Arizona Social Studies Standards — Grade 9


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SSHS-S1C1

Historical research is a process in which students examine topics or questions related to historical studies and/or current issues. By using primary and secondary sources effectively students obtain accurate and relevant information.

SSHS-S1C1.a

Interpret historical data displayed in maps, graphs, tables, charts, and geologic time scales.

SSHS-S1C1.b

Distinguish among dating methods that yield calendar ages (e.g., dendrochronology), numerical ages (e.g., radiocarbon), correlated ages (e.g., volcanic ash), and relative ages (e.g., geologic time).

SSHS-S1C1.c

Formulate questions that can be answered by historical study and research.

SSHS-S1C1.d

Construct graphs, tables, timelines, charts, and narratives to interpret historical data.

SSHS-S1C1.e

Evaluate primary and secondary sources for a) authors' main points; b) purpose and perspective; c) facts vs. opinions; d) different points of view on the same historical event (e.g., Geography Concept 6 - geographical perspective can be different from economic perspective); e) credibility and validity.

SSHS-S1C1.f

Apply the skills of historical analysis to current social, political, geographic, and economic issues facing the world.

SSHS-S1C1.g

Compare present events with past events a) cause and effect; b) change over time; c) different points of view.

SSHS-S1C10

Current events and issues continue to shape our nation and our involvement in the global community.

SSHS-S1C10.a

Describe current events using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).

SSHS-S1C10.b

Identify the connection between current and historical events and issues using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).

SSHS-S1C10.c

Describe how key political, social, environmental, and economic events of the late 20th century and early 21st century (e.g., Watergate, OPEC/oil crisis, Central American wars/Iran-Contra, End of Cold War, first Gulf War, September 11) affected, and continue to affect, the United States.

SSHS-S1C2

Describe Prehistoric Cultures of the North American continent a) Paleo-Indians, including Clovis, Folsom, and Plano; b) Moundbuilders, including Adena, Hopewell, and Mississippian; c) Southwestern, including Mogollon, Hohokam, and Ancestral Puebloans (Anasazi).

SSHS-S1C3

The varied causes and effects of exploration, settlement, and colonization shaped regional and national development of the U.S.

SSHS-S1C3.a

Review the reciprocal impact resulting from early European contact with indigenous peoples a) religious (e.g., conversion attempts); b) economic (e.g., land disputes, trade); c) social (e.g., spread of disease, partnerships); d) food (e.g., corn); e) government (e.g., Iroquois Confederacy, matriarchal leadership, democratic influence).

SSHS-S1C3.b

Describe the reasons for colonization of America (e.g., religious freedom, desire for land, economic opportunity, and a new life).

SSHS-S1C3.c

Compare the characteristics of the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies a) Colonial governments; geographic influences, resources, and economic systems; b) religious beliefs and social patterns.

SSHS-S1C3.d

Describe the impact of key colonial figures (e.g., John Smith, William Penn, Roger Williams Anne Hutchinson, John Winthrop).

SSHS-S1C4

The development of American constitutional democracy grew from political, cultural and economic issues, ideas and event.

SSHS-S1C4.a

Assess the economic, political, and social reasons for the American Revolution a) British attempts to tax and regulate colonial trade as a result of the French and Indian War; b) colonists' reaction to British policy ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence.

SSHS-S1C4.b

Analyze the effects of European involvement in the American Revolution on the outcome of the war.

SSHS-S1C4.c

Describe the significance of major events in the Revolutionary War a) Lexington and Concord; b) Bunker Hill; c) Saratoga; d) writing and ratification of the Declaration of Independence; e) Yorktown.

SSHS-S1C4.d

Analyze how the new national government was created a) Albany Plan of Union influenced by the Iroquois Confederation; b) Articles of Confederation; c) Constitutional Convention; d) struggles over ratification of the Constitution; e) creation of the Bill of Rights.

SSHS-S1C4.e

Examine the significance of the following in the formation of a new nation a) presidency of George Washington; b) economic policies of Alexander Hamilton; c) creation of political parties under Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton; d) the establishment of the Supreme Court as a co-equal third branch of government under John Marshall with cases such as Marbury v. Madison.

SSHS-S1C4.f

Examine the experiences and perspectives of the following groups in the new nation a) property owners; b) African Americans; c) women; d) Native Americans; e) indentured servants.

SSHS-S1C5

Westward expansion, influenced by political, cultural, and economic factors, led to the growth and development of the U.S.

SSHS-S1C5.a

Trace the growth of the American nation during the period of western expansion a) Northwest Territory; b) Louisiana Territory; c) Florida; d) Texas; e) Oregon Country; f) Mexican Cession; g) Gadsden Purchase; h) Alaska.

SSHS-S1C5.b

Analyze how the following events affected the political transformation of the developing nation a) Jefferson's Presidency; b) War of 1812; c) Jackson's Presidency.

SSHS-S1C5.c

Identify how economic incentives and geography influenced early American explorations a) explorers (e.g., Lewis and Clark, Pike, Fremont); b) fur traders; c) miners; d) missionaries (e.g., Father Kino, Circuit Riders).

SSHS-S1C5.d

Describe the impact of European-American expansion on native peoples.

SSHS-S1C5.e

Describe the impact of the following aspects of the Industrial Revolution on the United States a) transportation improvements (e.g., railroads, canals, steamboats); b) factory system manufacturing; c) urbanization; d) inventions (e.g., telegraph, cotton gin, interchangeable parts).

SSHS-S1C6

Regional conflicts led to the Civil War and resulted in significant changes to American social, economic, and political structures.

SSHS-S1C6.a

Explain the economic, social, and political causes of the Civil War a) economic and social differences between the North, South, and West; b) balance of power in the Senate (e.g., Missouri and 1850 Compromises); c) extension of slavery into the territories (e.g., Dred Scott Decision, the Kansas-Nebraska Act); d) role of abolitionists (e.g., Frederick Douglass and John Brown); e) debate over popular sovereignty/states rights; f) Presidential election of 1860.

SSHS-S1C6.b

Analyze aspects of the Civil War a) changes in technology; b) importance of resources; c) turning points; d) military and civilian leaders; e) effect of the Emancipation Proclamation; f) effect on the civilian populations.

SSHS-S1C6.c

Analyze immediate and long term effects of Reconstruction in post Civil War America a) various plans for reconstruction of the South; b) Lincoln's assassination; c) Johnson's impeachment; d) Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments; e) resistance to and end of Reconstruction (e.g., Jim Crow laws, KKK, Compromise of 1877).

SSHS-S1C7

Economic, social, and cultural changes transformed the U.S. into a world power.

SSHS-S1C7.a

Analyze how the following aspects of industrialization transformed the American economy beginning in the late 19th century a) mass production; b) monopolies and trusts (e.g., Robber Barons, Taft- Hartley Act); c) economic philosophies (e.g., laissez faire, Social Darwinism, free silver); d) labor movement (e.g., Bisbee Deportation); trade.

SSHS-S1C7.b

Assess how the following social developments influenced American society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries a) Civil Rights issues (e.g., Women's Suffrage Movement, Dawes Act, Indian schools, lynching, Plessy v. Ferguson); b) changing patterns in Immigration (e.g., Ellis Island, Angel Island, Chinese Exclusion Act, Immigration Act of 1924); c) urbanization and social reform (e.g., health care, housing, food & nutrition, child labor laws); d) mass media (e.g., political cartoons, muckrakers, yellow journalism, radio); e) consumerism (e.g., advertising, standard of living, consumer credit); f) Roaring Twenties (e.g., Harlem Renaissance, leisure time, jazz, changed social mores)

SSHS-S1C7.c

Analyze events which caused a transformation of the United States during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries a) Indian Wars (e.g., Little Bighorn, Wounded Knee); b) Imperialism (e.g., Spanish American War, annexation of Hawaii, Philippine-American War); c) Progressive Movement (e.g., Sixteenth through Nineteenth Amendments, child labor); d) Teddy Roosevelt (e.g., conservationism, Panama Canal, national parks, trust busting); e) corruption (e.g., Tammany Hall, spoils system); f) World War I (e.g., League of Nations, Isolationism); g) Red Scare/Socialism; h) Populism.

SSHS-S1C7.d

Analyze the effect of direct democracy (initiative, referendum, recall) on Arizona statehood.

SSHS-S1C8

Domestic and world events, economic issues, and political conflicts redefined the role of government in the lives of U.S. citizens.

SSHS-S1C8.a

Describe causes and consequences of the Great Depression a) economic causes of the Depression (e.g., economic policies of 1920s, investment patterns and stock market crash); b) Dust Bowl (e.g., environmental damage, internal migration); c) effects on society (e.g., fragmentation of families, Hoovervilles, unemployment, business failure, breadlines); d) changes in expectations of government (e.g., New Deal programs).

SSHS-S1C8.b

Describe the impact of American involvement in World War II a) movement away from isolationism; b) economic recovery from the Great Depression; c) homefront transformations in the roles of women and minorities; d) Japanese, German, and Italian internments and POW camps; e) war mobilization ( e.g., Native American Code-Talkers, minority participation in military units, media portrayal); f) turning points such as Pearl Harbor, D-Day, Hiroshima/Nagasaki.

SSHS-S1C9

Postwar tensions led to social change in the U.S. and to a heightened focus on foreign policy.

SSHS-S1C9.a

Analyze aspects of America's post World War II foreign policy a) international activism (e.g., Marshall Plan, United Nations, NATO); b) Cold War (e.g., domino theory, containment, Korea, Vietnam); c) Arms Race (e.g., Cuban Missile Crisis, SALT); d) United States as a superpower (e.g., political intervention and humanitarian efforts).

SSHS-S1C9.b

Describe aspects of American post-World War II domestic policy a) McCarthyism; b) Civil Rights (e.g., Birmingham, 1964 Civil Rights Act, Voting Rights Act, Constitutional Amendments); c) Supreme Court Decisions (e.g., the Warren and Burger Courts); d) Executive Power (e.g., War Powers Act, Watergate); e) social reforms Great Society and War on Poverty; f) Space Race and technological developments.

SSHS-S1C9.c

Describe aspects of post World War II American society a) postwar prosperity (e.g., growth of suburbs, baby boom, GI Bill); b) popular culture (e.g., conformity v. counter-culture, mass-media); c) protest movements (e.g., anti-war, women's rights, civil rights, farm workers, Cesar Chavez); d) assassinations (e.g., John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King, Jr., Robert F. Kennedy, Malcolm X); e) shift to increased immigration from Latin America and Asia.

SSHS-S2C1.

Historical research is a process in which students examine topics or questions related to historical studies and/or current issues.

SSHS-S2C1.a

Interpret historical data displayed in maps, graphs, tables, charts, and geologic time scales.

SSHS-S2C1.b

Distinguish among dating methods that yield calendar ages (e.g., dendrochronology), numerical ages (e.g., radiocarbon), correlated ages (e.g., volcanic ash), and relative ages (e.g., geologic time).

SSHS-S2C1.c

Formulate questions that can be answered by historical study and research.

SSHS-S2C1.d

Construct graphs, tables, timelines, charts, and narratives to interpret historical data.

SSHS-S2C1.e

a) authors' main points; b) purpose and perspective; c) facts vs. opinions; d) different points of view on the same historical event (e.g., Geography Concept 6 - geographical perspective can be different from economic perspective); e) credibility and validity.

SSHS-S2C1.f

Apply the skills of historical analysis to current social, political, geographic, and economic issues facing the world.

SSHS-S2C1.g

a) cause and effect; b) change over time; c) different points of view.

SSHS-S2C2.

The geographic, political, economic and cultural characteristics of early civilizations significantly influenced the development of later civilizations.

SSHS-S2C2.a

Describe the development of early prehistoric people, their agriculture, and settlements.

SSHS-S2C2.b

Analyze the development and historical significance of Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam.

SSHS-S2C2.c

a) development of concepts of government and citizenship (e.g., democracy, republics, codification of law, and development of empire); b) scientific and cultural advancements (e.g., network of roads, aqueducts, art and architecture, literature and theater, mathematics, and philosophy)

SSHS-S2C2d

a) development of concepts of government and citizenship (e.g., Confucianism, empire); b) scientific, mathematical, and technical advances (e.g., roads, aqueducts); c) cultural advancements in art, architecture, literature, theater, and philosophy,

SSHS-S2C3.

People of different regions developed unique civilizations and cultural identities characterized by increased interaction, societal complexity and competition.

SSHS-S2C3.a

Contrast the fall of Rome with the development of the Byzantine and Arab Empires (e.g., religion, culture, language, governmental structure).

SSHS-S2C3.b

Compare feudalism in Europe and Japan and its connection with religious and cultural institutions.

SSHS-S2C3.c

Compare the development of empires (e.g., Roman, Han, Mali, Incan/Inkan, Ottoman) throughout the world.

SSHS-S2C3.d

a) Crusades; b) commerce and the Silk Road; c) impact on culture; d) plague

SSHS-S2C4.

The rise of individualism challenged traditional western authority and belief systems resulting in a variety of new institutions, philosophical and religious ideas, and cultural and social achievements.

SSHS-S2C4.a

a) rediscovery of Greek and Roman ideas; b) humanism and its emphasis on individual potential and achievements; c) scientific approach to the natural world; d) Middle Eastern contributions (e.g., mathematics, science); e) innovations in the arts and sciences.

SSHS-S2C4.b

Explain how the ideas of the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Reformation (e.g., secular authority, individualism, migration, literacy and vernacular, the arts) affected society.

SSHS-S2C5.

Innovations, discoveries, exploration, and colonization accelerated contact, conflict, and interconnection among societies world wide, transforming and creating nations.

SSHS-S2C5.a

a) reasons for European exploration; b) impact of expansion and colonization on Europe; c) impact of expansion and colonization on Africa, the Americas, and Asia; d) role of disease in conquest; e) role of trade; f) navigational technology; g) impact and ramifications of slavery and international slave trade; h) contrasting motivations and methods for colonization

SSHS-S2C6.

Intensified internal conflicts led to the radical overthrow of traditional governments and created new political and economic systems.

SSHS-S2C6.a

a) absolute monarchies (e.g., Louis XIV, Peter the Great, Philip II); b) the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, and parliamentary government; c) the ideas of John Locke

SSHS-S2C6.b

Explain how new ideas (i.e., Heliocentrism, Scientific Method, Newton's Laws) changed the way people understood the world.

SSHS-S2C6.c

a) Deism; b) role of women; c) political thought; d) social change

SSHS-S2C6.d

a) Reign of Terror; b) rise of Napoleon; c) spread of nationalism in Europe; d) defeat of Napoleon and Congress of Vienna

SSHS-S2C6.e

Explain the revolutionary and independence movements in Latin America (e.g., Mexico, Haiti, South America).

SSHS-S2C6.f

a) origins in England's textile and mining industries; b) urban growth and the social impact of industrialization; c) unequal spread of industrialization to other countries; d) political and economic theories (nationalism, anarchism, capitalism, socialism)

SSHS-S2C7.

Industrialized nations exerted political, economic, and social control over less developed areas of the world.

SSHS-S2C7.a

Explain the rationale (e.g., need for raw materials, domination of markets, advent of national competition, spread of European culture/religion) for imperialism.

SSHS-S2C7.b

Trace the development of the British Empire around the world (e.g., America, Southeast Asia, South Pacific, India, Africa, the Suez).

SSHS-S2C7.c

Describe the division of the world into empires and spheres of influence during the 18th and 19th centuries (e.g., British, French, Dutch, Spanish, American, Belgian).

SSHS-S2C7.d

Analyze the effects of European and American colonialism on their colonies (e.g., artificially drawn boundaries, one-crop economies, creation of economic dependence, population relocation, cultural suppression).

SSHS-S2C7.e

Analyze the responses to imperialism (e.g., Boxer Rebellion, Sepoy Rebellion, Opium Wars, Zulu Wars) by people under colonial rule at the end of the 19th century.

SSHS-S2C7.f

Explain Japanese responses to European/American imperialism from a closed door policy to adoption of Euro-American ideas.

SSHS-S2C8.

Global events, economic issues and political ideologies ignited tensions leading to worldwide military conflagrations and diplomatic confrontations in a context of development and change.

SSHS-S2C8.a

a) rise of nationalism in Europe; b) unification of Germany and Otto Von Bismarck's leadership; c) rise of ethnic and ideological conflicts - the Balkans, Austria-Hungary, the decline of the Ottoman Empire

SSHS-S2C8.b

a) trench warfare; b) mechanization of war - machine gun, gasoline, submarine, tanks, chemical; c) American involvement

SSHS-S2C8.c

a) Russian Revolution; b) Treaty of Versailles; c) end of empires (e.g., Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, Russian); d) continuation of colonial systems (e.g., French Indochina, India, Philippines)

SSHS-S2C8.d

a) rise of fascism and dictatorships; b) postwar economic problems; c) new alliances; d) growth of the Japanese empire; e) challenges to the world order

SSHS-S2C8.e

a) political ideologies (e.g., Totalitarianism, Democracy); b) military strategies (e.g., air warfare, atomic bomb, Russian front, concentration camps); c) treatment of civilian populations; d) Holocaust

SSHS-S2C8.f

Examine genocide as a manifestation of extreme nationalism in the 20th century (e.g., Armenia, Holocaust, Cambodia, Bosnia, Rwanda, Kosovo and Sudan).

SSHS-S2C8.g

a) superpowers - Soviet Union, United States, China; b) division of Europe; c) developing world; d) Korean and Vietnam Wars

SSHS-S2C8.h

Compare independence movements of emerging nations (e.g., Africa, Asia, Middle East, Latin America).

SSHS-S2C9.

The nations of the contemporary world are shaped by their cultural and political past. Current events, developments and issues continue to shape the global community.

SSHS-S2C9.a

Explain the fall of the Soviet Union and its impact on the world.

SSHS-S2C9.b

a) background and motives; b) religious conflict (e.g., Northern Ireland, Chechnya, Southwestern Philippines, southern Thailand, Kashmir); c) background of modern Middle East conflicts (e.g., Israeli - Palestinian conflict, Persian Gulf conflicts, Afghanistan); d) economic and political inequities and cultural insensitivities

SSHS-S2C9.c

a) economics, global wage inequalities; b) technology; c) multinational corporations; d) growth of international governmental organizations (e.g., World Trade Organization); e) growth of non-governmental organizations (e.g., Red Cross, Red Crescent)

SSHS-S2C9.d

Examine environmental issues from a global perspective (e.g., pollution, population pressures, global warming, scarcity of resources).

SSHS-S2C9.e

Connect current events with historical events and issues using information from class discussions and various resources (e.g., newspapers, magazines, television, Internet, books, maps).

SSHS-S3C1

The United States democracy is based on principles and ideals that are embodied by symbols, people and documents.

SSHS-S3C1.a

Examine the foundations of democratic representative government a) Greek direct democracy; b) Roman republic

SSHS-S3C1.b

Trace the English roots of American democracy a) Magna Carta; b) English Bill of Rights; c) Representative government - Parliament, colonial assemblies, town meetings

SSHS-S3C1.c

Describe the philosophical roots of American Democracy a) moral and ethical ideals from Judeo-Christian tradition; b) John Locke and social contract; c) Charles de Montesquieu and separation of powers

SSHS-S3C1.d

Examine the fundamental principles (e.g., equality, natural rights of man, rule of law) in the Declaration of Independence.

SSHS-S3C2

The United States structure of government is characterized by the separation and balance of powers.

SSHS-S3C2.a

Analyze why the weak central government and limited powers of the Articles of Confederation demonstrated the need for the Constitution.

SSHS-S3C2.b

Analyze the creation of United States Constitution a) representative government as developed by the Great Compromise and the Three-Fifths Compromise; b) Federalism; c) Separation of Powers/Checks and Balances; d) Judicial Review; e) Amendment Process

SSHS-S3C2.c

Examine the United States federal system of government a) powers of the national government; b) powers of the state governments; c) powers of the people

SSHS-S3C2.d

Describe the steps leading to the adoption of the Constitution a) Federalist and Anti-Federalist positions (e.g., The Federalist Papers); b) Bill of Rights; c) ratification

SSHS-S3C2.e

Analyze the structure, powers, and roles of the legislative branch of the United States government a) specific powers delegated in Article I of the Constitution; b) role of competing factions and development of political parties; c) lawmaking process; d) different roles of Senate and House; e) election process and types of representation; f) influence of staff, lobbyists, special interest groups and political action committees (PACs)

SSHS-S3C2.f

Analyze the structure, powers, and roles of the executive branch of the United States government a) specific powers delegated in Article II of the Constitution; b) roles and duties of the president; c) development and function of the executive branch, including the cabinet and federal bureaucracy; d) election of the president through the nomination process, national conventions, and electoral college

SSHS-S3C2.g

Analyze the structure, powers, and roles of the judicial branch of the United States government, including landmark United States Supreme Court decisions a) specific powers delegated by the Constitution in Article III; b) judicial review developed in Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, and Gibbons v. Ogden; c) dual court system of state and federal courts

SSHS-S3C2.h

Analyze the structure, power, and organization of Arizona's government as expressed in the Arizona Constitution a) direct democracy by initiative, referendum, and recall processes; b) election process such as redistricting, (e.g., gerrymandering, clean elections), voter registration, and primaries; c) the structure and processes of Arizona's legislature; d) the roles of the Governor, Secretary of State, Treasurer, Attorney General, and Superintendent of Public Instruction; e) appointment and continuing election of judges.

SSHS-S3C2.i

Analyze the forms, structure, powers and roles of local government a) county government, boards of supervisors, sheriffs, county attorneys, and others; b) mayor, council, city manager, and other city officials; c) issues of large urban area governments (e.g., transportation, zoning growth management and funding, urban planning, water and sanitation, pollution, annexation); d) special districts, governance funding and purpose (e.g., school, sanitation, water, fire, library, community college)

SSHS-S3C2.j

Examine the sovereignty of tribal governments and their relationship to state and federal governments (e.g., jurisdiction, land use, water and mineral rights, gaming pacts).

SSHS-S3C2.k

Identify other forms of government under U.S. federal auspices (e.g., protectorates, territories, federal districts).

SSHS-S3C3

Laws and policies are developed to govern, protect, and promote the well-being of the people.

SSHS-S3C3.a

Analyze the functions of government as defined in the Preamble to the Constitution.

SSHS-S3C3.b

Examine how the Constitution guarantees due process of law through Constitutional mandates and Amendments a) Constitutional mandates (e.g., the right of habeas corpus, no bill of attainder, and the prohibition of ex post facto laws); b) Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Amendments; c) protection provided by the Fourteenth Amendment

SSHS-S3C3.c

Examine various sources of government funding a) federal - income tax, duties , excise taxes, corporate tax; b) state - income tax, sales tax; c) local - property tax, sales tax

SSHS-S3C3.d

Describe the regulatory functions of government pertaining to consumer protection, environment, health, labor, transportation, and communication.

SSHS-S3C3.e

Describe the factors and processes that determine major domestic policies (e.g., Social Security, education, health care, parks, environmental protection).

SSHS-S3C4

The rights, responsibilities and practices of United States citizenship are founded in the Constitution and the nation's history.

SSHS-S3C4.a

Analyze basic individual rights and freedoms guaranteed by Amendments and laws a) freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition in the First Amendment; b) right to bear arms in the Second Amendment; c) Ninth Amendment and guarantee of people's unspecified rights; d) civil rights in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments; e) voting rights in the Fifteenth, Nineteenth, Twenty-third, Twenty fourth, and Twenty-sixth Amendments; Native American citizenship and voting rights (Arizona, 1948); Voting Rights Act of 1965; f) conflicts which occur between rights (e.g., the tensions between the right to a fair trial and freedom of the press, and between majority rule and individual rights); g) right to work laws

SSHS-S3C4.b

Define citizenship according to the Fourteenth Amendment.

SSHS-S3C4.c

Examine the basic political, social responsibilities of citizenship a) connections between self-interest, the common good, and the essential element of civic virtue (e.g., George Washington's Farewell Speech), volunteerism; b) obligations of upholding the Constitution; c) obeying the law, serving on juries, paying taxes, voting, and military service; d) analyzing public issues, policy making, and evaluating candidates

SSHS-S3C4.d

Demonstrate the skills and knowledge (e.g., group problem solving, public speaking, petitioning and protesting) needed to accomplish public purposes.

SSHS-S3C4.e

Describe the role and influence of political parties, interest groups, and mass media a) political perspectives (e.g., liberalism, conservatism, progressivism, libertarianism); b) influence of interest groups, lobbyists, and PAC's on elections, the political process and policy making; c) influence of the mass media on elections, the political process and policy making

SSHS-S3C5

Different governmental systems exist throughout the world. The United States influences and is influenced by global interactions.

SSHS-S3C5.a

Compare the United States system of politics and government to other systems of the world (e.g., monarchies, dictatorship, theocracy, oligarchy, parliamentary, unitary, proportional elections).

SSHS-S3C5.b

Describe factors (e.g., trade, political tensions, sanctions, terrorism) that influence United States foreign policy.

SSHS-S3C5.c

Describe world governmental and non-governmental organizations (e.g., the United Nations and its agencies, NATO, the European Union, the International Red Cross).

SSHS-S4C1.

The spatial perspective and associated geographic tools are used to organize and interpret information about people, places and environments.

SSHS-S4C1.a

Construct maps using appropriate elements (i.e., date, orientation, grid, scale, title, author, index, legend, situation).

SSHS-S4C1.b

Interpret maps and images (e.g., political, physical, relief, thematic, Geographic Information Systems [GIS], Landsat).

SSHS-S4C1.c

Use appropriate maps and other graphic representations to analyze geographic problems and changes over time.

SSHS-S4C1.d

Use an atlas to access information.

SSHS-S4C2.

Places and regions have distinct physical and cultural characteristics.

SSHS-S4C2.a

a) physical processes such as climate, terrain, and resources; b) human processes such as religion, political organization, economy, and demographics

SSHS-S4C2.b

Describe the factors (e.g., demographics, political systems, economic systems, resources, culture) that contribute to the variations between developing and developed regions.

SSHS-S4C2.c

Examine geographic issues (e.g., drought in Sahel, migration patterns, desertification of Aral Sea, spread of religions such as Islam, conflicts in Northern Ireland/Ireland, Jerusalem, Tibet) in places and world regions.

SSHS-S4C2.d

Analyze the differing political, religious, economic, demographic, and historical ways of viewing places and regions.

SSHS-S4C2.e

Examine how the geographic characteristics of a place affect the economics and culture (e.g., changing regional economy of the sunbelt, location with respect of natural hazards, location of Panama Canal, Air Force Bases in Arizona).

SSHS-S4C2.f

Analyze how a region changes over time (e.g., U.S./Mexico border, Europe from World War I to the development of European Union, change from pre- to post-colonialism in Africa, Hong Kong).

SSHS-S4C2.g

Analyze sides of scientific debates over how human actions (e.g., global warming, ozone decline) modify a region.

SSHS-S4C3.

Physical processes shape the Earth and interact with plant and animal life to create, sustain, and modify ecosystems. These processes affect the distribution of resources and economic development.

SSHS-S4C3.a

Analyze how weather and climate (e.g., the effect of heat transfer, Earth's rotation, and severe weather systems) influence the natural character of a place.

SSHS-S4C3.b

Analyze different points of view on the use of renewable and non-renewable resources in Arizona.

SSHS-S4C3.c

Analyze how earth's internal changes (e.g., earthquakes, volcanic activity, folding, faulting) and external changes (e.g., geochemical, water and carbon cycles, erosion, deposition) influence the character of places.

SSHS-S4C3.d

Analyze how hydrology (e.g., quality, reclamation, conservation) influences the natural character of a place.

SSHS-S4C4.

Human cultures, their nature, and distribution affect societies and the Earth.

SSHS-S4C4.a

Interpret population growth and demographics (e.g., birth and death rates, population growth rates, doubling time and life expectancy, carrying capacity).

SSHS-S4C4.b

Analyze push/pull factors that contribute to human migration.

SSHS-S4C4.c

Analyze the effects of migration on places of origin and destination, including border areas.

SSHS-S4C4.d

Analyze issues of globalization (e.g., widespread use of English, the role of the global media, resistance to 'cultural imperialism', trade, outsourcing).

SSHS-S4C4.e

Analyze the development, growth, and changing nature of cities (e.g., urban sprawl, suburbs, city revitalization).

SSHS-S4C4.f

Analyze factors (e.g., social, biotic, abiotic) that affect human populations.

SSHS-S4C4.g

Predict the effect of a change in a specific factor (e.g., social, biotic, abiotic) on a human population.

SSHS-S4C4.h

Explain how ideas, customs, and innovations (e.g., religion, language, political philosophy, technological advances, higher education, economic principles) are spread through cultural diffusion.

SSHS-S4C5.

Human and environmental interactions are interdependent upon one another. Humans interact with the environment- they depend upon it, they modify it; and they adapt to it. The health and well-being of all humans depends upon an understanding of the interconnections and interdependence of human and physical systems.

SSHS-S4C5.a

Analyze how the Earth's natural systems (e.g., Gulf Stream permitting habitation of northern Europe, earthquakes, tsunamis, periodic droughts, river civilizations) affect humans.

SSHS-S4C5.b

Analyze how natural hazards impact humans (e.g., differences in disaster preparation between developed and developing nations, why people continue to build in disaster-prone places).

SSHS-S4C5.c

Analyze how changes in the natural environment can increase or diminish its capacity to support human activity (e.g., major droughts, warm and cold periods, volcanic eruptions, El Nino events, pollution).

SSHS-S4C5.d

Analyze the environmental effects of human use of technology (e.g., irrigation, deforestation, overgrazing, global warming, atmospheric and climate changes, energy production costs and benefits, water management) on the environment.

SSHS-S4C5.e

Analyze how humans impact the diversity and productivity of ecosystems (e.g., invading non-native plants and animals).

SSHS-S4C5.f

Analyze policies and programs for resource use and management (e.g., the trade-off between environmental quality and economic growth in the twentieth century).

SSHS-S4C5.g

Predict how a change in an environmental factor (e.g., extinction of species, volcanic eruptions) can affect an ecosystem.

SSHS-S4C6.

Geographic thinking (asking and answering geographic questions) is used to understand spatial patterns of the past, the present, and to plan for the future.

SSHS-S4C6.a

Analyze how geographic knowledge, skills, and perspectives (e.g., use of Geographic Information Systems in urban planning, reapportionment of political units, locating businesses) are used to solve contemporary problems.

SSHS-S4C6.b

Analyze how changing perceptions of places and environments (e.g., where individuals choose to live and work, Israeli settlements, role of military bases, Viking colonization and naming of Iceland) affect the choices of people and institutions.

SSHS-S4C6.c

Analyze how geography influences historical events and movements (e.g., Trail of Tears, Cuban Missile Crisis, location of terrorist camps, pursuit of Pancho Villa, Mao's long march, Hannibal crossing the Alps, Silk Road).

SSHS-S5C1

The foundations of economics are the application of basic economic concepts and decision-making skills. This includes scarcity and the different methods of allocation of goods and services.

SSHS-S5C1.a

Analyze the implications of scarcity a) limited resources and unlimited human wants influence choice at individual, national, and international levels; b) factors of production (e.g., natural, human, and capital resources, entrepreneurship, technology); c) marginal analysis by producers, consumers, savers, and investors

SSHS-S5C1.b

Analyze production possibilities curves to describe opportunity costs and trade-offs.

SSHS-S5C1.c

Describe the characteristics of the mixed-market economy of the United States a) property rights; b) profit motive; c) consumer sovereignty; d) competition; e) role of the government; f) rational self-interest; g) invisible hand

SSHS-S5C1.d

Evaluate the economic implications of current events from a variety of sources (e.g., magazine articles, newspaper articles, radio, television reports, editorials, Internet sites).

SSHS-S5C1.e

Interpret economic information using charts, tables, graphs, equations, and diagrams.

SSHS-S5C2

Microeconomics examines the costs and benefits of economic choices relating to individuals, markets and industries, and governmental policies.

SSHS-S5C2.a

Describe how the interdependence of both households and firms is affected by trade, exchange, money, and banking a) why voluntary exchange occurs only when all participating parties expect to gain from the exchange; b) role and interdependence of households, firms, and government in the circular flow model of economic activity; c) role of entrepreneurs in a market economy and how profit is an incentive that leads entrepreneurs to accept risks of business failure; d) financial institutions and securities markets; e) importance of rule of law in a market economy for enforcement of contracts

SSHS-S5C2.b

Describe how markets function a) laws of supply and demand; b) how a market price is determined; c) graphs that demonstrate changes in supply and demand; d) how price ceilings and floors cause shortages or surpluses; e) comparison of monopolistic and competitive behaviors; f) theory of production and the role of cost

SSHS-S5C2.c

Describe how government policies influence the economy a) need to compare costs and benefits of government policies before taking action; b) use of federal, state, and local government spending to provide national defense; address environmental concerns; define and enforce property, consumer and worker rights; regulate markets; and provide goods and services; c) effects of progressive, proportional, and regressive taxes on different income groups; d) role of self-interest in decisions of voters, elected officials, and public employees

SSHS-S5C3

Macroeconomics examines the costs and benefits of economic choices made at a societal level and how those choices affect overall economic well being.

SSHS-S5C3.a

Determine how inflation, unemployment, and gross domestic product statistics are used in policy decisions.

SSHS-S5C3.b

Explain the effects of inflation and deflation on different groups (e.g., borrowers v. lenders, fixed income/cost of living adjustments).

SSHS-S5C3.c

Describe the economic and non-economic consequences of unemployment.

SSHS-S5C3.d

Analyze fiscal policy and its effects on inflation, unemployment, and economic growth.

SSHS-S5C3.e

Describe the functions of the Federal Reserve System (e.g., banking regulation and supervision, financial services, monetary policy) and their influences on the economy.

SSHS-S5C3.f

Explain the effects of monetary policy on unemployment, inflation, and economic growth.

SSHS-S5C3.g

Determine how investment in factories, machinery, new technology, and the health, education, and training of people can raise future standards of living.

SSHS-S5C4

Patterns of global interaction and economic development vary due to different economic systems and institutions that exist throughout the world.

SSHS-S5C4.a

Analyze the similarities and differences among economic systems a) characteristics of market, command, and mixed economic systems, including roles of production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services; b) benefits and costs of market and command economies; c) characteristics of the mixed-market economy of the United States, including such concepts as private ownership, profit motive, consumer sovereignty, competition, and government regulation; d) role of private property in conserving scarce resources and providing incentives in a market economy

SSHS-S5C4.b

Describe the effects of international trade on the United States and other nations a) how people and nations gain through trade; b) how the law of comparative advantage leads to specialization and trade; c) effects of protectionism, including tariffs and quotas on international trade and on a nation's standard of living; d) how exchange rates work and how they affect international trade; e) how the concepts of balance of trade and balance of payments are used to measure international trade; f) factors that influence the major world patterns of economic activity including the differing costs of production between developed and developing countries; g) economic connections among different regions, including changing alignments in world trade partners; h) identify the effects of trade agreements (e.g., North American Free Trade Agreement)

SSHS-S5C5

Decision-making skills foster a person's individual standard of living. Using information wisely leads to better informed decisions as consumers, workers, investors and effective participants in society.

SSHS-S5C5.a

Explain how education, career choices, and family obligations affect future income.

SSHS-S5C5.b

Analyze how advertising influences consumer choices.

SSHS-S5C5.c

Determine short- and long-term financial goals and plans, including income, spending, saving, and investing.

SSHS-S5C5.d

Compare the advantages and disadvantages of using various forms of credit and the determinants of credit history.

SSHS-S5C5.e

Explain the risk, return, and liquidity of short- and long-term saving and investment vehicles.

SSHS-S5C5.f

Identify investment options, (e.g., stocks, bonds, mutual funds) available to individuals and households.