been displayed using a one-to-one and a many-to-one correspondence, and explain how they are the same and different.


Select many-to-one correspondence for displaying a set of data in a graph and justify the choice.


Answer a question using a graph in which data are displayed using a many-to-one correspondence.


Demonstrate an understanding of time by: reading and recording time using digital and analog clocks (including 24 hour clocks), reading and recording calendar dates in a variety of formats. [C, CN, V]


State the number of hours in a day.


Express the time orally and numerically shown on a 12-hour analog clock.


Express the time orally and numerically shown on a 24-hour analog clock.


Express the time orally shown on a 12-hour digital clock.


Express time orally shown on a 24-hour digital clock.


Express time orally as ''minutes to'' or ''minutes after'' the hour.


Write dates in a variety of formats (e.g., yyyy/mm/dd; dd/mm/yyyy; March 21, 2006; dd/mm/yy).


Relate dates written in the format yyyy/mm/dd to dates on a calendar.


Identify possible interpretations of a date (e.g., 06/03/04).


Demonstrate an understanding of area of regular and irregular 2-D shapes by: recognizing that area is measured in square units, selecting and justifying referents for the units cm^2 or m^2, estimating area by using referents for cm^2 or m^2, determining and recording area (cm^2 or m^2), constructing different rectangles for a given area (cm^2 or m^2) in order to demonstrate that many different rectangles may have the same area. [C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]


Describe area as the measure of surface recorded in square units.


Identify and explain why the square is a most efficient unit for measuring area.


Determine which standard square unit is represented by a referent.


Determine the area of a regular 2-D shape and explain the strategy used.


Determine the area of an irregular 2-D shape and explain the strategy used.


Construct a rectangle with a given area.


Illustrate, and verify, how more than one rectangle is possible for a given area by drawing at least two different rectangles with that area (e.g., identifying the dimensions of each rectangle drawn, or superimpose the rectangles on each other).


Demonstrate an understanding of rectangular and triangular prisms by: identifying common attributes, comparing, constructing models. [C, CN, R, V]


Identify and name common attributes of rectangular prisms from sets of rectangular prisms.


Identify and name common attributes of triangular prisms from sets of triangular prisms.


Sort a set of rectangular and triangular prisms using the shape of the base.


Identify examples of rectangular and triangular prisms found in the environment.


Construct rectangular prisms from their nets.


Construct triangular prisms from their nets.


Construct nets for rectangular or triangular prisms.


Demonstrate an understanding of line symmetry by: identifying symmetrical 2-D shapes, creating symmetrical 2-D shapes, drawing one or more lines of symmetry in a 2-D shape. [C, CN, V]


Identify the characteristics of given symmetrical and non-symmetrical 2-D shapes.


Sort a set of 2-D shapes as symmetrical and non-symmetrical.


Explain how symmetry and fractions are related.


Identify lines of symmetry in a set of 2-D shapes and explain why each shape is symmetrical.


Determine whether or not a given 2-D shape is symmetrical by using a Mira or by folding and superimposing.


Provide examples of symmetrical shapes found in the environment and identify the line(s) of symmetry.


Sort a given set of 2-D shapes as those that have no lines of symmetry, one line of symmetry, or more than one line of symmetry.