North Carolina State Science Standards — Grade 8

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Explain the structure of the hydrosphere including: Water distribution on earth Local river basins and water availability


Summarize evidence that Earths oceans are a reservoir of nutrients, minerals, dissolved gases, and life forms: Estuaries Marine ecosystems Upwelling Behavior of gases in the marine environment Value and sustainability of marine resources Deep ocean technology and understandings gained


Predict the safety and potability of water supplies in North Carolina based on physical and biological factors, including: Temperature Dissolved oxygen pH Nitrates and phosphates Turbidity Bio-indicators


Conclude that the good health of humans requires: Monitoring of the hydrosphere Water quality standards Methods of water treatment Maintaining safe water quality Stewardship


Infer the age of Earth and relative age of rocks and fossils from index fossils and ordering of rock layers (relative dating and radioactive dating).


Explain the use of fossils, ice cores, composition of sedimentary rocks, faults, and igneous rock formations found in rock layers as evidence of the history of the Earth and its changing life forms


Summarize the basic characteristics of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites relating to the spread, treatment and prevention of disease.


Explain the difference between epidemic and pandemic as it relates to the spread, treatment and prevention of disease.


Summarize aspects of biotechnology including: Specific genetic information available Careers Economic benefits to North Carolina Ethical issues Implications for agriculture


Explain how factors such as food, water, shelter and space affect populations in an ecosystem.


Summarize the relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers including the positive and negative consequences of such interactions including: Coexistence and cooperation Competition (predator/prey) Parasitism Mutualism


Explain how the flow of energy within food webs is interconnected with the cycling of matter (including water, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and oxygen).


Summarize the use of evidence drawn from geology, fossils, and comparative anatomy to form the basis for biological classification systems and the theory of evolution.


Explain the relationship between genetic variation and an organisms ability to adapt to its environment.


Summarize how food provides the energy and the molecules required for building materials, growth and survival of all organisms (to include plants).


Explain the relationship among a healthy diet, exercise, and the general health of the body (emphasis on the relationship between respiration and digestion).


Classify matter as elements, compounds, or mixtures based on how the atoms are packed together in arrangements.


Explain how the physical properties of elements and their reactivity have been used to produce the current model of the Periodic Table of elements.


Compare physical changes such as size, shape and state to chemical changes that are the result of a chemical reaction to include changes in temperature, color, formation of a gas or precipitate


Explain how the idea of atoms and a balanced chemical equation support the law of conservation of mass.


Explain the environmental consequences of the various methods of obtaining, transforming and distributing energy


Explain the implications of the depletion of renewable and nonrenewable energy resources and the importance of conservation.