Minnesota Science Learning Standards — Grade 5

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Explain why evidence, clear communication, accurate record keeping, replication by others, and openness to scrutiny are essential parts of doing science.

Recognize that when scientific investigations are replicated they generally produce the same results, and when results differ significantly, it is important to investigate what may have caused such differences. For example: Measurement errors, equipment failures, or uncontrolled variables.

Understand that different explanations for the same observations usually lead to making more observations and trying to resolve the differences.

Understand that different models can be used to represent natural phenomena and these models have limitations about what they can explain. For example: Different kinds of maps of a region provide different information about the land surface

Generate a scientific question and plan an appropriate scientific investigation, such as systematic observations, field studies, open-ended exploration or controlled experiments to answer the question.

Identify and collect relevant evidence, make systematic observations and accurate measurements, and identify variables in a scientific investigation.

Conduct or critique an experiment, noting when the experiment might not be fair because some of the things that might change the outcome are not kept the same, or that the experiment isn't repeated enough times to provide valid results.

Describe how science and engineering influence and are influenced by local traditions and beliefs. For example: Substainable agriculture practices used by many cultures.

Use appropriate tools and techniques in gathering, analyzing and interpreting data. For example: Spring scale, metric measurements, tables, mean/median/range, spreadsheets, and appropriate graphs,

Create and analyze different kinds of maps of the student's community and of Minnesota. For example: Weather maps, city maps, aerial photos, regional maps, or online map resources.

Give examples of simple machines and demonstrate how they change the input and output of forces and motion.

Identify the force that starts something moving or changes its speed or direction of motion. For example: Friction slows down a moving skateboard.

Demonstrate that a greater force on an object can produce a greater change in motion.

Explain how, over time, rocks weather and combine with organic matter to form soil.

Explain how slow processes, such as water erosion, and rapid processes, such as landslides and volcanic eruptions, form features of the Earth's surface.

Identify renewable and non-renewable energy and material resources that are found in Minnesota and describe how they are used. For example: Water, iron ore, granite, sand and gravel, wind, and forests.

Give examples of how mineral and energy resources are obtained and processed and how that processing modifies their properties to make them more useful. For example: Iron ore, biofuels, or coal.

Compare the impact of individual decisions on natural systems. For example: Choosing paper or plastic bags impacts landfills as well as ocean life cycles.

Describe how plant and animal structures and their functions provide an advantage for survival in a given natural system. For example: Compare the physical characteristics of plants or animals from widely different environments, such as desert verses tropical, and explore how each has adapted to its environment.

Describe a natural system in Minnesota, such as a wetland, prairie, or garden, in terms of the relationships among its living and nonliving parts, as well as inputs and outputs. For example: Design and construct a habitat for a living organism that meets its need for food, air and water.

Explain what would happen to a system such as a wetland, prairie or garden if one of its parts were changed. For example: Investigate how road salt runoff affects plants, insects and other parts of an ecosystem. Another example: Investigate how an invasive species changes an ecosystem.

Give examples of beneficial and harmful human interaction with natural systems. For example: Recreation, pollution, wildlife management.